The Effects of a Dietary Supplement Containing Astaxanthin on Skin Condition

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The cosmetic effects on human skin by 4mg per day astaxanthin supplementation were demonstrated in a single blind placebo controlled study using forty-nine US healthy middle-aged women. There were significant improvements in fine lines/wrinkles and elasticity by dermatologist's assessment and in the moisture content by instrumental assessment at week 6 compares to base-line initial values.

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... Three studies used canola oil [13,28,29], one study used medium-chain triglycerides [9], one study used a filling agent [33] and one study used hip-rose powder as a placebo group [32]. Two randomised, single-blind and placebo-controlled used canola oil [34] and rosehip powder [35] as placebo, respectively. Those studies applied ASX which was derived from Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae. ...
... Besides, some of the selected studies were either conducted by various study investigators affiliated with cooperative institutes or commercial entities or funded by commercial entities, with a potential financial conflict of interests [9,13,31,33]. However, others did not declare any potential conflicts of interests [27][28][29][30]32,34,35]. That makes it difficult to access the exact influences of commercial interests on the analysis, contributing to an unclear risk of potential bias. ...
... Besides, some of the selected studies were either conducted by various study inves tigators affiliated with cooperative institutes or commercial entities or funded by commer cial entities, with a potential financial conflict of interests [9,13,31,33]. However, other did not declare any potential conflicts of interests [27][28][29][30]32,34,35]. That makes it difficul to access the exact influences of commercial interests on the analysis, contributing to an unclear risk of potential bias. ...
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Context: Astaxanthin (ASX), a xanthophyll carotenoid derived from microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis, mitigating skin photoaging and age-related skin diseases by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in animal studies. Objective: The aim was to systematically evaluate if ASX applications have anti-ageing effects in humans. Methods: A comprehensive search of PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science found a total of eleven studies. Nine randomised, controlled human studies assessed oral ASX effects and two open-label, prospective studies evaluated topical, oral-topical ASX effects on skin ageing. GetData Graph Digitizer was used to extract mean values and standard deviations of baseline and endpoint, and Cochrane Collaboration's tool assessed RoB for all included studies. Review Manager 5.4 was used to conduct meta-analysis of RCTs; the results were reported as effect size ± 95% confidence interval. Results: Oral ASX supplementation significantly restored moisture content (SMD = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.05, 1.01; I2 = 52%; p = 0.03) and improved elasticity (SMD = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.19, 1.35; I2 = 75%; p = 0.009) but did not significantly decrease wrinkle depth (SMD = -0.26; 95% CI = -0.58, 0.06; I2 = 0%; p = 0.11) compared to placebo. Open-label, prospective studies suggested slightly protective effects of topical and oral-topical ASX applications on skin ageing. Conclusions: Ingestion and/or topical usages of ASX may be effective in reducing skin ageing and have promising cosmetical potential, as it improves moisture content and elasticity and reduces wrinkles.
... photo-aging inhibition as well as wrinkle reduction. [12][13][14] Astaxanthin is a potent coloring agent, and hence, there are reservations with respect to its topical usage on skin, as that may lead to skin discoloration. However, studies evaluating astaxanthin as an oral supplement have found that it suppresses melanin synthesis and decreases hyperpigmentation. ...
... The study findings can be simply summarized by stating that astaxanthin, derived from the natural source of microalgae H pluvialis, improved the quality of the skin by decreasing the wrinkles, increasing the elasticity and the moisture content, and reducing the visible signs of aging over a period of 6 weeks of use. 14 Another crucial publication which came out in 2012 was from Japan, which had combined the results of two clinical studies. One of the studies, which was open label and non-controlled, assessed the effect of a combination of 6 mg/d oral supplementation and 2 mL per day topical application of astaxanthin solution. ...
... In various published studies, astaxanthin has been found to decrease the fine lines, wrinkles, and age spots. [12][13][14]23 The natural molecule has also been proved to help in improving the skin elasticity and prevent sagging of skin. Hence, it can be safely said that astaxanthin can be used as an anti-aging agent. ...
Astaxanthin is a naturally occurring ketocarotenoid which has been found to have numerous biological functions, with its strong antioxidant property being the prominent feature. The compound has attracted a great amount of interest with respect to its potential utilization in the betterment of human health. In the recent past, astaxanthin has been extensively studied with respect to its possible effect on skin health, with positive results. Astaxanthin has also shown to have anti‐inflammatory, immune‐modulating, and DNA repair properties, which have further encouraged its usage to maintain skin health and tackle skin damage. In this review article, we highlight the pharmacokinetic profile of the antioxidant in brief and describe the findings of various recent published research articles which studied the effect of astaxanthin in improvement of skin health. We also mention the possible mechanisms which form the basis of the positive dermatological effects of astaxanthin and the potential indications of the antioxidant molecule in cosmetology and dermatology.
... Astaxanthin (ASX) for example, belongs to a class of carotenoids present in some species of microalgae and is present in some oral supplements as an antioxidant. In addition to its antioxidant activities, it has been reported to have antiaging actions in both oral and topical administrations [149][150][151][152][153][154][155]. However, this has not been substantially investigated thus far and the majority of available literature is confined to one research group [149,[151][152][153][154]. Dietary ASX from the marine microalga Haematococcus pluvialis has been shown to penetrate both the dermis and epidermis in murine trials, leading to a decrease in transepidermal water loss and a visual improvement in the appearance of wrinkles, comparable to untreated controls [155]. ...
... In addition to its antioxidant activities, it has been reported to have antiaging actions in both oral and topical administrations [149][150][151][152][153][154][155]. However, this has not been substantially investigated thus far and the majority of available literature is confined to one research group [149,[151][152][153][154]. Dietary ASX from the marine microalga Haematococcus pluvialis has been shown to penetrate both the dermis and epidermis in murine trials, leading to a decrease in transepidermal water loss and a visual improvement in the appearance of wrinkles, comparable to untreated controls [155]. ...
The marine environment represents an underexploited resource for the discovery of novel products, despite its high level of biological and chemical diversity. With increasing awareness of the harmful effects of chronic ultraviolet exposure, and a universal desire to improve cosmetic appearance, the market for new cosmetic ingredients is growing, and current trends have generated a greater demand for products sourced from the environment. A growing number of novel molecules from marine flora and fauna exhibit potent and effective dermatological activities. Secondary metabolites isolated from macroalgae, including carotenoids and polyphenols, have demonstrated antioxidant, antiaging and anti-inflammatory activities. In addition, marine extremophilic bacteria have recently been shown to produce bioactive exopolymeric molecules, some of which have been commercialised. Available data on their activities show significant antioxidant, moisturising and antiaging activities, but a more focussed investigation into their mechanisms and applications is required. This review surveys the reported biological activities of an emerging and growing portfolio of marine molecules that show promise in the treatment of cosmetic skin problems including ultraviolet damage, aging and cutaneous dryness.
... Recently, astaxanthin, one of commercialized carotenoids, attracts a lot of attention because of its diverse clinical benefits against age-related functional decline and muscle or eye fatigue (Guerin et al. 2003;Kidd 2011;Yamashita 2006). However, astaxanthin had only been noted as the red pigment used for aquaculture, until its strong antioxidant activity was suggested (Miki 1991). ...
... The third study was a single-blind placebocontrolled study that evaluated the effects of a dietary supplement containing only astaxanthin (Yamashita 2006). After a 4 mg per day astaxanthin supplementation, significant improvements were observed in fine lines/ wrinkles and elasticity during a dermatologist's visual assessment and in the moisture content as per a mechanical assessment at week 6. ...
Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), a unique Japanese citrus species, is one of the foods which have most abundant β-cryptoxanthin all over the world. In this study, β-cryptoxanthin has a variety of health-promoting functions such as the body fat reducing, cosmetic (whitening), and osteoporosis prevention. β-Cryptoxanthin has also been shown in human studies to have anti-exercise fatigue and diabetes prevention actions. These multiple functions further support that β-cryptoxanthin may play a role in vitamin A function.
... In 2006, Yasmashita examined the cosmetic effects on human skin of 4 mg per day of astaxanthin oral supplementation for six weeks in a single blind placebo-controlled study using forty-nine healthy middle-aged women in the US [123]. The obtained results showed significant improvements in fine lines/wrinkles and elasticity by dermatologist's assessment and moisture content (via a NOVA meter) at the end of the study compared to the initial values of the measured parameters at baseline [123]. ...
... In 2006, Yasmashita examined the cosmetic effects on human skin of 4 mg per day of astaxanthin oral supplementation for six weeks in a single blind placebo-controlled study using forty-nine healthy middle-aged women in the US [123]. The obtained results showed significant improvements in fine lines/wrinkles and elasticity by dermatologist's assessment and moisture content (via a NOVA meter) at the end of the study compared to the initial values of the measured parameters at baseline [123]. ...
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The history of cosmetics goes back to early Egyptian times for hygiene and health benefits while the history of topical applications that provide a medicinal treatment to combat dermal aging is relatively new. For example, the term cosmeceutical was first coined by Albert Kligman in 1984 to describe topical products that afford both cosmetic and therapeutic benefits. However, beauty comes from the inside. Therefore, for some time scientists have considered how nutrition reflects healthy skin and the aging process. The more recent link between nutrition and skin aging began in earnest around the year 2000 with the demonstrated increase in peer-reviewed scientific journal reports on this topic that included biochemical and molecular mechanisms of action. Thus, the application of: (a) topical administration from outside into the skin and (b) inside by oral consumption of nutritionals to the outer skin layers is now common place and many journal reports exhibit significant improvement for both on a variety of dermal parameters. Therefore, this review covers, where applicable, the history, chemical structure, and sources such as biological and biomedical properties in the skin along with animal and clinical data on the oral applications of: (a) collagen, (b) ceramide, (c) β-carotene, (d) astaxanthin, (e) coenzyme Q10, (f) colostrum, (g) zinc, and (h) selenium in their mode of action or function in improving dermal health by various quantified endpoints. Lastly, the importance of the human skin microbiome is briefly discussed in reference to the genomics, measurement, and factors influencing its expression and how it may alter the immune system, various dermal disorders, and potentially be involved in chemoprevention.
... A single-blind placebo-controlled study designed with the addition of 4 mg astaxanthin daily to the diet for six weeks showed remarkable results. Participant's skin flexibility, wrinkles, fine lines and moisture status were markedly improved [6,15]. ...
... This carotenoid comprises a fatty acid diester (28 %), monoester (70 %), and free form (2 %) (Okada et al. 2009). This green-algal red pigment has recently attracted a lot of attention because of its diverse clinical benefits against age-related functional decline, and muscle or eye fatigue (Guerin et al. 2003;Kidd 2011), e.g., it was shown to improve fine lines/wrinkles and elasticity in the skin of middle-aged women (Yamashita 2006). Stability during storage or during food extrusion at elevated temperatures was shown to be higher with the ester form than with the free form (Gloor and Simon 2007). ...
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The plastid genome of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cv. Berkeley was site-specifically modified with the addition of three transgenes, which encoded β,β-carotenoid 3,3'-hydroxylase (CrtZ) and β,β-carotenoid 4,4'-ketolase (4,4'-oxygenase; CrtW) from a marine bacterium Brevundimonas sp. strain SD212, and isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase from a marine bacterium Paracoccus sp. strain N81106. Constructed transplastomic lettuce plants were able to grow on soil at a growth rate similar to that of non-transformed lettuce cv. Berkeley and generate flowers and seeds. The germination ratio of the lettuce transformants (T0) (98.8 %) was higher than that of non-transformed lettuce (93.1 %). The transplastomic lettuce (T1) leaves produced the astaxanthin fatty acid (myristate or palmitate) diester (49.2 % of total carotenoids), astaxanthin monoester (18.2 %), and the free forms of astaxanthin (10.0 %) and the other ketocarotenoids (17.5 %), which indicated that artificial ketocarotenoids corresponded to 94.9 % of total carotenoids (230 μg/g fresh weight). Native carotenoids were there lactucaxanthin (3.8 %) and lutein (1.3 %) only. This is the first report to structurally identify the astaxanthin esters biosynthesized in transgenic or transplastomic plants producing astaxanthin. The singlet oxygen-quenching activity of the total carotenoids extracted from the transplastomic leaves was similar to that of astaxanthin (mostly esterified) from the green algae Haematococcus pluvialis.
... The differences between N-AX and S-AX are also quite profound: its superior antioxidant activity and its more diverse and profound health benefits in humans [1]. health benefits for N-AX in areas such as eye and brain health, UV protection and skin health, antiinflammatory activity, immune system modulation and cardiovascular health among others [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. ...
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Synthetic astaxanthin (S-AX) was tested against natural astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae (N-AX) for antioxidant activity. In vitro studies conducted at Creighton University and Brunswick Laboratories showed N-AX to be over 50 times stronger than S-AX in singlet oxygen quenching and approximately 20 times stronger in free radical elimination. N-AX has been widely used over the last 15 years as a human nutraceutical supplement after extensive safety data and several health benefits were established. S-AX, which is synthesised from petrochemicals, has been used as a feed ingredient, primarily to pigment the flesh of salmonids. S-AX has never been demonstrated to be safe for use as a human nutraceutical supplement and has not been tested for health benefits in humans. Due to safety concerns with the use of synthetic forms of other carotenoids such as canthaxanthin and beta-carotene in humans, the authors recommend against the use of S-AX as a human nutraceutical supplement until extensive, long-term safety parameters have been established and human clinical trials have been conducted showing potential health benefits. Additionally, differences in various other properties between SAX and N-AX such as stereochemistry, esterification and the presence of supporting naturally occurring carotenoids in N-AX are discussed, all of which elicit further questions as to the safety and potential health benefits of S-AX. Ultimately, should S-AX prove safe for direct human consumption, dosage levels roughly 20–30 times greater than N-AX should be used as a result of the extreme difference in antioxidant activity between the two forms.
... Astaxanthin, another strongly coloured carotenoid that has potent antioxidant activity, is produced commercially from the freshwater green algae Haematococcus pluvialis (Boussiba and Vonshak 1991). Astaxanthin has also been shown to be immunomodulatory (Jyonouchi et al. 1991) and a protectant against UV-induced skin damage (Yamashita 2006). These effects are most likely via decreased oxidative stress, bearing in mind the important role of oxidants in inflammation and the immune response (Andersen et al. 2007;Bennedsen et al. 1999;Jyonouchi et al. 1991;Park et al. 2010). ...
Microalgae and seaweeds have a long history and increasingly important applications as both food ingredients and animal feed. The vast majority of algal species have yet to be evaluated for these applications. However, due to their extensive diversity, it is likely that they will lead to the discovery of many new algal products and processes in the future. This chapter covers algae as food, feed, nutraceuticals, functional food and food ingredients as well as production systems for food from algae.
... Capillary circulation Improves blood flow and capillary integrity; reduces blood cell oxidation and risk of thrombosis Kanazashi et al. (2013) Anti-aging (skin cells) Prevents UV-induced wrinkle formation, skin sagging, and age-spots; improves skin elasticity and skin dryness Seki et al. (2001); Tominaga et al. (2012); Yamashita (2005) products is the use of endogenous or added proteolytic enzymes (Tong-Xun and Mou-Ming 2010;Venugopal and Shahidi 1995). However, the slow rate of hydrolysis, generation of short-chain peptides, loss of functionality of the native proteins, and the absence of homogeneous hydrolysates are other major limitations of this process (Kristinsson and Rasco 2000). ...
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The worldwide annual production of lobster was 165,367 tons valued over $3.32 billion in 2004, but this figure rose up to 304,000 tons in 2012. Over half the volume of the worldwide lobster production has been processed to meet the rising global demand in diversified lobster products. Lobster processing generates a large amount of by-products (heads, shells, livers, and eggs) which account for 50–70% of the starting material. Continued production of these lobster processing by-products (LPBs) without corresponding process development for efficient utilization has led to disposal issues associated with costs and pollutions. This review presents the promising opportunities to maximize the utilization of LPBs by economic recovery of their valuable components to produce high value-added products. More than 50,000 tons of LPBs are globally generated, which costs lobster processing companies upward of about $7.5 million/year for disposal. This not only presents financial and environmental burdens to the lobster processors but also wastes a valuable bioresource. LPBs are rich in a range of high-value compounds such as proteins, chitin, lipids, minerals, and pigments. Extracts recovered from LPBs have been demonstrated to possess several functionalities and bioactivities, which are useful for numerous applications in water treatment, agriculture, food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical products, and biomedicine. Although LPBs have been studied for recovery of valuable components, utilization of these materials for the large-scale production is still very limited. Extraction of lobster components using microwave, ultrasonic, and supercritical fluid extraction were found to be promising techniques that could be used for large-scale production. LPBs are rich in high-value compounds that are currently being underutilized. These compounds can be extracted for being used as functional ingredients, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals in a wide range of commercial applications. The efficient utilization of LPBs would not only generate significant economic benefits but also reduce the problems of waste management associated with the lobster industry. This comprehensive review highlights the availability of the global LPBs, the key components in LPBs and their current applications, the limitations to the extraction techniques used, and the suggested emerging techniques which may be promising on an industrial scale for the maximized utilization of LPBs.
... This study found that as an internal beauty pill, Natural Astaxanthin fights wrinkles, improves skin elasticity, increases skin moisture levels and reduces visible signs of UV-aging within four to six weeks of use (Yamashita, 2006). Put simply, Natural Astaxanthin improves skin quality and helps maintain a youthful appearance. ...
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Bob Capelli’s third book on Astaxanthin is by far his best. Well over 300 pages long, this book is the definitive guide on Astaxanthin for use as a health supplement by humans as well as animals. This book is a great tool for scientists and people working in the supplement industry, while written in an easy-to-read format to be enjoyed by anyone. It provides valuable information for any consumer seeking to live a long and healthy life. Features include: • Excerpts from many renowned doctors, researchers and opinion leaders describing Astaxanthin in their own words including Dr. Joseph Mercola, Mike Adams “The Health Ranger,” Dr. William Sears, Suzy Cohen “America’s Most Trusted Pharmacist” and more. • Extensive review of “The Healthy Ten” – the ten clinically-validated health benefits of Natural Astaxanthin. • What makes Natural Astaxanthin “The Supplement You Can Feel” – how 80% of consumers can feel it working in their bodies. • Emerging research on Astaxanthin for five new health benefits. • Why nutrition experts are beginning to call Natural Astaxanthin “The Ultimate Anti-Aging Nutrient” and “The Athlete’s Secret Weapon.” • Dosage, bioavailability, safety and other vital information. • Differences between: o Natural Astaxanthin and other supplements. o Different sources of Astaxanthin. o Production methods for Natural Astaxanthin from algae. o Different Astaxanthin consumer products. • Complete list of 330 references included. While Capelli’s first two books contained testimonials from consumers, perhaps the most interesting new feature of this book is a long chapter relating what renowned doctors and opinion leaders as well as university researchers and PhDs say about Astaxanthin. Here is what some of these famous contributors say about this book: Dr. Joseph Mercola, Renowned Internet Health Expert: “I was very impressed with the compelling research on the therapeutic benefits of Astaxanthin in Bob Capelli’s book on Astaxanthin back in 2011. I have been regularly using it since then and believe it has great value for many conditions. Bob’s book was a major factor when I decided to feature Astaxanthin as “The #1 Supplement You’ve Never Heard of that You Should Be Taking” on the Dr. Oz show a few years ago.” Mike Adams, “The Health Ranger:” “Astaxanthin is, without question, one of the most potent and promising natural medicines yet known in the realm of nutritional science. I strongly recommend reading Bob Capelli’s latest Astaxanthin book. Your approach to nutritional supplementation will be forever upgraded!” Suzy Cohen, “America’s Most Trusted Pharmacist:” “Natural Astaxanthin is one of my favorite nutrients to recommend to my readers because it does so many positive things for people. It’s a super-antioxidant and a broad-spectrum, safe & natural anti-inflammatory with over 500 medical research studies to back it up. Astaxanthin is the perfect nutrient in the battle against aging because of its clinically-validated effects on a host of concerns people have as they reach middle age and beyond. I read Bob Capelli’s first book on Astaxanthin back in 2007 and I’ve been a fan ever since. And with this new book, Bob has taken the understanding of Astaxanthin to a whole new level.” Susan Smith Jones, PhD, Prolific Author and Media Personality: “A gem of nature, Astaxanthin is an all-in-one natural nutrient that can replace countless other supplements in your kitchen because of its myriad benefits for the entire body. I refer to Astaxanthin as “The Great Protector” in my lectures and workshops. Thank you Bob Capelli for distilling down hundreds of complicated research studies into this revealing, cogent book that beautifully extols the virtues of an antioxidant extraordinaire.”
... Seasonal environmental changes can affect facial skin e.g., increased dryness because the temperature and humidity decrease from October to November when this study was conducted in Japan. Oral intake of other xanthophylls such as lutein and astaxanthin reportedly exerts a protective effect on skin barrier function and elasticity 18,28 . It is required for further investigation of the efficacy of dietary paprika xanthophylls in suppression of UV-induced skin damage. ...
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Generation of singlet oxygen by solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes acute inflammatory responses in the skin. Accumulation of singlet-oxygen-quenching antioxidants in the skin can suppress this photo-oxidative stress. This study evaluated the effect of dietary xanthophylls from red paprika fruit extract on UV-induced skin damage. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled parallel group comparison study involving 46 healthy volunteers was performed. The minimal erythema dose (MED) of each individual was determined prior to the study. A capsule containing paprika xanthophylls (9 mg) or a placebo was administered daily for 5 weeks. The MED, minimal tanning dose (MTD), skin physiology parameters (skin color, hydration, and barrier function), and facial skin physiology parameters were evaluated at weeks 0, 2, and 4. The MED of the verum group at 2 and 4 weeks after administration was significantly higher than that of the placebo group. At 4 weeks, the suppression of UV-induced skin darkening by the verum diet was significantly greater than that of the placebo. There were no significant differences in facial skin parameters between the verum and placebo groups. Our results indicate the efficacy of dietary paprika xanthophylls in suppression of UV-induced skin damage.
... Third, many of the studies were either funded by commercial organizations or conducted by study investigators affiliated with corporate or commercial entities, with potential conflicts of interests (Seki et al. 2001;Higgins et al. 2011;Yoon et al. 2014;Chalyk et al. 2017;Ito et al. 2018). Worryingly, in some instances, there were no declaration of potential conflicts of interests (Seki et al. 2001;Yamashita 2006;Higgins et al. 2011;Tominaga et al. 2012). This reduces our comfort level with regard to the reliability of current data as previous investigations have found an association between funding by commercial interests and a positive outcome of clinical trials (Yaphe et al. 2001). ...
Astaxanthin (AST), a naturally-occurring keto-carotenoid found in several species of bacteria and microalgae, has demonstrated diverse biological activities in vitro and in vivo. There is growing commercial interest in the application of astaxanthin in nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals, due to its purported photoprotective, DNA repair, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory benefits. This systematic review therefore aimed to summarize current clinical evidence on the effects of astaxanthin supplementation on skin health. Using the following combinations of broad Major Exploded Subject Headings (MesH) terms or text words [astaxanthin OR AST OR ASX OR carotenoid OR xanthophyll] AND [skin OR derm*], a comprehensive search of PubMed, EMBASE, Medline,, and Google Scholar databases found a total of eleven clinical studies. There were six randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials, while the rest were prospective, open-label studies. In many of the randomized, controlled trials reviewed, AST supplementation improved skin texture, appearance (wrinkles), and moisture content at the end of the study period. AST also appeared to protect against UV-induced skin damage. No serious adverse events were reported in any of the studies. However, most available studies had a relatively small sample size and were conducted on healthy Japanese females. Many of the studies were also funded by commercial entities, with potential conflicts of interests. This was difficult to account for in our analyses. Overall, there is some clinical data to support the benefits of astaxanthin supplementation (in the range of 3 to 6 mg/d) on skin health, especially for photoaged skin.
... Carotenoids were tested in seven researches (n = 599), three of which focused on single-preparation products (78)(79)(80) and four of which highlighted combination preparation products (48,(81)(82)(83). The active ingredients involved in the studies included astaxanthin (five studies), zeaxanthin (two studies), and lutein (1 study). ...
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Background: The dietary supplement industry offers many oral cosmetics that purportedly assist in skin moisturization often with unclear evidence supporting efficacy and safety. To update the accessible proofs pertaining to the safety and effectiveness of oral dietary supplements to facilitate skin moisturizing via an all-around review and meta-analysis. Methods: Three on-line databases [Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library (CENTRAL)] were retrieved from January 2000 to November 2021. An overall 66 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of skin care were recognized. Meta-analysis was performed for dietary supplements with four or more available research. Results: Oral collagen or ceramide resulted in a statistically significant increase in skin hydration and a decrease in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) compared to placebo. No benefits regarding the improvement of skin conditions in terms of water content and TEWL were observed for lactic acid bacteria or Lactobacillus fermented foods. A statistically significant and positive effect on skin hydration was observed for both hyaluronan and procyanidin, with an unknown effect on TEWL due to insufficient RCTs. There was a non-significant improvement in the water content of stratum corneum for astaxanthin based on subgroup analyses. Among the dietary supplements trialed in ≤ 3 RCTs, the judgment regarding their effects on skin moisturizing was prevented by inconsistent conclusions as well as insufficient research. All food supplements were safe throughout the research (normally ≤ 24 weeks). Conclusion: Oral dietary supplements, including collagen, ceramides, hyaluronan, and procyanidin, were proven to be effective for skin moisturization. At present, for skin moisturization, the proofs supporting the recommendation of other dietary supplements, such as lactic acid bacteria and astaxanthin, are insufficient. Systematic review registration: identifier CRD42021290818.
... Still, this detail would be interesting to uniform and understand the applicability of the different studies outcomes. What emerges from this study and some similar ones is that ASX administration prevented general photoaging in terms of wrinkle, dryness, and elasticity at a dose ranging from 2 to 12 mg per day [73,[92][93][94][95] and that ASX supplementation was safe during the whole duration of the study (16 weeks) at 12 mg/day. For instance, no alteration in blood or in the function of the liver, kidney, and serum cholesterol has been recorded [73]. ...
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Every day, we come into contact with ultraviolet radiation (UVR). If under medical supervision, small amounts of UVR could be beneficial, the detrimental and hazardous effects of UVR exposure dictate an unbalance towards the risks on the risk-benefit ratio. Acute and chronic effects of ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B involve mainly the skin, the immune system, and the eyes. Photodamage is an umbrella term that includes general phototoxicity, photoaging, and cancer caused by UVR. All these phenomena are mediated by direct or indirect oxidative stress and inflammation and are strictly connected one to the other. Astaxanthin (ASX) and fucoxanthin (FX) are peculiar marine carotenoids characterized by outstanding antioxidant properties. In particular, ASX showed exceptional efficacy in counteracting all categories of photodamages, in vitro and in vivo, thanks to both antioxidant potential and activation of alternative pathways. Less evidence has been produced about FX, but it still represents an interesting promise to prevent the detrimental effect of UVR. Altogether, these results highlight the importance of digging into the marine ecosystem to look for new compounds that could be beneficial for human health and confirm that the marine environment is as much as full of active compounds as the terrestrial one, it just needs to be more explored.
... Results measured and collected from dermatological devices, which includes assessment by a dermatologist, showed that natural astaxanthin enhances skin quality and beauty by fighting wrinkles, improving skin elasticity, maintaining youthful appearance, increasing skin moisture levels, and reducing visible signs of aging due to UV. All these effects appeared within 4-6 weeks of trial (Yamashita, 2005). Another clinical open-label study performed on 30 healthy females showed improvement in skin condition after daily dose of 6 mg oral supplementation and 2 ml (78.9 μM) solution of natural astaxanthin. ...
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Oxidative stress caused by the imbalance between production of oxidants and antioxidants in the body leads to the development of different ailments. The bioactive compounds derived from marine sources are considered to be safe and appropriate to use. Astaxanthin possesses antioxidant activity about 100–500 times higher than other antioxidants such as α‐tocopherol and β‐carotene. It has numerous health benefits and vital pharmacological properties for the treatment of diseases like diabetes, hypertension, cancer, heart disease, ischemia, neurological disorders, and potential role in liver enzyme gamma‐glutamyl transpeptidase which has significance in medicine as a diagnostic marker. The primary source of astaxanthin among crustaceans is shrimps and the presence of astaxanthin protects shrimps from oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol. Conclusively, astaxanthin derived from shrimps is very effective against oxidative stress which can lead to certain ailments. Conclusively, the astaxanthin derived from shrimps is very effective against oxidative stress which become the cause of certain ailments.
... There is accumulated evidence, and different patent applications are available on ASX for preventing bacterial infection, inflammation and cancer and improving skin thickness [218]. During clinical studies, ASX suppressed hyperpigmentation with the inhibition of melanin synthesis and photoaging through topical application as a cream (containing also other ingredients) or consuming it as a dietary supplement (single or including tocotrienol from palm oil) [219][220][221][222][223]. Later, clinical studies on female and male subjects demonstrated the improvement of skin conditions in all layers (i.e., corneocyte layer, epidermis, basal layer and dermis) with increased elasticity, decreased age spots and skin wrinkles and diminished trans-epidermal water loss and sebum oil level after combined oral (6 mg day −1 ) and topical application (2 mL day −1 of a 78.9-µM solution) of microalgal ASX (derived from its well-known producer Haematococcus pluvialis) [217]. ...
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Microscopic prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae (microalgae), which can be effectively grown in mass cultures, are gaining increasing interest in cosmetics. Up to now, the main attention was on aquatic algae, while species from aeroterrestrial and extreme environments remained underestimated. In these habitats, algae accumulate high amounts of some chemical substances or develop specific compounds, which cause them to thrive in inimical conditions. Among such biologically active molecules is a large family of lipids, which are significant constituents in living organisms and valuable ingredients in cosmetic formulations. Therefore, natural sources of lipids are increasingly in demand in the modern cosmetic industry and its innovative technologies. Among novelties in skin care products is the use of lipid nanoparticles as carriers of dermatologically active ingredients, which enhance their penetration and release in the skin strata. This review is an attempt to comprehensively cover the available literature on the high-value lipids from microalgae, which inhabit aeroterrestrial and extreme habitats (AEM). Data on different compounds of 87 species, subspecies and varieties from 53 genera (represented by more than 141 strains) from five phyla are provided and, despite some gaps in the current knowledge, demonstrate the promising potential of AEM as sources of valuable lipids for novel skin care products.
... La seconde a été menée en double aveugle contre placebo sur 65 femmes de 35 à 60 ans à qui on a donné 6 ou 12 mg/j d'astaxanthine pendant 16 semaines [51] . La troisième a été menée en simple aveugle contre placebo sur 49 femmes âgées de 47 ans en moyenne à qui on a donné 2 mg/j d'astaxanthine pendant six semaines [52] . Toutes ont montré des résultats convergents positifs sur l'efficacité de l'astaxanthine sur la réduction des rides et l'hydratation de la peau comme par exemple la réduction de moitié de la largeur de la ride la plus profonde [50] . ...
Les compléments alimentaires représentent aujourd'hui un sujet de recherche important dans de nombreux domaines relatifs à la santé et la nutrition. L'utilisation de ces concentrés de vitamines, minéraux, ou autres substances à effets physiologiques ou nutritionnels, dans un but dermatocosmétique est également fréquente pour maintenir ou rétablir le bon état des parties superficielles du corps humain. Cet article s'adresse aux dermatologues et a pour objectif d'apporter une meilleure connaissance sur les relations entre compléments alimentaires et conditions non pathologiques liées à la peau, aux cheveux ou aux ongles. L'analyse de la littérature scientifique à ce sujet révèle une documentation relativement bien fournie concernant la peau alors que le domaine des phanères reste moins exploité. Un certain nombre d'ingrédients ont été associés à des effets intéressants mais beaucoup demandent la réalisation d'études cliniques plus robustes. © 2020 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.
... In another study, a group of 49 women of 45−50 years of age were administered 4 mg of AXT for 6 weeks with over 50% of the participants' skin features, including elasticity and moisture, being improved. 249 AXT initiates the cellular antioxidant defense system and modulates the Nrf2 pathway, leading to antioxidant response. 250 The Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway is the key antioxidant defense system against oxidative stress. ...
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Astaxanthin (AXT) is one of the most important fat soluble carotenoids that have abundant and diverse therapeutic applications namely in liver disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer treatment, protection of the nervous system, protection of the skin and eyes against UV radiation, and boosting the immune system. However, due to its intrinsic reactivity, it is chemically unstable, and therefore, the design and production processes of this compound need to be precisely formulated. Nanoencapsulation is widely applied to protect AXT against degradation during digestion and storage, thus improving its physicochemical properties and therapeutic effects. Nanocarriers are delivery systems with many advantages ease of surface modification, biocompatibility, and targeted drug delivery and release. This review discusses the technological advancement in nanocarriers for the delivery of AXT through the brain, eyes, and skin, with emphasis on the benefits, limitations, and efficiency in practice.
... [5] Moreover, eye, brain, and skin health can also benefit from this compound. [6,7] Mostly, industrial-scale production of astaxanthin occurs by chemical methods, which are synthetized from petrochemicals and their derivatives. [8] However, this production way results in a molecule with a different configuration, that does not detain as many biological properties as the natural one, thus being applied mainly in salmon and trout feed for muscle pigmentation. ...
Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid widely used in aquaculture and nutraceutical industries. Among natural sources, the microalga Haematococcus pluvialis is the non-genetically modified organism with the greatest capacity to accumulate astaxanthin. Therefore, it is important to understand emerging strategies in upstream and downstream processing of astaxanthin from this microalga. This review covers all aspects regarding the production and the market of natural astaxanthin from H. pluvialis. Astaxanthin biosynthesis, metabolic pathways, and nutritional metabolisms from green vegetative motile to red haematocyst stage were reviewed in detail. Also, traditional and emerging techniques on biomass harvesting and astaxanthin recovery were presented and evaluated. Moreover, the global market of astaxanthin was discussed, and guidelines for sustainability increasing of the production chain of astaxanthin from H. pluvialis were highlighted, based on biorefinery models. This review can serve as a baseline on the current knowledge of H. pluvialis and encourage new researchers to enter this field of research.
... A double blind placebo controlled study using a dietary supplement containing astaxanthin and tocotrienol from palm oil was the second (Yamashita, 2002). In the third study, we reported the effects of a dietary supplement containing only astaxanthin in a single blind placebo controlled study (Yamashita, 2006). All these studies were either oral supplementation or topical application trials using female subjects. ...
Two human clinical studies were performed. One was an open-label non-controlled study involving 30 healthy female subjects for 8 weeks. Significant improvements were observed by combining 6 mg per day oral supplementation and 2 ml (78.9 μM solution) per day topical application of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin derived from the microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis showed improvements in skin wrinkle (crow's feet at week-8), age spot size (cheek at week-8), elasticity (crow's feet at week-8), skin texture (cheek at week-4), moisture content of corneocyte layer (cheek in 10 dry skin subjects at week-8) and corneocyte condition (cheek at week-8). It may suggest that astaxanthin derived from H. pluvialis can improve skin condition in all layers such as corneocyte layer, epidermis, basal layer and dermis by combining oral supplementation and topical treatment. Another was a randomized double-blind placebo controlled study involving 36 healthy male subjects for 6 weeks. Crow's feet wrinkle and elasticity; and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were improved after 6 mg of astaxanthin (the same as former study) daily supplementation. Moisture content and sebum oil level at the cheek zone showed strong tendencies for improvement. These results suggest that astaxanthin derived from Haematococcus pluvialis may improve the skin condition in not only in women but also in men.
Oxidative stress caused by UV-light, smoking and pollution has been explained to have a major impact in the process of skin aging. Free radicals damage skin cells and destroy the collagen network which leads to sagging and wrinkles. The interest of astaxanthin as an anti-wrinkle agent is growing among researches due to its natural capacity to protect cells from irradiation and oxidation. Astaxanthin is produced by the alga Haematococcus pluvialis to protect its cells from sun radiation, UV-light and oxidation. Several human studies demonstrated that astaxanthin reduced wrinkles and improved skin elasticity and moisture. The results are confirmed by animal studies. The mechanism of action of astaxanthin is explained by its strong antioxidant capacity and its protective effects against sun irradiation. In vitro studies have demonstrated that astaxanthin improves the function of mitochondria and has good protective effects on human fibroblasts. In that way, it can protect skin cells from free radicals and preserve the collagen layer which result in smooth and youthful appearance of the skin. The results indicate that astaxanthin has promising anti-wrinkle effects and that it can be helpful in reducing the skin aging process.
Carotenoids possess strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions in addition to a plethora of other properties. These actions of carotenoids are primarily due to their structure which dictate their functions. Because of their protective potential in disease states, carotenoids are associated with prevention and/or treatment of various neurological diseases. In this chapter, the role(s) of carotenoids in various neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, mild cognitive impairment, neurological trauma, brain tumor, schizophrenia, depression, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis, have been reviewed. A number of studies report associations of low levels of carotenoids with higher likelihood of neurological diseases. Other investigations describe beneficial and protective effects of pharmacological or dietary interventions which lead to enhancement of carotenoids levels in the body. However, further validation of these beneficial actions is required both in clinical and animal studies. Development of good animal models of neurological diseases will help.
Astaxanthin (AX)‐containing preparations are increasingly popular as health food supplements. Evaluating the maximum safe daily intake of AX is important when setting dose levels for these products and currently, there are discrepancies in recommendations by different regulatory authorities. We have therefore conducted a review of approved dose levels, clinical trials of natural AX, and toxicological studies with natural and synthetic AX. Recommended or approved doses varied in different countries and ranged between 2 and 24 mg. We reviewed 87 human studies, none of which found safety concerns with natural AX supplementation, 35 with doses ≥12 mg/day. An acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 2 mg as recently proposed by European Food Safety Authority was based on a toxicological study in rats using synthetic AX. However, synthetically produced AX is chemically different from natural AX, so results with synthetic AX should not be used in assessing natural AX safety. In addition, few safety studies have been conducted in either humans or animals with synthetic AX. We therefore recommend the ADI for natural AX to be based only on studies conducted with natural AX and further studies to be conducted with synthetic AX (including human clinical trials) to establish a separate ADI for synthetic AX.
Astaxanthin is known as a "marine carotenoid" and occurs in a wide variety of living organisms such as salmon, shrimp, crab, and red snapper. Astaxanthin antioxidant activity has been reported to be more than 100 times greater than that of vitamin E against lipid peroxidation and approximately 550 times more potent than that of vitamin E for singlet oxygen quenching. Astaxanthin exhibits no pro-oxidant activity and its main site of action is on/in the cell membrane. To date, various important benefits suggested for human health include immunomodulation, anti-stress, anti-inflammation, LDL cholesterol oxidation suppression, enhanced skin health, improved semen quality, attenuation of eye fatigue, increased sports performance and endurance, limiting exercised-induced muscle damage, and the suppression of the development of lifestyle related diseases such as obesity, atherosclerosis, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Recently, there has been an explosive increase worldwide in both the research and demand for natural astaxanthin in human health applications. Japanese clinicians are especially using astaxanthin extracted from the microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis, as add-on supplementation for patients who are unsatisfied with conventional medications or cannot take other medications due to serious symptoms. For example, in heart failure or overactive bladder patients, astaxanthin treatment enhances patient's daily activity levels and QOL. Other ongoing clinical trials and case studies are examining chronic diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy and CVD, as well as infertility, atopic dermatitis, androgenetic alopecia, ulcerative colitis and sarcopenia. In the near future, astaxanthin's role may be stated as, "Let astaxanthin be thy medicine".
It is known that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by UV irradiation are deeply involved in photoaging and that out of the ROS singlet oxygen (1O2) is very important with regards to the degradation of collagen, thus resulting in wrinkle formation and decreasing skin elasticity. 1O2 quenching activities in common hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants, such as polyphenols, tocopherols, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, coenzyme Q10, and α-lipoic acid were recorded under the same test condition: the chemiluminescence detection system for direct 1O2 counting using the thermodissociable endoperoxides of 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene as 1O2 generator in DMF:CDCl3 (9:1). Carotenoids exhibited larger total quenching rate constants than other antioxidants, with astaxanthin showing the strongest activity. α- Tocopherol and α-lipoic acid showed considerable activities, whereas the activities of ascorbic acid, CoQ10 and polyphenols were only slight; these included capsaicin, probucol, edaravon, BHT and Trolox. Three clinical studies examined the external and internal effects of astaxanthin derived from the microalgae Haematococcus (H) pluvialis on human skin as follows; I. As a pilot study, the repeated topical application test of cream containing astaxanthin showed a significant increase of moisture levels (n=11) and a visual reduction of wrinkles after four weeks of application (n=3). II. A double blind placebo controlled study using Japanese middle-aged healthy women with dry skin evaluated the cosmeceutical benefits of a dietary supplement containing astaxanthin and tocotrienol from palm oil. Significant improvements were observed in skin moisture content (the outer corners of the eye at week 4), the participants' self-assessment of their skin (spots/freckles at week 2 and acne/pimples at week 4), and the inspection/palpation by dermatologist (dark rings around eyes at week 2, moistness and elasticity at week-4 and smoothness at weeks 2 and 4) with supplementation with 2 mg of astaxanthin and 40 mg of tocotrienol daily (n=8) for four weeks compared to placebo (n=8). Furthermore, improvement of skin wrinkles was observed by magnified skin surface inspection in the treated group at week-4. III. The effects of a dietary supplement containing astaxanthin on skin condition were investigated in a single blind placebo controlled study using American middle-aged healthy women. Participants received 4 mg of astaxanthin each day (n=28) for six weeks. Significant improvements in fine lines/wrinkles and elasticity were noted by a dermatologist's visual assessment. Significant improvements in moisture content (between start and week-6 not compared to placebo) and elasticity were recorded by instrumental assessment compared to placebo (n=21). Furthermore, improvements of elasticity, wrinkles, and fine lines were observed by skin surface photographs in the treated group at week 6. These results suggest that astaxanthin derived from H. pluvialis can protect fresh collagen from 1O2 damage induced by ultraviolet radiation. Astaxanthin showed a superior protective effect on photoaging of human skin when applied topically or when taken as a supplement.
Astaxanthin (AST) is a potent lipid-soluble keto-carotenoid with auspicious effects on human health. It protects organisms against a wide range of diseases with excellent safety and tolerability. Various imperative biological activities in vitro and in vivo models have been suggested for AST. This review article is focused on the therapeutic potentials, biological activities and benefical health effects of AST. The pharmacological mechanisms of action of AST in the treatment and prevention of the peripheral and central nervous system diseases was also reviewed to provide new insights to researchers. Finally, we suggested a novel hypothesis for the mechanism of action of AST in neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury.
Astaxanthin is known as a “marine carotenoid” and occurs in a wide variety of living organisms such as salmon, shrimp, crab, and red snapper. Astaxanthin antioxidant activity has been reported to be more than 100 times greater than that of vitamin E against lipid peroxidation and approximately 550 times more potent than that of vitamin E for singlet oxygen quenching. Astaxanthin doesn’t exhibit any pro-oxidant nature and its main site of action is on/in the cell membrane. To date, extensive important benefits suggested for human health include anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, anti-stress, LDL cholesterol oxidation suppression, enhanced skin health, improved semen quality, attenuation of common fatigue including eye fatigue, increased sports performance and endurance, limiting exercised-induced muscle damage, and the suppression of the development of lifestyle-related diseases such as obesity, atherosclerosis, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Recently, there has been an explosive increase worldwide in both the research and demand for natural astaxanthin mainly extracted from the microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis, in human health applications. Japanese clinicians are especially using the natural astaxanthin as add-on supplementation for patients who are unsatisfied with conventional medications or cannot take other medications due to serious symptoms. For example, in heart failure or overactive bladder patients, astaxanthin treatment enhances patient’s daily activity levels and QOL. Other ongoing clinical trials and case studies are examining chronic diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, and CVD, as well as infertility, atopic dermatitis, androgenetic alopecia, ulcerative colitis, and sarcopenia. In the near future, astaxanthin may secure a firm and signature position as medical food.
Strenuous physical activity will induced higher Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level in human body that can be measured by serum Malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Malondialdehyde is product of lipid peroxidation process that define as oxidative damage of lipid biomolecule by reactivity of reactive oxygen species. Still, the dynamic pattern of Malondialdehyde (MDA) level under strenuous exercise is not fully understood. Potent antioxidant such as Astaxanthin and training may be altered the level of MDA. Thus, purpose of this study is to understand effect of astaxanthin to MDA dynamic pattern on training male after strenuous physical activity. It was a double blind, experimental study, conducted on thirty young male age, divided into untrained and trained groups. Supplement Astaxanthin was given to 15 subject as well as placebo for one week after supplementation, Subjects were tested with anaerobic strenuous physical activity. The values were analyzed with ANOVA test followed by Duncan test showed that in every groups, mean of MDA before test was similar, start increase significantly after tested, begin decrease at 6th hour post test and back to baseline at 24th hour post-test ( p<0.05), except for group of untrained male with placebo still increase twice from baseline. The lowest mean of MDA was found on group of trained male with Astaxanthin supplementation and the highest was found on group of untrained male with placebo (p<0.05). These findings support that Astaxanthin and training might has positive effect to oxidative stress condition without altered its dynamic pattern in male after strenuous physical activity
Nowadays, carotenoid biosynthetic pathways are sufficiently elucidated at gene levels in bacteria, fungi, and higher plants. Also, in pathway engineering for isoprenoid (terpene) production, carotenoids have been one of the most studied targets. However, in 1988 when the author started carotenoid research, almost no carotenoid biosynthesis genes were identified. It was because carotenogenic enzymes are easily inactivated when extracted from their organism sources, indicating that their purification and the subsequent cloning of the corresponding genes were infeasible or difficult. On the other hand, natural product chemistry of carotenoids had advanced a great deal. Thus, those days, carotenoid biosynthetic pathways had been proposed based mainly on the chemical structures of carotenoids without findings on relevant enzymes and genes. This chapter shows what happened on carotenoid research, when carotenoid biosynthesis genes met non-carotenogenic Escherichia coli around 1990, followed by subsequent developments.
Carotenoids are the most abundant fat-soluble plant pigments. Skin endogenic antioxidant defense mechanism consists of enzymes and non-enzymes and is quite effective in normal routine to cope the antioxidant stress. This enzyme component consists of various enzymes such as catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase which reduce lipid hydroperoxide, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide. The non-enzyme antioxidant elements comprise of aqueous phase L-ascorbic acid of skin, α-tocopherol, cellular glutathione and mitochondrial ubiquinol. However, in case of excessive oxidative stress, this defense mechanism cannot handle the pressure and there is need to take antioxidants from outside either orally or topically. Carotenoids have proved efficiency against premature skin ageing induced by oxidative stress as shown by clinical trials.
Today the desire for a healthy, youthful appearance combined with the awareness of organic and natural skin care products has led a greater demand for natural active ingredients that possess cosmeceutical properties. Astaxanthin is one of the main carotenoid pigments found in marine resources that represents an interesting source of active ingredient for the cosmetic industry. Astaxanthin isolated from marine resources, including algae (macro- and micro-), crustacean, and salmon, has been confirmed to have a diverse function in skin biology, such as inhibition of oxidative stress, photoprotection, antiaging, and antiinflammatory activities. Due to its beneficial effects on skin health, astaxanthin has been widely used as a constitutional ingredient in cosmetics. This chapter discusses the production and cosmeceutical properties of astaxanthin. In addition, commercial personal care products of astaxanthin were also highlighted.
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Review of Astaxanthin's health benefits and important information for use as a human nutritional supplement.
Riassunto Gli integratori alimentari rappresentano oggi un importante soggetto di ricerca in molti campi relativi alla salute e alla nutrizione. L’uso di questi concentrati di vitamine, minerali o altre sostanze con effetti fisiologici o nutrizionali è frequente anche per scopi dermatocosmetici, per mantenere o ripristinare il buono stato delle parti superficiali del corpo umano. Questo articolo è destinato ai dermatologi e si propone di fornire una migliore conoscenza della relazione tra integratori alimentari e condizioni non patologiche legate alla cute, ai capelli o alle unghie. L’analisi della letteratura scientifica su questo argomento rivela una documentazione relativamente ricca per quanto riguarda la cute, mentre il campo degli annessi resta meno esplorato. Un certo numero di ingredienti è stato associato a effetti interessanti, ma molti richiedono la realizzazione di studi clinici più robusti.
Previously we have shown that astaxanthin, a carotenoid without provitamin A activity, enhances in vitro antibody (Ab) production to sheep red blood cells in normal B6 mice. In this study, we further attempted to examine the mechanisms of this enhancing action of carotenoids on specific Ab production in vitro in relation to different antigen (Ag) stimuli, cytokine production, and T- and B-cell interactions in both normal and autoimmune strains of mice. When the actions of carotenoids were tested in normal strains of mice, we found that astaxanthin enhanced in vitro Ab production to T cell-dependent Ag, but not to T-independent Ag, and did not augment total immunoglobulin production. Astaxanthin exerted maximum enhancing actions when it was present at the initial period of Ag priming. This action of astaxanthin was abolished when T cells were depleted from spleen cell suspensions and appeared to require direct interactions between T and B cells. The results also indicated that carotenoids may modulate the production of interferon-tau in this assay system. When the actions of carotenoids were tested in autoimmune-prone MRL and NZB mice, the enhancing action of astaxanthin on in vitro Ab production was less significant. Furthermore, carotenoids did not potentiate or augment spontaneous Ab and immunoglobulin production by spleen cells in these strains. Taken together, carotenoids without provitamin A activity may be able to augment in vitro specific Ab production to T cell-dependent Ag partly through affecting the initial stage of Ag presentation without facilitating polyclonal B-cell activation or autoantibody production.
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