Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Onion Juice (Allium cepa), Honey, And Onion-Honey Mixture on Some Sensitive and Multi-Resistant Microorganisms

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Abstract

The study conducted here to analyze the antimicrobial activity of onion juice alone which extracted from red Egyptian onion, honey alone (Lan g an ez a h o n ey , Bl ack F o res t) and honey-onion mixture (v/v: 1/1, 1/4, 4/1) with different concentrations 100 , 50 , 20 and 10% respectively, against 8 microbial species, Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615, Staphylococcus aureus; (Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus -MSSA) ATCC 25923, (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus -MRSA) ATCC 10442, Enterococcus faecalis; (Vancomycin -Sensitive Enterococci-VSE) ATCC 29212, (Vancomycin -Resistant Enterococci-VRE) ATCC 51299, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Candida albicans ATCC 10291 were investigated by broth dilution method. The results showed that onion juice at 100%, 50%, 20% and 10% concentration have a very strong effect on the growth of all tested species of microbes comparing with control and Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive microbe. Moreover, Honey at 100, 50, 20 and 10% concentration have a very strong effect on the growth of all species of microbes but significantly less than the effect of onion juice. When studying the effects of the onion-honey mixture with different concentrations, it became clear that the mixture (1/1) had a very noticeable effect on all species of examined microbes.. Results also showed that the honey-onion mixture was significantly more effective comparing with onion or honey alone.

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... A significant contribution for the antibacterial activity is proved in garlic and honey with phenols and fatty acids which act synergistically in higher growth reduction of bacteria, enhancing the killing activity. This also helps to improve the shelf life of each other [15]. Both are powerful antibiotics that preserve our immune system. ...
... Combination of honey and garlic potentially reduces the blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels and helps in improving cardiovascular problems [15]. Studies prove the good synergistic roles of honey with garlic to regulate LDL levels [16]. ...
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... Studies by Al Masaudi et al. (2102) and Eveline et al. (2014) investigated the combination of two or more antibacterial agents in the treatment of S. pyogenes (Al Masaudi et al., 2012;Eveline et al., 2014). Both these studies have successfully explained the methods employed, the outcomes and the results obtained. ...
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... Studies by Al Masaudi et al. (2102) and Eveline et al. (2014) investigated the combination of two or more antibacterial agents in the treatment of S. pyogenes (Al Masaudi et al., 2012;Eveline et al., 2014). Both these studies have successfully explained the methods employed, the outcomes and the results obtained. ...
... (Al-Waili et al., 2005;Al-Waili et al., 2014), Saudi Arabia (AlMasaudi et al., 2012;Hegazi et al., 2012) whileHegazi (2011) used both Saudi Arabia and Egyptian honey.Moussa (2012) used four different honey samples from Algeria in his study. ...
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The home remedy of taking honey along with a citrus juice of lemon, lime or calamansi to soothe sore throat has long been practiced in many cultures across the world, since ancient times. This paper aims to systematically review the antibacterial effect of honey and citrus juice on Streptococcus pyogenes by means of a systematic search in EBSCOhost, Medline, Scopus and ISI Web of Science databases for reports of studies investigating the antibacterial effects of honey and citrus fruit juice on S. pyogenes. A total of 415 publications were initially identified, out of which, 20 were finally chosen and reviewed by looking at the tittles, abstracts and full paper using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria in relation to honey (n=16) and citrus (n=4). The majority of the studies showed that both honey and citrus have significant antimicrobial effect on S. pyogenes. There are still not many available data though on the combined effect of honey and citrus on the bacterium. This knowledge gap offers an opportunity to investigate those effects with the purpose of supporting traditional practice with scientific evidences.
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... Zeedan et al. (2016) reported that multidrug resistance bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidemdis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) isolated from human patient at local hospital in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia were highly sensitive to honey mixture from Ginger, Clove and Black Cumin extracts at low concentration 0.0325 mg/ml. In a similar in-vitro study by Saad et al., (2012), vancomycin -sensitive enterococci and vancomycinresistant enterococci were significantly affected by onion -honey mixture (1:1) more than onion alone and honey alone. Alemseged et al. (2018) revealed that the inhibition capacity of mixture of garlic extract and honey against five respiratory tract infection causing bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza and Staphylococcus aureus was greater than the commercial antibiotics such as Co-trimoxazole, Cefoxitin and Erythromycin. ...
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s Honey is a sweet, viscous substance made by honey bees and related insects. It is one of the ancient long-established medicines well thought-out as a therapy for diverse microbial infections. It is an antibacterial agent that is used by many herbal practitioners as a recipe for herbal preparation. Combination therapy is described as the use of two or more pharmacologic agents in a single-dose formulation administered separately or in a fixed-dose combination of two or more active ingredients. Honey combination therapies had been documented to improve effectiveness, decrease toxicity, and decrease drug resistance growth. Laboratory researches showed that even the multidrug resistance bacterial had an excellent microbial clearance for both honey-herbal combination and honey-antibiotics combination. Honey combination therapy should be well researched and improved to stop the spread of antibiotic resistance and restore hope for health.
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... There are no studies that support the systemic use of honey as treatment of multidrug resistant bacteria [9]. Medicinal herbal plants are rich in wide variety of secondary metabolites such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenol and quinines ,which have been used worldwide in herbal medicine to treat several diseases and infection [10]. Several studies over all the world have been showed that plant extracts have antimicrobial activities. ...
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Objective - To assess the antimicrobial potential of honey against certain microbial isolates. Method - Samples of commercial honeys sold in Makkah area of Saudi Arabia were checked for their antimicrobial activities using standard organisms, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The minimal inhibitory concentration end points of six honey samples found to possess antimicrobial activities were used to determine the sensitivity patterns of some isolates from the laboratory. The temperature stabilities of the honey samples were also determined. Results - The six honey samples had differing levels of antimicrobial activities with the standard organisms and with the laboratory isolates. Black Forest honey showed the highest activity followed respectively by Turkish, Orange Flower, Forest Honey and Summer Flower. The antimicrobial activities of the samples were stable after storing at 2-8° C for six months and after boiling for 15 minutes. Conclusion - The study shows that honey, like antibiotics, has certain organisms sensitive to it while others are resistant, and the sensitivity varies depending on the source of the honey.
Article
Diallyl thiosulphinate (allicin), methyl allyl thiosulphinate, and allyl methyl thiosulphinate found in aqueous garlic clove and powder homogenates showed in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities while garlic polar compounds, including alliin, did not. E/Z-ajoene, a minor but water-soluble transformation product of allicin found in vegetable oil-macerates of garlic, demonstrated anticandidal activity. Garlic showed greater antibacterial and antifungal activities than a number of onion types. Garlic and elephant garlic clove homogenates demonstrated similar activity. The anticandidal activities of commercially available garlic supplement products corresponded in general to the activities known for the chemical compounds found in the products.
Article
Aims: To determine the sensitivity to honey of Gram-positive cocci of clinical significance in wounds and demonstrate that inhibition is not exclusively due to osmotic effects. Methods and Results: Eighteen strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and seven strains of vancomycin-sensitive enterococci were isolated from infected wounds and 20 strains of vancomycin-resistant enterococci were isolated from hospital environmental surfaces. Using an agar incorporation technique to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), their sensitivity to two natural honeys of median levels of antibacterial activity was established and compared with an artificial honey solution. For all of the strains tested, the MIC values against manuka and pasture honey were below 10% (v/v), but concentrations of artificial honey at least three times higher were required to achieve equivalent inhibition in vitro. Comparison of the MIC values of antibiotic-sensitive strains with their respective antibiotic-resistant strains demonstrated no marked differences in their susceptibilities to honey. Conclusions: The inhibition of bacteria by honey is not exclusively due to osmolarity. For the Gram-positive cocci tested, antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant strains showed similar sensitivity to honey. Significance and Impact of the Study: A possible role for honey in the treatment of wounds colonized by antibiotic-resistant bacteria is indicated.
Article
Various diseases are common in Pakistani population and major reason for their prevalence is the lack of modern health facilities. Current review was aimed to find the potential medicinal uses of Allium cepa, which is a culinary herb. A number of studies have proven its potential use against human pathogenic organisms. Its extract and powder was found to have inhibitory activity against tumor cells. Moreover scientifically proven hypoglycemic, cardioprotective and hypolipidemic activities suggest its potential use in diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. It is also useful to reduce the risk of bone injuries especially in females. Onion is a rich source of flavonoids, polyphenols, organic sulfur, saponins and many other secondary metabolites, which are mainly responsible for its medicinal activities. Its organic sulfur compounds, which contribute for its different medicinal potentials are sensitive towards cooking; moreover this sensitivity is also variety dependant which means its more beneficial in its raw form. On the basis of reviewed literature it is concluded that it possesses significant beneficial health effects and its incorporation in daily food especially in raw form will provide protection against many diseases.
Article
Honey has been used as a medicine throughout the ages and has recently been reintroduced to modern medical practice. Much of the research to date has addressed honey's antibacterial properties and its effects on wound healing. Laboratory studies and clinical trials have shown that honey is an effective broad-spectrum antibacterial agent. Honey antimicrobial action explains the external and internal uses of honey. Honey has been used to treat adult and neonatal postoperative infection, burns, necrotizing fasciitis, infected and nonhealing wounds and ulcers, boils, pilonidal sinus, venous ulcers, and diabetic foot ulcers. These effects are ascribed to honey's antibacterial action, which is due to acidity, hydrogen peroxide content, osmotic effect, nutritional and antioxidants content, stimulation of immunity, and to unidentified compounds. When ingested, honey also promotes healing and shows antibacterial action by decreasing prostaglandin levels, elevating nitric oxide levels, and exerting prebiotic effects. These factors play a major role in controlling inflammation and promoting microbial control and healing processes. This article reviews data supporting the effectiveness of natural honey in eradicating human pathogens and discusses the mechanism of actions.
Article
Eradication of Helicobacter pylori by triple therapy often results in a failure rate of 10-20%; thus, there is a need to seek alternative treatments. The aim of this study was to screen selected South African honeys for their anti-H. pylori activity, to extract the antimicrobial components using organic solvents and to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extracts. Three locally produced honeys from different regions in South Africa were screened for anti-H. pylori activity at four different concentrations using the agar well diffusion technique. Subsequently, Pure honey was extracted using n-hexane, diethyl ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate; extracts were also examined for anti-H. pylori activity by agar well diffusion method. The MICs of the three most active extracts were determined both by visual inspection and spectrophotometric analysis at 620 nm using the broth microdilution method. The results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA at 95% significance level. All honeys demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity and were most active at 75% v/v. The positive control (clarithromycin) recorded a zone diameter of 18.0 ± 7.4 mm not significantly different (p >0.05) from honeys at 75% v/v and solvent extracts. Chloroform extract recorded the lowest MIC(95) values that ranged from 0.156-5% v/v confirming this extract to be the most active. All honeys demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity at concentrations ≥10%, as did the solvent extracts. Therefore, these honeys and solvent extracts possess potential compounds with therapeutic activity that could be further exploited as lead molecules in the treatment of H. pylori infections.
Article
The inhibitory effect of onion oil against the growth of various isolates of bacteria representing Gram-positive (4 isolates) and Gram-negative (4 isolates) species were studied. Results show that onion oil was highly active against all Gram-positive bacteria tested and only one isolate (Klebsiella pneumoniae) of Gram-negative bacteria. The inhibitory effect of onion oil against nine different species of dermatophytic fungi were also studied. Onion oil (200 ppm) completely inhibited the growth of Microsporum canis, M. gypseum and Trichophyton simii while the growth of both, Chrysosporium queenslandicum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was completely inhibited by 500 ppm of onion oil. The growth of four other species of dermatophytic fungi was gradually reduced by increasing the concentrations of onion oil. The inhibitory effect of onion oil was also tested against four toxigenic isolates of fungi. Onion oil at different concentrations (100, 200 and 500 ppm) tested gradually reduced fungal growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus IMI 89,717 and A. parasiticus var. globosus IMI 120,920. Fungal growth and production of sterigmatocystin and rubratoxin A by A. versicolor IMI 16,139 and Penicillium rubrum IMI 136,127 were completely inhibited by the addition of 200 ppm onion oil.
Article
In this study, the focus was on the antibacterial activity of onions. This study researched the activities of onion extracts on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, the main causal bacteria for dental caries, and Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, considered to be the main causal bacteria of adult periodontitis. The results showed that the onion extracts possess an effect on all test bacterial strains (S.mutans JC-2, S. sobrinus OMZ176, P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 and P. intermedia ATCC 25611), and the effects were bactericidal against cultured and resting bacterial cells. The activity of the onion extracts was stable even after 48 hours in the culture medium. This result suggests that no decomposition or volatility of onion extracts occurred in the culture medium. The antibacterial activity of onion extracts was not markedly influenced by cysteine (10 mM) treatment. However, activity significantly decreased with alkali treatment. Grated onion left to stand at 37 degrees C for 48 hours did not show antibacterial activity. Also, activity of steam treated (100 degrees C, 10 min.) onion was not observed. Using avicel plate by thin layer chromatography with the solvent of n-butanol:acetic acid:water (3:3:1), the main component of the substance (the substance which develops color with ninhydrin) was observed at an Rf value of about 0.9.
Article
Welsh onion ethanol extracts were tested for their inhibitory activity against the growth and aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. The survival of spores of A. flavus and A. parasiticus depended on both the extract concentration and the exposure time of the spores to the Welsh onion extracts. The mycelial growth of two tested fungi cultured on yeast extract-sucrose broth was completely inhibited in the presence of the Welsh onion ethanol extract at a concentration of 10 mg/ml during 30 days of incubation at 25 degrees C. The extracts added to the cultures also inhibited aflatoxin production at a concentration of 10 mg/ml or permitted only a small amount of aflatoxin production with extract concentration of 5 mg/ml after 2 weeks of incubation. Welsh onion ethanol extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects against the two tested aflatoxin-producing fungi than did the same added levels of the preservatives sorbate and propionate at pH values near 6.5.
Article
Antimicrobial activity of honey has been attributed to hydrogen peroxide, which is produced by naturally occurring glucose oxidase, and phenolic compounds, although lethality of and inhibition by these and other components against microorganisms vary greatly, depending on the floral source of nectar. This study was undertaken to compare honeys from six floral sources for their inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella sonnei, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus. A disc assay revealed that development of zones of inhibition of growth depends on the type and concentration of honey, as well as the test pathogen. Growth of B. cereus was least affected. The inhibition of growth of S. sonnei, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus in 25% solutions of honeys was reduced by treating solutions with catalase, indicating that hydrogen peroxide contributes to antimicrobial activity. Darker colored honeys were generally more inhibitory than light colored honeys. Darker honeys also contained higher antioxidant power. Since antimicrobial activity of the darker colored test honeys was not eliminated by catalase treatment, non-peroxide components such as antioxidants may contribute to controlling the growth of some foodborne pathogens. The antibacterial properties of honeys containing hydrogen peroxide and characterized by a range of antioxidant power need to be validated using model food systems.
Article
To determine the sensitivity to honey of Gram-positive cocci of clinical significance in wounds and demonstrate that inhibition is not exclusively due to osmotic effects. Eighteen strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and seven strains of vancomycin-sensitive enterococci were isolated from infected wounds and 20 strains of vancomycin-resistant enterococci were isolated from hospital environmental surfaces. Using an agar incorporation technique to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), their sensitivity to two natural honeys of median levels of antibacterial activity was established and compared with an artificial honey solution. For all of the strains tested, the MIC values against manuka and pasture honey were below 10% (v/v), but concentrations of artificial honey at least three times higher were required to achieve equivalent inhibition in vitro. Comparison of the MIC values of antibiotic-sensitive strains with their respective antibiotic-resistant strains demonstrated no marked differences in their susceptibilities to honey. The inhibition of bacteria by honey is not exclusively due to osmolarity. For the Gram-positive cocci tested, antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant strains showed similar sensitivity to honey. A possible role for honey in the treatment of wounds colonized by antibiotic-resistant bacteria is indicated.
Article
The study aims to investigate the antibacterial activity of honey obtained from different parts of Oman and compare it with that of honey obtained from elsewhere in Africa. A total of 24 honey samples (16 from different parts of Oman and eight from elsewhere in Africa) were investigated for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 6571), Escherichia coli (NCTC 10418) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCTC 10662) using standard antimicrobial assays. Marked variations in the antibacterial activity of the different honey samples were observed. Fourteen of the 16 Omani samples and five of the eight African samples showed antibacterial activity ranked as either fair, good or excellent to at least one of the three bacterial strains tested. Both Omani and African honeys possess in vitro antibacterial activity against the three bacterial strains tested, with 25% of the samples showing excellent antibacterial activity.
Article
The punched-hole and the paper disc diffusion methods were used in screening for the antimicrobial activity of six common ingredients used locally in cough mixtures, against the following bacteria: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus. Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella dysenteria, Shigella sonnei and Candida albicans. The results, evaluated as the diameter of zone of inhibition of microbial growth, showed that lime, garlic onion, onion and honey were active against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Shigella dysenteriae. Bitter-kola nut extract and palm kernel oil showed no antimicrobial activities against any of the tested organisms. None of the extracts inhibited the growth of Salmonella paratyphi and Shigella sonnei and the most susceptible organisms were Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp.
Article
To investigate the anti-Staphylococcal activity of Omani honey, gentamicin and combination of the 2. This study was conducted in the Laboratories of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman in 2004. Thirty honey samples from different parts of Oman were investigated for their activity against Staphylococcus aureus, using an agar well diffusion technique. The honey sample giving the best anti-staphylococcal activity was selected and further investigated for the killing rate on its own and in combination with gentamicin using tube dilution technique. Marked variations in the antibacterial activity of the different honey samples were observed. Thirteen of the Omani honey samples (43%) showed excellent anti Staphylococcus aureus activity. The best of the excellent honey samples (OH26), at a concentration of 50%, showed killing rate of 38% of Staphylococcus aureus at 30 minutes and 45% at one hour. Gentamicin (at 4 microg/ml) killed 70% and 88% while the rate of killing for the combination of honey and gentamicin was superior with 92% and 93% killing in the same duration. Omani honey, in-vitro, possess anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity, which enhances gentamicin activity by 22% in the early phases of interaction.
Article
Renewed interest in honey for various therapeutic purposes including treatment of infected wounds has led to the search for new antibacterial honeys. In this study we have assessed the antibacterial activity of three locally produced honeys and compared them to three commercial therapeutic honeys (including Medihoney and manuka honey). An agar dilution method was used to assess the activity of honeys against 13 bacteria and one yeast. The honeys were tested at five concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 20%. Twelve of the 13 bacteria were inhibited by all honeys used in this study with only Serratia marcescens and the yeast Candida albicans not inhibited by the honeys. Little or no antibacterial activity was seen at honey concentrations <1%, with minimal inhibition at 5%. No honey was able to produce complete inhibition of bacterial growth. Although Medihoney and manuka had the overall best activity, the locally produced honeys had equivalent inhibitory activity for some, but not all, bacteria. Honeys other than those commercially available as antibacterial honeys can have equivalent antibacterial activity. These newly identified antibacterial honeys may prove to be a valuable source of future therapeutic honeys.
Article
To study antimicrobial activity of shallot in comparison with that of garlic and onion against 23 strains of fungi and bacteria, water extracts of garlic, shallot and onion bulbs were prepared. Each extract was studied in different forms for their antimicrobial activity viz., fresh extract, dry extract and autoclaved extract. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal lethal concentrations of these extracts were determined against all organisms by broth dilution susceptibility test. Fresh extract of garlic showed greater antimicrobial activity as compared to similar extracts of onion and shallot. However, dried and autoclaved extracts of shallot showed more activity than similar extracts of onion and garlic. Fungi were more sensitive to shallot extract than bacteria. Amongst bacteria, B. cereus was most sensitive (MIC=5 mg ml(-1)). The lowest minimum bactericidal concentration of shallot extract amongst bacteria tested was 5 mg ml(-1) for B. cereus. Amongst fungi, Aureobasidium pullulans and Microsporum gypseum were most sensitive (MIC= 0.15 mg ml(-1)). The lowest minimum lethal concentration was 2.5 mg ml(-1) for Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. It was therefore, expected that the antimicrobial principle of shallot was different than the antimicrobial compounds of onion and garlic. In addition, the antimicrobial component of the shallot extract was stable at 121 degrees C.
Article
Seventy polyfloral honeys including commercial samples obtained from supermarkets, harvested from apiaries and purchased in bulk were initially examined for total antibacterial activity. From each sample, numbers of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, total coliforms, moulds and yeasts were determined and the presence of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Clostridium sulfite-reducers, Paenibacillus larvae and Bacillus spp. was investigated. Moisture content, pH and total acidity were also determined for all samples. Any honey diluted to concentrations from 75% to 1% (w/v) of full-strength honey showed total antibacterial activity. The numbers of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, moulds and yeasts were less than 10(3) cfu/g for all 70 samples. Faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Clostridium sulfite-reducers were not detected but P. larvae subspp. larvae, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus laterosporus were found among samples. For commercial, apiary and bulk honey the mean values for moisture content, pH and acidity, respectively, were 17.50%, 17.40% and 17.50%; 4.60, 4.10 and 4.20; and 18.30, 20.60 and 21 meq NaOH/kg. P. larvae was recovered from 35% of apiaries including hives in which the bees did not display symptoms of American foulbrood disease.
Antimicrobial properties of extracts of Allium cepa (Onions) and Zingiber officinale (Ginger) on Escherichia coli,Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis
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Nelson, C. A. and Onyeagba, R. A. (2007):Antimicrobial properties of extracts of Allium cepa (Onions) and Zingiber officinale (Ginger) on Escherichia coli,Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis. The Internet J Tropical Medicine. 3: 2.
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Bilal, N. E., and Alfalki, Y. H.(1998): antibacterial activity of honey on selected microorganism. Preliminary study , Biomedical, Research, Aligarh, :9 (1) 51-54.
Microbiology Apathographic Atlas For The Laboratory. An imprint of
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Steve, K., Dennis S. (2001): Microbiology Apathographic Atlas For The Laboratory. An imprint of Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. United States of America.
Onions are beneficial for your health
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Winston, C.,. (2008): Onions are beneficial for your health. http://geniuscook.com/onions/.