Cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Intrafraction Motion for Prostate Cancer Patients Supine or Prone With and Without a Rectal Balloon
Determine prostate intrafraction motion with Cine-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and deformable registration.
A total of 68 cine-MRI studies were done in 17 different series with 4 scans per series in 7 patients. In without rectal balloon (WORB) scans, 100 mL of water was infused in the rectum. Each series consisted of supine and prone, with a rectal balloon (WRB) and WORB. Each scan was performed over 4 minutes. Automatic deformable registration software developed by View Ray, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio was employed to segment the prostate for each cine-MRI image. A time-based analysis was done for the different positions and the use of the rectal balloon.
The variation/standard deviation of the prostate position during 240 seconds was: supine WRB: 0.55 mm, WORB: 1.2 mm, and prone WRB: 1.48 mm, WORB: 2.15 mm (P < 0.001). A strong relationship was observed between time and prostate motion. For the initial 120 s the standard deviation was smaller than for the second 120 s supine WRB 0.54 mm versus 1.37 mm; supine WORB 0.61 mm versus 1.70 mm; prone WRB 0.85 mm versus 1.85 mm; and prone WORB 1.60 mm versus 2.56 mm. The probabilities for prostate staying within +/-2 mm to its initial position are: 94.8% supine WRB; 91.5% supine WORB; 92.3% prone WRB; 79.2% prone WORB.
Intrafraction prostate motion was found dependent on time, patient position, and the use of a rectal balloon. Relatively stable positions can be obtained for 4 minutes or less especially in the supine position with a rectal balloon.
Available from: Takashi Mizowaki
- "Another limitation is that the intrafractional prostate motion was not considered. Several reports on intrafractional prostate motion have been published to date [4, 9, 10, 27–29]. However, intrafractional prostate motion in the prone position in those immobilized with a thermoplastic shell has not yet been assessed. "
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the interfractional prostate motion of patients immobilized in the prone position using a thermoplastic shell. A total of 24 patients with prostate calcifications detectable using a kilo-voltage X-ray image-guidance system (ExacTrac X-ray system) were examined. Daily displacements of the calcification within the prostate relative to pelvic bony structures were calculated by the ExacTrac X-ray system. The average displacement and standard deviation (SD) in each of the left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions were calculated for each patient. Based on the results of interfractional prostate motion, we also calculated planning target volume (PTV) margins using the van Herk formula and examined the validity of the PTV margin of our institute (a 9-mm margin everywhere except posteriorly, where a 6-mm margin was applied). In total, 899 data measurements from 24 patients were obtained. The average prostate displacements ± SD relative to bony structures were 2.8 ± 3.3, -2.0 ± 2.0 and 0.2 ± 0.4 mm, in the SI, AP and LR directions, respectively. The required PTV margins were 9.7, 6.1 and 1.4 mm in the SI, AP and LR directions, respectively. The clinical target volumes of 21 patients (87.5%) were located within the PTV for 90% or more of all treatment sessions. Interfractional prostate motion in the prone position with a thermoplastic shell was equivalent to that reported for the supine position. The PTV margin of our institute is considered appropriate for alignment, based on bony structures.
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ABSTRACT: Interference suppression schemes for direct-sequence
spread-spectrum (DS/SS) code division multiple access (CDMA) systems
using the minimum mean squared error (MMSE) criterion are considered.
When compared to other interference suppression schemes, such as
maximum-likelihood decoding, this criterion has the advantage of being
amenable to adaptive implementations that do not require knowledge of
the interference parameters, such as their relative strengths and
spreading sequences. These schemes are shown to be near-far resistant to
varying degrees, depending on their complexity. That is, the error
probability remains relatively low no matter how strong the
interference. Numerical results showing error probability vs.
interference power demonstrate that the proposed schemes offer
substantial performance gains relative to the matched filter receiver
Available from: Luc Beaulieu
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ABSTRACT: In the present study, we have presented and validated a plastic scintillation detector (PSD) system designed for real-time multiprobe in vivo measurements.
The PSDs were built with a dose-sensitive volume of 0.4 mm(3). The PSDs were assembled into modular detector patches, each containing five closely packed PSDs. Continuous dose readings were performed every 150 ms, with a gap between consecutive readings of <0.3 ms. We first studied the effect of electron multiplication. We then assessed system performance in acrylic and anthropomorphic pelvic phantoms.
The PSDs were compatible with clinical rectal balloons and were easily inserted into the anthropomorphic phantom. With an electron multiplication average gain factor of 40, a twofold increase in the signal/noise ratio was observed, making near real-time dosimetry feasible. Under calibration conditions, the PSDs agreed with the ion chamber measurements to 0.08%. Precision, evaluated as a function of the total dose delivered, ranged from 2.3% at 2 cGy to 0.4% at 200 cGy.
Real-time PSD measurements are highly accurate and precise. These PSDs can be mounted onto rectal balloons, transforming these clinical devices into in vivo dose detectors without modifying current clinical practice. Real-time monitoring of the dose delivered near the rectum during prostate radiotherapy should help radiation oncologists protect this sensitive normal structure.
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