Article

Dietary Supplementation with Astaxanthin-Rich Algal Meal Improves Strength Endurance – A Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study on Male Students –

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  • AstaReal AB
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Abstract

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with astaxanthin on physical performance. Forty healthy paramedic students were recruited for this test in a double blind placebo controlled study. In this study, we used algal meal (AstaREAL ® biomass) as astaxanthin supplementation. Twenty of the subjects received capsules filled with algal meal to provide 4 mg astaxanthin per capsule, whereas the other twenty received placebo capsules for six months. The physical parameters monitored were fitness, strength/endurance and strength/explosivity by standardized exercises. Before starting the dietary supplementation, base values for each of the subjects were obtained. At the end of the six month period of dietary supplementation, the average number of knee bendings (squats) increased by 27.05 (from 49.32 to 76.37) for subjects having received astaxanthin and by 9.0 (from 46.06 to 55.06) for the placebo subjects. Hence, the increase in the astaxanthin supplemented group was three times higher than that of the placebo group (P=0.047). None of the other parameters monitored differed significantly between the groups at the end of the study period. Based on this findings, it suggested that supplementation of astaxanthin is effective for the improvement of strength endurance that may lead to sports performance.

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... Further studies need to be designed to find the explanations to the mechanisms behind the increased muscle endurance. It can be hypothesized that Astaxanthin protects the membrane structures of the cells, like the mitochondrial membrane, against oxidative stress generated during heavy exercise and thereby preserves the functionality of the muscle cells (Malmsten and Lignell, 2008). ...
... Malmsten and Lignell, 2008 ...
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Bob Capelli’s third book on Astaxanthin is by far his best. Well over 300 pages long, this book is the definitive guide on Astaxanthin for use as a health supplement by humans as well as animals. This book is a great tool for scientists and people working in the supplement industry, while written in an easy-to-read format to be enjoyed by anyone. It provides valuable information for any consumer seeking to live a long and healthy life. Features include: • Excerpts from many renowned doctors, researchers and opinion leaders describing Astaxanthin in their own words including Dr. Joseph Mercola, Mike Adams “The Health Ranger,” Dr. William Sears, Suzy Cohen “America’s Most Trusted Pharmacist” and more. • Extensive review of “The Healthy Ten” – the ten clinically-validated health benefits of Natural Astaxanthin. • What makes Natural Astaxanthin “The Supplement You Can Feel” – how 80% of consumers can feel it working in their bodies. • Emerging research on Astaxanthin for five new health benefits. • Why nutrition experts are beginning to call Natural Astaxanthin “The Ultimate Anti-Aging Nutrient” and “The Athlete’s Secret Weapon.” • Dosage, bioavailability, safety and other vital information. • Differences between: o Natural Astaxanthin and other supplements. o Different sources of Astaxanthin. o Production methods for Natural Astaxanthin from algae. o Different Astaxanthin consumer products. • Complete list of 330 references included. While Capelli’s first two books contained testimonials from consumers, perhaps the most interesting new feature of this book is a long chapter relating what renowned doctors and opinion leaders as well as university researchers and PhDs say about Astaxanthin. Here is what some of these famous contributors say about this book: Dr. Joseph Mercola, Renowned Internet Health Expert: “I was very impressed with the compelling research on the therapeutic benefits of Astaxanthin in Bob Capelli’s book on Astaxanthin back in 2011. I have been regularly using it since then and believe it has great value for many conditions. Bob’s book was a major factor when I decided to feature Astaxanthin as “The #1 Supplement You’ve Never Heard of that You Should Be Taking” on the Dr. Oz show a few years ago.” Mike Adams, “The Health Ranger:” “Astaxanthin is, without question, one of the most potent and promising natural medicines yet known in the realm of nutritional science. I strongly recommend reading Bob Capelli’s latest Astaxanthin book. Your approach to nutritional supplementation will be forever upgraded!” Suzy Cohen, “America’s Most Trusted Pharmacist:” “Natural Astaxanthin is one of my favorite nutrients to recommend to my readers because it does so many positive things for people. It’s a super-antioxidant and a broad-spectrum, safe & natural anti-inflammatory with over 500 medical research studies to back it up. Astaxanthin is the perfect nutrient in the battle against aging because of its clinically-validated effects on a host of concerns people have as they reach middle age and beyond. I read Bob Capelli’s first book on Astaxanthin back in 2007 and I’ve been a fan ever since. And with this new book, Bob has taken the understanding of Astaxanthin to a whole new level.” Susan Smith Jones, PhD, Prolific Author and Media Personality: “A gem of nature, Astaxanthin is an all-in-one natural nutrient that can replace countless other supplements in your kitchen because of its myriad benefits for the entire body. I refer to Astaxanthin as “The Great Protector” in my lectures and workshops. Thank you Bob Capelli for distilling down hundreds of complicated research studies into this revealing, cogent book that beautifully extols the virtues of an antioxidant extraordinaire.”
... In a double-blind RCT, 43 young healthy male students (ages 17-19 years; n=40) were subjected to fitness, strength, and endurance testing, then randomized to receive astaxanthin (4 mg/day) or a placebo for six months. Astaxanthin significantly improved performance in the assessment designed to measure strength/endurance (maximum number of knee bends ["squats"] performed while carrying a 42.5 kg barbell) over the placebo group (p<0.05). ...
Article
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Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid, is a nutrient with unique cell membrane actions and diverse clinical benefits. This molecule neutralizes free radicals or other oxidants by either accepting or donating electrons, and without being destroyed or becoming a pro-oxidant in the process. Its linear, polar-nonpolar-polar molecular layout equips it to precisely insert into the membrane and span its entire width. In this position, astaxanthin can intercept reactive molecular species within the membrane's hydrophobic interior and along its hydrophilic boundaries. Clinically, astaxanthin has shown diverse benefits, with excellent safety and tolerability. In double-blind, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), astaxanthin lowered oxidative stress in overweight and obese subjects and in smokers. It blocked oxidative DNA damage, lowered C-reactive protein (CRP) and other inflammation biomarkers, and boosted immunity in the tuberculin skin test. Astaxanthin lowered triglycerides and raised HDL-cholesterol in another trial and improved blood flow in an experimental microcirculation model. It improved cognition in a small clinical trial and boosted proliferation and differentiation of cultured nerve stem cells. In several Japanese RCTs, astaxanthin improved visual acuity and eye accommodation. It improved reproductive performance in men and reflux symptoms in H. pylori patients. In preliminary trials it showed promise for sports performance (soccer). In cultured cells, astaxanthin protected the mitochondria against endogenous oxygen radicals, conserved their redox (antioxidant) capacity, and enhanced their energy production efficiency. The concentrations used in these cells would be attainable in humans by modest dietary intakes. Astaxanthin's clinical success extends beyond protection against oxidative stress and inflammation, to demonstrable promise for slowing age-related functional decline.
... mg consumed in previous studies. (29)(30)(31) Quercetin intake was 97.5 mg, which corresponded to approximately onetenth of the 1,000 mg amount in quercetin supplements used in the previous study, (32) while catechin intake was 797.3 mg, which was similar to the intake of 405-625 mg reported in previous studies. (33,34) Anthocyanin intake was 157.5 mg, which was lower than the intake of 320 mg in the form of anthocyanin supplements reported in the previous study. ...
Article
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Although supplementation with several antioxidants has been suggested to improve aerobic metabolism during exercise, whether dietary foods containing such antioxidants can exert the metabolic modulation is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of intake of the specific antioxidant-rich foods coupled with exercise training on energy metabolism. Twenty young healthy, untrained men were assigned to antioxidant and control groups: participants in the antioxidant group were encouraged to consume foods containing catechin, astaxanthin, quercetin, glutathione, and anthocyanin. All participants performed cycle training at 60% maximum oxygen consumption for 30 min, 3 days per week for 4 weeks. Maximum work load was significantly increased by training in both groups, while oxygen consumption during exercise was significantly increased in the antioxidant group only. There were positive correlations between maximum work load and fat/carbohydrate oxidations in the antioxidant group. Carbohydrate oxidation during rest was significantly higher in the post-training than that in the pre-training only in the antioxidant group. More decreased levels of serum insulin and HOMA-IR after training were observed in the antioxidant group than in the control group. This study suggests that specific antioxidant-rich foods could modulate training-induced aerobic metabolism of carbohydrate and fat during rest and exercise.
... Further studies need to be designed to find the explanations to the mechanisms behind the increased muscle endurance. It can be hypothesized that Astaxanthin protects the membrane structures of the cells, like the mitochondrial membrane against oxidative stress generated during heavy exercise and thereby preserves the functionality of the muscle cells" (Malmsten, C, and Lignell, A, 2008). ...
... One capsule of NucleVital ® Q10 Complex (Scandinavian Laboratories Inc., Mt. Bethel, PA, USA; Marinex Intenational, Lodz, Poland) contains Norwegian salmon oil: omega-3 acids (225 mg; including 75 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and 75 mg of docosahexaenoic acid), ubiquinone (50 mg) astaxanthin (2.5 mg), lycopene (7.5 mg), lutein palmitate (5 mg), zeaxanthin palmitate (1 mg), L-selenomethionine (55 mg), cholecalciferol (5 µg) and α-tocopherol (7.5 mg). The daily dose of NucleVital ® Q10 Complex (six capsules per day) was calculated based on available literature data describing the beneficial effects of the indicated compounds on human health, the ageing process and improvement of energetic efficacy of the organism [42][43][44][45][46][47][48]. ...
Article
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A growing number of studies confirm an important effect of diet, lifestyle and physical activity on health status, the ageing process and many metabolic disorders. This study focuses on the influence of a diet supplement, NucleVital®Q10 Complex, on parameters related to redox homeostasis and ageing. An experimental group of 66 healthy volunteer women aged 35-55 supplemented their diet for 12 weeks with the complex, which contained omega-3 acids (1350 mg/day), ubiquinone (300 mg/day), astaxanthin (15 mg/day), lycopene (45 mg/day), lutein palmitate (30 mg/day), zeaxanthine palmitate (6 mg/day), L-selenomethionine (330 mg/day), cholecalciferol (30 µg/day) and α-tocopherol (45 mg/day). We found that NucleVital®Q10 Complex supplementation significantly increased total antioxidant capacity of plasma and activity of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, with slight effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in erythrocytes; MDA and 4-hydroxyalkene levels. Apart from the observed antioxidative effects, the tested supplement also showed anti-ageing activity. Analysis of expression of SIRT1 and 2 in PBMCs showed significant changes for both genes on a mRNA level. The level of telomerase was also increased by more than 25%, although the length of lymphocyte telomeres, determined by RT-PCR, remained unchanged. Our results demonstrate beneficial effects concerning the antioxidant potential of plasma as well as biomarkers related to ageing even after short term supplementation of diet with NucleVital®Q10 Complex.
... Decreases oxidation of red blood cells; decreases the chances of ischemic stroke; and improves memory and learning Muscle resilience Enhances power output, endurance, and recovery after exercise; prevents muscle damage and muscle atrophy Earnest et al. (2011); Malmstena and Lignellb (2008); Yamashita ...
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The worldwide annual production of lobster was 165,367 tons valued over $3.32 billion in 2004, but this figure rose up to 304,000 tons in 2012. Over half the volume of the worldwide lobster production has been processed to meet the rising global demand in diversified lobster products. Lobster processing generates a large amount of by-products (heads, shells, livers, and eggs) which account for 50–70% of the starting material. Continued production of these lobster processing by-products (LPBs) without corresponding process development for efficient utilization has led to disposal issues associated with costs and pollutions. This review presents the promising opportunities to maximize the utilization of LPBs by economic recovery of their valuable components to produce high value-added products. More than 50,000 tons of LPBs are globally generated, which costs lobster processing companies upward of about $7.5 million/year for disposal. This not only presents financial and environmental burdens to the lobster processors but also wastes a valuable bioresource. LPBs are rich in a range of high-value compounds such as proteins, chitin, lipids, minerals, and pigments. Extracts recovered from LPBs have been demonstrated to possess several functionalities and bioactivities, which are useful for numerous applications in water treatment, agriculture, food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical products, and biomedicine. Although LPBs have been studied for recovery of valuable components, utilization of these materials for the large-scale production is still very limited. Extraction of lobster components using microwave, ultrasonic, and supercritical fluid extraction were found to be promising techniques that could be used for large-scale production. LPBs are rich in high-value compounds that are currently being underutilized. These compounds can be extracted for being used as functional ingredients, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals in a wide range of commercial applications. The efficient utilization of LPBs would not only generate significant economic benefits but also reduce the problems of waste management associated with the lobster industry. This comprehensive review highlights the availability of the global LPBs, the key components in LPBs and their current applications, the limitations to the extraction techniques used, and the suggested emerging techniques which may be promising on an industrial scale for the maximized utilization of LPBs.
... (7) Clinical studies also showed improved muscular endurance by astaxanthin intake and better performance in bicycle time trial. (8,9) On the other hand, clinical studies with daily-training athletes showed that astaxanthin intake did not improve their anti-oxidant capacity and performance. (10,11) It is considered that this was due to their endogenous anti-oxidant capacity already being enhanced by their daily training routine. ...
Article
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Astaxanthin, a natural antioxidant, exists in non-esterified and esterified forms. Although it is known that astaxanthin can improve exercise endurance and cause metabolic improvement in skeletal muscle, the effects of the two different forms are unclear. We investigated the effects of the different forms of astaxanthin on endurance in mice. Eight-week-old ICR mice were divided into four groups: control; astaxanthin extracted from Haematococcus pluvialis in an esterified form; astaxanthin extracted from Phaffia rhodozyma in a non-esterified form; and astaxanthin synthesized chemically in a none-sterified form. After 5 weeks of treatment, each group was divided into sedentary and exercise groups. In the group fed astaxanthin from Haematococcus, the running time to exhaustion was longest, and the plasma and tissue concentrations of astaxanthin were significantly higher than those in the other groups. Astaxanthin from Haematococcus increased 5'adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase levels in the skeletal muscle. Although the mice in the Haematococcus group ran for longer, hexanoyl lysine adduct levels in the skeletal muscle mitochondria were similar in the control and Haematococcus groups. Our results suggested that esterified astaxanthin promoted energy production and protected tissues from oxidative damage during exercise owing to its favorable absorption properties, leading to a longer running time.
... Astaxanthin has thirteen conjugated double bonds and because of their arrangement, astaxanthin has strong antioxidant properties [54]. The astaxanthin dose that 2.5 g of krill oil provides is around 1.7 mg, which is below the recommended dose of 4 mg for athletes that is linked to improved muscle damage, time trial performance and power output [55][56][57]. Nevertheless, it has been suggested that the phospholipids of krill oil may increase intestinal absorption of astaxanthin [40], thereby optimizing its availability to the body for integration into cell membranes and fight against excessive free radical production in athletes [53]. ...
Article
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There is evidence that both omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and choline can influence sports performance, but information establishing their combined effects when given in the form of krill oil during power training protocols is missing. The purpose of this study was therefore to characterize n-3 PUFA and choline profiles after a one-hour period of high-intensity physical workout after 12 weeks of supplementation. Thirty-five healthy power training athletes received either 2.5 g/day of Neptune krill oilTM (550 mg EPA/DHA and 150 mg choline) or olive oil (placebo) in a randomized double-blind design. After 12 weeks, only the krill oil group showed a significant HS-Omega-3 Index increase from 4.82 to 6.77% and a reduction in the ARA/EPA ratio (from 50.72 to 13.61%) (p < 0.001). The krill oil group showed significantly higher recovery of choline concentrations relative to the placebo group from the end of the first to the beginning of the second exercise test (p = 0.04) and an 8% decrease in total antioxidant capacity post-exercise versus 21% in the placebo group (p = 0.35). In conclusion, krill oil can be used as a nutritional strategy for increasing the HS-Omega-3 Index, recover choline concentrations and address oxidative stress after intense power trainings.
... So basically, Astaxanthin made these students stronger and increased their endurance three times faster than the placebo group! (Malmsten, 1998). The same researcher, Dr. Malmstem, teamed up with long term Natural Astaxanthin researcher Dr. Ake Lignell in a published article ten years later, also centered on strength and endurance. ...
Book
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Review of Astaxanthin's health benefits and important information for use as a human nutritional supplement.
... Krill oil contains astaxanthin, a red carotenoid pigment and strong antioxidant that naturally occurs in salmon, shrimp, krill, crustaceans, or certain types of algae, giving krill its reddish color. Astaxanthin administration has been shown to reduce muscle damage [14,15], to increase time trial performance and power output in competitive cyclists [16], and to increase strength/endurance (number of squats) [17]. However, astaxanthin failed to improve muscle soreness and muscle damage in resistance trained men following an acute bout of eccentric exercise (coadministered with lutein) [18]. ...
Article
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Introduction Krill oil supplementation has been shown to improve postexercise immune function; however, its effect on muscle hypertrophy is currently unknown. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the ability of krill oil to stimulate mTOR signaling and its ability to augment resistance training-induced changes in body composition and performance. Methods C2C12 myoblasts cells were stimulated with krill oil or soy-derived phosphatidylcholine (S-PC), and then, the ratio of P-p70-389 to total p70 was used as readout for mTOR signaling. In double-blind, placebo-controlled study, resistance trained subjects consumed either 3 g krill oil daily or placebo, and each took part in an 8-week periodized resistance training program. Body composition, maximal strength, peak power, and rate of perceived recovery were assessed collectively at the end of weeks 0 and 8. In addition, safety parameters (comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP), complete blood count (CBC), and urine analysis (UA)) and cognitive performance were measured pre- and posttesting. Results Krill oil significantly stimulated mTOR signaling in comparison to S-PC and control. No differences for markers on the CMP, CBC, or UA were observed. Krill oil significantly increased lean body mass from baseline (p=0.021, 1.4 kg, +2.1%); however, there were no statistically significant differences between groups for any measures taken. Conclusion Krill oil activates mTOR signaling. Krill oil supplementation in athletes is safe, and its effect on resistance exercise deserves further research.
... AST (6 mg/kg, 28 days) also lowered creatine kinase (CK), increased the diffusion of lactic acid endurance and improved muscle fatigue in volunteer subjects [229]. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled research to study the impact of AST (4 mg/day, 6 months) on muscle strength and endurance, the case group performed more knee bends (squats) in carrying a barbell weighing 42.5 kg compared to the placebo group [230,231]. In another study, the AST (4 mg/day, 28 days) treatment group rode the bicycle considerably faster, when compared to the placebo group. ...
Article
Astaxanthin (AST) is a potent lipid-soluble keto-carotenoid with auspicious effects on human health. It protects organisms against a wide range of diseases with excellent safety and tolerability. Various imperative biological activities in vitro and in vivo models have been suggested for AST. This review article is focused on the therapeutic potentials, biological activities and benefical health effects of AST. The pharmacological mechanisms of action of AST in the treatment and prevention of the peripheral and central nervous system diseases was also reviewed to provide new insights to researchers. Finally, we suggested a novel hypothesis for the mechanism of action of AST in neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury.
... For example, 6 months of feeding in the healthy young resulted in 'strength endurance' gains of 55% as measured by the number of weighted knee bends completed by the end of the study. 13 Muscle adaptations, such as these, in an elderly population would counter key muscle functional losses that are found with age. 14 Additional benefit would come from combining a dietary treatment with functional training, which has the potential to not only reverse muscle wasting and improve exercise intolerance but also to increase mobility with a single intervention. ...
Article
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Background Building both strength and endurance has been a challenge in exercise training in the elderly, but dietary supplements hold promise as agents for improving muscle adaptation. Here, we test a formulation of natural products (AX: astaxanthin, 12 mg and tocotrienol, 10 mg and zinc, 6 mg) with both anti‐inflammatory and antioxidant properties in combination with exercise. We conducted a randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study of elderly subjects (65–82 years) on a daily oral dose with interval walking exercise on an incline treadmill. Methods Forty‐two subjects were fed AX or placebo for 4 months and trained 3 months (3×/week for 40–60 min) with increasing intervals of incline walking. Strength was measured as maximal voluntary force (MVC) in ankle dorsiflexion exercise, and tibialis anterior muscle size (cross‐sectional area, CSA) was determined from magnetic resonance imaging. Results Greater endurance (exercise time in incline walking, >50%) and distance in 6 min walk (>8%) accompanied training in both treatments. Increases in MVC by 14.4% (±6.2%, mean ± SEM, P < 0.02, paired t‐test), CSA by 2.7% (±1.0%, P < 0.01), and specific force by 11.6% (MVC/CSA, ±6.0%, P = 0.05) were found with AX treatment, but no change was evident in these properties with placebo treatment (MVC, 2.9% ± 5.6%; CSA, 0.6% ± 1.2%; MVC/CSA, 2.4 ± 5.7%; P > 0.6 for all). Conclusions The AX formulation improved muscle strength and CSA in healthy elderly in addition to the elevation in endurance and walking distance found with exercise training alone. Thus, the AX formulation in combination with a functional training programme uniquely improved muscle strength, endurance, and mobility in the elderly.
... In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of astaxanthin on muscle strength and endurance, 40 healthy men were supplemented with 4 mg/daily of astaxanthin for 6 months (Malmsten and Lignell 2008). The group treated with astaxanthin was able to perform significantly more knee bends (squats) compared to the placebo group ( Fig. 23.6) when carrying a barbell weighing 42.5 kg. ...
Chapter
Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), a unique Japanese citrus species, is one of the foods which have most abundant β-cryptoxanthin all over the world. In this study, β-cryptoxanthin has a variety of health-promoting functions such as the body fat reducing, cosmetic (whitening), and osteoporosis prevention. β-Cryptoxanthin has also been shown in human studies to have anti-exercise fatigue and diabetes prevention actions. These multiple functions further support that β-cryptoxanthin may play a role in vitamin A function.
... The increased time to exhaustion was related to increased lipid oxidation, reduced blood lactate, and reduced liver and muscle glycogen utilization (Aoi et al., 2008;Ikeuchi et al., 2006;Liu et al., 2014). The effect of AX on muscle metabolism and performance is less clear in humans, with some showing a reduction in injury markers (Djordjevic et al., 2012) but not others (Bloomer et al., 2005), or benefits in strength (Malmsten & Lignell, 2008) in healthy male athletes. Earnest et al. in 2011 reported improved 20 km time trial performance with no difference in fat or carbohydrate oxidation during sub-max cycling in endurance trained male cyclists (Earnest et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Endurance training (ET) is recommended for the elderly to improve metabolic health and aerobic capacity. However, ET‐induced adaptations may be suboptimal due to oxidative stress and exaggerated inflammatory response to ET. The natural antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory dietary supplement astaxanthin (AX) has been found to increase endurance performance among young athletes, but limited investigations have focused on the elderly. We tested a formulation of AX in combination with ET in healthy older adults (65–82 years) to determine if AX improves metabolic adaptations with ET, and if AX effects are sex‐dependent. Forty‐two subjects were randomized to either placebo (PL) or AX during 3 months of ET. Specific muscle endurance was measured in ankle dorsiflexors. Whole body exercise endurance and fat oxidation (FATox) was assessed with a graded exercise test (GXT) in conjunction with indirect calorimetry. Results: ET led to improved specific muscle endurance only in the AX group (Pre 353 ± 26 vs. Post 472 ± 41 contractions), and submaximal GXT duration improved in both groups (PL 40.8 ± 9.1% and AX 41.1 ± 6.3%). The increase in FATox at lower intensity after ET was greater in AX (PL 0.23 ± 0.15 g vs. AX 0.76 ± 0.18 g) and was associated with reduced carbohydrate oxidation and increased exercise efficiency in males but not in females. Astaxanthin combined with endurance training promoted fat oxidation compared to training alone. Astaxanthin led to carbohydrate sparing and improved exercise efficiency especially in older males.
Article
Objective: The antioxidant factors, astaxanthin, β-carotene, and resveratrol, have a potential effect on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and a combined intake may have a greater cumulative effect than individual intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects on skeletal muscle mass and protein metabolic signaling during the hypertrophic process from atrophy in mice. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided into five dietary groups consisting of seven animals each: normal, astaxanthin, β-carotene, resveratrol, and all three antioxidants. Equal concentrations (0.06% [w/w]) of the respective antioxidants were included in the diet of each group. In the mixed group, three antioxidants were added in equal proportion. One leg of each mouse was casted for 3 wk to induce muscle atrophy. After removal of the cast, the mice were fed each diet for 2 wk. The muscle tissues were collected, weighed, and examined for protein metabolism signaling and oxidative damage. Results: The weight of the soleus muscle was increased in the astaxanthin, β-carotene, and resveratrol groups to a greater extent than in the normal group; this was accelerated by intake of the mixed antioxidants (P = 0.007). Phosphorylation levels of mammalian target of rapamycin and p70 S6 K in the muscle were higher in the mixed antioxidant group than in the normal group (P = 0.025; P = 0.020). The carbonylated protein concentration was lower in the mixed antioxidant group than in the normal group (P = 0.021). Conclusions: These results suggested that a combination of astaxanthin, β-carotene, and resveratrol, even in small amounts, promoted protein synthesis during the muscle hypertrophic process following atrophy.
Article
Astaxanthin (AX)‐containing preparations are increasingly popular as health food supplements. Evaluating the maximum safe daily intake of AX is important when setting dose levels for these products and currently, there are discrepancies in recommendations by different regulatory authorities. We have therefore conducted a review of approved dose levels, clinical trials of natural AX, and toxicological studies with natural and synthetic AX. Recommended or approved doses varied in different countries and ranged between 2 and 24 mg. We reviewed 87 human studies, none of which found safety concerns with natural AX supplementation, 35 with doses ≥12 mg/day. An acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 2 mg as recently proposed by European Food Safety Authority was based on a toxicological study in rats using synthetic AX. However, synthetically produced AX is chemically different from natural AX, so results with synthetic AX should not be used in assessing natural AX safety. In addition, few safety studies have been conducted in either humans or animals with synthetic AX. We therefore recommend the ADI for natural AX to be based only on studies conducted with natural AX and further studies to be conducted with synthetic AX (including human clinical trials) to establish a separate ADI for synthetic AX.
Chapter
Astaxanthin is known as a “marine carotenoid” and occurs in a wide variety of living organisms such as salmon, shrimp, crab, and red snapper. Astaxanthin antioxidant activity has been reported to be more than 100 times greater than that of vitamin E against lipid peroxidation and approximately 550 times more potent than that of vitamin E for singlet oxygen quenching. Astaxanthin doesn’t exhibit any pro-oxidant nature and its main site of action is on/in the cell membrane. To date, extensive important benefits suggested for human health include anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, anti-stress, LDL cholesterol oxidation suppression, enhanced skin health, improved semen quality, attenuation of common fatigue including eye fatigue, increased sports performance and endurance, limiting exercised-induced muscle damage, and the suppression of the development of lifestyle-related diseases such as obesity, atherosclerosis, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Recently, there has been an explosive increase worldwide in both the research and demand for natural astaxanthin mainly extracted from the microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis, in human health applications. Japanese clinicians are especially using the natural astaxanthin as add-on supplementation for patients who are unsatisfied with conventional medications or cannot take other medications due to serious symptoms. For example, in heart failure or overactive bladder patients, astaxanthin treatment enhances patient’s daily activity levels and QOL. Other ongoing clinical trials and case studies are examining chronic diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, and CVD, as well as infertility, atopic dermatitis, androgenetic alopecia, ulcerative colitis, and sarcopenia. In the near future, astaxanthin may secure a firm and signature position as medical food.
Chapter
This chapter describes the reported functions of natural astaxanthin on muscle physiology and performance. The first section discusses oxidative stress in skeletal muscle during exercise and how natural astaxanthin interacts with the endogenous antioxidant system. It further gives an insight into how astaxanthin is incorporated into cell membranes, particularly within the mitochondria, describing the effects seen on mitochondrial functions such as ATP production and fat metabolism. The following section describes the results seen in clinical trials on muscle endurance and muscle strength in populations ranging from well-trained young people to the elderly. This also includes the additional outcomes of natural astaxanthin on exercise in connection with sarcopenia. Finally, it covers the impact of astaxanthin on muscle recovery and the reduction in exercise-induced inflammation.
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A new technology employing Raman spectroscopy is attracting attention as a powerful biochemical technique for the detection of beneficial and functional food nutrients, such as carotenoids and unsaturated fatty acids. This technique allows for the dynamic characterization of food nutrient substances for the rapid determination of food quality. In this study, we attempt to detect and measure astaxanthin from salmon fillets using this technology. The Raman spectra showed specific bands corresponding to the astaxanthin present in salmon and the value of astaxanthin (Raman band, 1518 cm(-1)) relative to those of protein/lipid (Raman band, 1446 cm(-1)) in the spectra increased in a dose-dependent manner. A standard curve was constructed by the standard addition method using astaxanthin as the reference standard for its quantification by Raman spectroscopy. The calculation formula was established using the Raman bands typically observed for astaxanthin (i.e., 1518 cm(-1)). In addition, we examined salmon fillets of different species (Atlantic salmon, coho salmon, and sockeye salmon) and five fillets obtained from the locations (from the head to tail) of an entire Atlantic salmon. Moreover, the sockeye salmon fillet exhibited the highest astaxanthin concentration (14.2 mg/kg), while coho salmon exhibited an intermediate concentration of 7.0 mg/kg. The Raman-based astaxanthin concentration in the five locations of Atlantic salmon was more strongly detected from the fillet closer to the tail. From the results, a rapid, convenient Raman spectroscopic method was developed for the detection of astaxanthin in salmon fillets.
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Strenuous exercise induces oxidative stress, inflammation, lipid peroxidation, and muscle damage. Natural astaxanthin is a potent antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties. As such, astaxanthin supplementation may be important in sports nutrition. Natural astaxanthin has been documented to increase muscular strength and endurance in five out of six human clinical studies as well as four supporting animal trials. This chapter reviews the published studies on astaxanthin supplementation as they relate to sports nutrition.
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In the article the currently available scientific literature regarding the most significant activities, mechanisms action and preclinical and clinical trails of astaxanthin and other oxygenic carotinoids is reviewed. Results from experimental studies and clinical trials support the remedial properties of the astaxanthin, establishing it as an appropriate candidate for development a functional food and supplementary therapy agent promising applications in human health with the considerable medicinal potential.
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Astaxanthin is known as a "marine carotenoid" and occurs in a wide variety of living organisms such as salmon, shrimp, crab, and red snapper. Astaxanthin antioxidant activity has been reported to be more than 100 times greater than that of vitamin E against lipid peroxidation and approximately 550 times more potent than that of vitamin E for singlet oxygen quenching. Astaxanthin exhibits no pro-oxidant activity and its main site of action is on/in the cell membrane. To date, various important benefits suggested for human health include immunomodulation, anti-stress, anti-inflammation, LDL cholesterol oxidation suppression, enhanced skin health, improved semen quality, attenuation of eye fatigue, increased sports performance and endurance, limiting exercised-induced muscle damage, and the suppression of the development of lifestyle related diseases such as obesity, atherosclerosis, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Recently, there has been an explosive increase worldwide in both the research and demand for natural astaxanthin in human health applications. Japanese clinicians are especially using astaxanthin extracted from the microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis, as add-on supplementation for patients who are unsatisfied with conventional medications or cannot take other medications due to serious symptoms. For example, in heart failure or overactive bladder patients, astaxanthin treatment enhances patient's daily activity levels and QOL. Other ongoing clinical trials and case studies are examining chronic diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy and CVD, as well as infertility, atopic dermatitis, androgenetic alopecia, ulcerative colitis and sarcopenia. In the near future, astaxanthin's role may be stated as, "Let astaxanthin be thy medicine".
Article
Objectives: In this study, we examined the effects of single astaxanthin supplementation on body temperature and blood characteristics at intermittent cycling. Methods: The subjects were 6 normally healthy male students. The subjects took astaxanthin (6 mg) or placebo capsule after breakfast. The intermittent cycling was carried out until complete exhaustion on a bicycle ergometer. Measurement items were body temperature, blood characteristics, blood pressure, heart rate, exercise time, exercise intensity and myalgia. Results and discussion: Body temperature and NO in astaxanthin group were significant higher than placebo group before exercise. There is some possibility that single astaxanthin supplementation cause vasodilator action and elevation of body temperature. Blood characteristics in astaxanthin group were not significant lower than placebo group after exercise. It is suggested single astaxanthin supplementation does not have effects of reduction of muscular fatigue.
Chapter
This chapter describes the current astaxanthin (ASX) research development focusing on its safety assessment and pharmaceutical effects. ASX (3,3′-dihydroxy-β and β′-carotene-4,4′-dione) is a naturally occurring carotenoid found mainly in Haematococcus pluvialis (the green microalga) and marine organisms such as microalgae, salmon, and crustaceans. ASX, a nonpolar carotenoid with conjugated double bonds, shown to exhibit greater antioxidant function. Additionally, ASX has well-documented antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, anticancer, antiaging, immunomodulatory, heart protective, and liver protective effects. Significant scientific evidences, including human and animal data, suggest natural ASX as a safe nutrient for food and pharmaceutical application with no side effects. Altogether, natural ASX has gained high prominence in current research making it an attractive and economically potent molecule in the nutraceutical industry.
Article
Oxidative stress has harmful effects on muscle health causing muscle pain, weakness and fatigue. Astaxanthin is a strong antioxidant which by reducing oxidative stress will support muscle function. Results from human and model studies have shown that astaxanthin increases muscle endurance, lowers lactic acid and might prevent muscle atrophy in aging. The effects of astaxanthin on muscle are explained by its ability to protect membranes from oxidation and thereby enhance mitochondrial function and reduce inflammation and muscle damage.
Article
Full-text available
Astaxanthin is a member of the carotenoid family that is found abundantly in marine organisms, and has been gaining attention in recent years due to its varied biological/physiological activities. It has been reported that astaxanthin functions both as a pigment, and as an antioxidant with superior free radical quenching capacity. We recently reported that astaxanthin modulated mitochondrial functions by a novel mechanism independent of its antioxidant function. In this paper, we review astaxanthin’s well-known antioxidant activity, and expand on astaxanthin’s lesser-known molecular targets, and its role in mitochondrial energy metabolism.
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The present study was designed to determine the effect of astaxanthin on endurance capacity in male mice aged 4 weeks. Mice were given orally either vehicle or astaxanthin (1.2, 6, or 30 mg/kg body weight) by stomach intubation for 5 weeks. The astaxanthin group showed a significant increase in swimming time to exhaustion as compared to the control group. Blood lactate concentration in the astaxanthin groups was significantly lower than in the control group. In the control group, plasma non-esterfied fatty acid (NEFA) and plasma glucose were decreased by swimming exercise, but in the astaxanthin group, NEFA and plasma glucose were significantly higher than in the control group. Astaxanthin treatment also significantly decreased fat accumulation. These results suggest that improvement in swimming endurance by the administration of astaxanthin is caused by an increase in utilization of fatty acids as an energy source.
Article
The anticancer activities of beta-carotene, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin against the growth of mammary tumors were studied in female eight-wk-old BALB/c mice. The mice were fed a synthetic diet containing 0, 0.1 or 0.4% beta-carotene, astaxanthin or canthaxanthin. After 3 weeks, all mice were inoculated with 1 x 10(6) WAZ-2T tumor cells into the mammary fat pad. All animals were killed on 45 d after inoculation with the tumor cells. No carotenoids were detectable in the plasma or tumor tissues of unsupplemented mice. Concentrations of plasma astaxanthin (20 to 28 mumol/L) were greater (P < 0.05) than that of beta-carotene (0.1 to 0.2 mumol/L) and canthaxanthin (3 to 6 mmol/L). However, in tumor tissues, the concentration of canthaxanthin (4.9 to 6.0 nmol/g) was higher than that of beta-carotene (0.2 to 0.5 nmol/g) and astaxanthin (1.2 to 2.7 nmol/g). In general, all three carotenoids decreased mammary tumor volume. Mammary tumor growth inhibition by astaxanthin was dose-dependent and was higher than that of canthaxanthin and beta-carotene. Mice fed 0.4% beta-carotene or canthaxanthin did not show further increases in tumor growth inhibition compared to those fed 0.1% of each carotenoid. Lipid peroxidation activity in tumors was lower (P < 0.05) in mice fed 0.4% astaxanthin, but not in those fed beta-carotene and canthaxanthin. Therefore, beta-carotene, canthaxanthin and especially astaxanthin inhibit the growth of mammary tumors in mice; their anti-tumor activity is also influenced by the supplemental dose.
Article
To evaluate psychophysical and electrophysiologic responses in eyes with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) without a decrease in visual acuity and with or without late AMD in the fellow eye. Fifteen patients (mean age: 67.9 +/- 7.20 years) with early AMD in both eyes (AMD1 group, 15 eyes) and 15 patients (mean age: 71.40 +/- 7.06 years) with early AMD in one eye and late AMD in the fellow eye (AMD2 group, 15 eyes) were enrolled. They were compared to 15 age-similar normal control subjects. LogMAR visual acuity (VA), macular sensitivity by MP-1 microperimetry, and multifocal electroretinograms (mfERG) were assessed in control, AMD1, and AMD2 eyes. mfERG response amplitude density (RAD, nV/deg2) of the N1-P1 component of first order binary kernels was measured. When compared to controls, AMD1 and AMD2 eyes showed a significant (analysis of variance, P < 0.01) decrease in MP-1 microperimetry assessed in the 0-2.5 and 2.5-5 degrees of the macula, significantly correlated (Pearson test, P < 0.01) to the corresponding significant decrease (P < 0.01) in mfERG N1-P1 RADs assessed in the 0-2.5 and 2.5-5 degrees. In AMD1 and AMD2 eyes, VA and mfERG N1-P1 RADs assessed in the 5-20 degrees were similar (P > 0.01) to controls. VA, MP-1, and mfERG values were not significantly different in AMD1 and AMD2 eyes. In eyes with early AMD there is a dysfunction of preganglionic elements in the central 0-5 retinal degrees detectable by mfERG or MP-1 microperimetry. This impairment is not further influenced by the presence of late AMD in the fellow eye.
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Further studies need to be designed to find explanations to the mechanisms behind the increased muscle endurance
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