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The RSVP Cycles: Creative Processes in the Human Environment

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Abstract

What follows is from the introductory section of the now out of print book, The RSVP Cycles: Creative Processes in the Human Environment, by Lawrence Halprin (George Braziller: New York 1969). The book considers ‘scoring’ as a way in which to make processes visible and as a way of enabling participation. This work was developed with his wife and dancer Anna Halprin. She has utilized and extended the RSVP cycle extensively, using it to elaborate and structure interactions between people within, in particular, community movement practices. The RSVP score makes elements of the creative process visible and seeks to aid communication within artistic collaborations. As such it offers a significant framework for articulation, making accessible that which is usually hidden and implicit. Thereby editors felt that it was an important resource to include in this special issue, encompassing insights into the value of scoring, which might be seen as modes of articulation in their own right, and also because the RSVP cycles offer a way through which creative processes can be better understood.

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... The quantitative piece of the study will assist in linking qualitative community attitudes and identity to an inventory and analysis of related physical assets and liabilities for social sustainability. (Halprin, L. 1970) ...
... Resources, Score, Value-action and Performance) required the designer to have the ability to draw upon psychology, active listening, and empathy. (Halprin, L., 1970) Resources are the human and material elements that are brought to the creative process, including the physical site inventory, design program, objectives and expectations. Resources are broken down into objective (new school, fix sidewalks, etc.) and subjective (sensory feelings: feeling safe, or the feeling of the sound of the wind blowing in the leaves of an old oak tree, etc.) types. ...
... Once this language was developed, through value action the authentic expression of a community and its feelings, needs and belief systems would work itself into the design and development plans. (Halprin, 1970) In theory the value-action component was to be the catalyst for establishing the performance is how the design that is implemented is received by the community-the design (in theory) is owned by the people and this ownership is reflected in its "performance". Alas, design is only as good as the policy and construction guidelines of the communities in which it is conceptualized. ...
Article
The real problems, needs and opportunities of urban neighborhoods are not being served by conventional models of urban planning and sustainable development. The city of New Haven, Connecticut will be studied to develop a framework for planning and design of the public realm (public space/place/landscape) which addresses urban neighborhood sustainability through a social lens, using a mixed-methods, transdisciplinarity research model. Geospatial data on social capital and cultural vitality indicators will be integrated with other sustainability indicators to create a quantitative analysis component. Development of a participatory design process to foster social bonding, creativity and sustainability inquiry will comprise a qualitative component for the framework.
... Lawrence Halprin on the other hand celebrated the unpredictable. Halprin (1969) started to use his renowned "open scores", inspired by art and dance, in the early 1960s and through his canonical book RSVP Cycles. Margot Lystra (2014, p. 77) explains: ...
... But the new technology also caused a split in which one strand took off towards a natural scientific approach of linear time (cf. McHarg 1971) while another used design and the humanities to develop new time-sensitive approaches (cf.Halprin 1969). ...
Thesis
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Transformation of rundown industrial areas into mix-use and dense urban districts has been common practice in urban planning and design since the late 1990s. The discipline and practice of landscape architecture has been specifically engaged in the transformation of such post-industrial sites into large parks and landscapes, with an expanded aesthetic appreciation of the derelict as a result. This is not the case in urban planning and design, the practices of which all too often apply a tabula rasa approach to post-industrial sites, rendering them blank, removing all existing site qualities and conditions in favor of a generic urban model. This is problematic for two reasons: it erases cultural heritage and counters aspirations to stop wasting resources, both being important in achieving sustainable urbanity. This thesis takes as its entry point the masterplan - today’s primary tool for urban planning and design, and the criticism that is currently leveled against it and masterplanning in general. The thesis sets out to explore alternative modes of operating in order to formulate revised protocols for the transformation of urban landscapes. It asks: How can design approaches contribute to devising such alternative approaches? To explore this question, it draws upon inherent attributes of the discipline of landscape architecture; the ability to foster dynamic processes, recognize the undeveloped as opportunities, and bring action-oriented site knowledge to the fore. Using qualitative case study and design research, three transformation projects have been studied: Ile de Nantes in Nantes, France; Jubileumsparken 0.5 at Frihamnen in Gothenburg, Sweden; and the BayCity, Providence, Rhode Island, USA. Finding that the projects operate through the design activities of iterating, prototyping, and simulating the dissertation argues that, when transforming post-industrial sites, design approaches can leverage strategic and futurelooking masterplanning with incremental and transformative site-born actions that contribute to urban sustainability through economy of means and adaptability. The result of the dissertation shows how design approaches can augment, complement or supplement masterplanning by building transformative capacities through increased siteand time awareness. Its purpose is to inform the practices of urban design and planning by enriching established protocols of transformation of post-industrial urban landscapes.
... The overall purpose of harvesting in my own practice is to enable another layer of understanding or consciousness to be folded back into the practice of moving. It might also be understood, then, in terms of Halprin's RSVP Cycles as a mode of 'valu-action' (Halprin, L. 1969). Valu-action is 'a neologism [invented by Lawrence Halprin] that encapsulates the combination of reflection on/evaluation of performance and the action that results from these responses' (Worth and Poynor 2011: 151). ...
... project (2015) and the Critical Articulations Process(Bacon and Midgelow 2014b). Below I describe the distinctive features of each of these models of enquiry while also indicating how I have synthesised certain aspects of them into my own cyclical approach to forming movement material.Formulated in the late 1960's by landscape architect LawrenceHalprin (1969) in collaboration with dance-artist Anna Halprin, the RSVP Cycles offers a model for collaborative working across disciplines. Inherent to this model is a cyclical approach to artmaking, through and across four key stages: Resourcing (R), Scoring (S), Valu-action (V) and Performance (P). ...
Thesis
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This thesis articulates the process of forming movement material within a solo, contemporary dance-making practice from the perspective of the dancer-maker, with the aim of giving voice to the embodied knowledge of a particular dance-making practice. Since the researcher’s dance-making practice already has deep synergies with her Authentic Movement practice, she was able to develop certain processual qualities of Authentic Movement into a methodology that speaks directly from the voice of the dance-maker and adequately captures the unique processual nature of the practice itself. Thus, the making of a solo dance work called perch and the development of the methodology and methods by which it is communicated in this thesis are two sides of the same process. In this way, this thesis seeks to fulfil the aspiration within artistic research to recognise ‘alternative ways of knowing’ and the ‘insider-experience’ of the artist (Nelson 2013), and provide an alternative to the majority of artistic research in dance, in which practice is interpreted through the lens of an extrinsic theory. The thesis references core debates and research imperatives within the field of artistic research, as well as contextualising the making of perch in relation to North American and European somatically-informed contemporary dance, the dance-historical context of Authentic Movement, and the work of other dance-makers who also draw upon Authentic Movement. This project offers several contributions to knowledge which will be of value to contemporary dancers and dance-makers, Authentic Movement practitioners and artist-researchers with an interest in embodied creative practice. First, it articulates the activity of forming movement material from the perspective of the dancer-maker. Second, it addresses the need for more research exploring the relationship between dance-making and Authentic Movement. Third, it presents the development of a methodology for dance-making that is based in dance/movement principles (the processual qualities of Authentic Movement). The final contribution is the detailed account of dance-making as an attentional, processual pursuit which takes place between the dance-maker and the dance that is being made.
... En 1980, le couple Halprin commence une série de six ateliers à Marin, à quelques kilomètres de chez eux, dont l'enjeu est d'explorer par l'expérience de la danse et de l'environnement des mythes et des rituels contemporains 4 . Dès les années 1960, les Halprin ont travaillé à concevoir un art participatif (Halprin L. & J. Burns 1963, Halprin L. 1969, inspirés par les enseignements du Bauhaus, la vie collective en kibboutz, la bohème californienne et les mouvements sociopolitiques des années 1950-1960. Lors d'ateliers de visualisation par le dessin proposés par Anna Halprin, le Mont Tamalpais apparut de nombreuses fois. ...
... The term 'scores' is used here to describe an instruction for action that can be performed by a participant, and is drawn from Lawrence and Anna Halprin's RSVP cycles methodology. 29 They asked passers-by to find and photograph different elements in the surrounding area and submit them to a growing archive of images. The lens of the camera acted as a frame that is placed over multivalent everyday situations in order to lend them heightened ...
Article
This article responds to the challenges facing creative practitioners whose work engages with aspects of ‘public’ provoked by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The temporary physical closures of established creative infrastructures such as galleries, museums and festivals have disrupted the traditional dynamics of production and reception. This presents both challenges and opportunities for artists and designers to develop new forms of creative engagement with public audiences and spaces. The confinement of people to a 5-kilometre radius during extended lockdowns in Melbourne, Australia in 2020 prompted a reflection on the opportunities of the ‘local’ as a particular context for creative practice. This restriction imposed a perimeter that brought people’s day- to-day lives into an enclosed loop and produced what could be thought of as a form of interior. In this period, ordinary domestic and local spaces — for example the home office or studio gained manifold functions for many creative practitioners, including as a space for self- initiated public presentations of their work. In several cases, windows, balconies, and doorways became thresholds for interaction with passers-by. This self-broadcasting situation provided an opportunity for practitioners to play an active role in cultivating new relations and forms of publicity from a localised setting. In this article, these shifts in practice are investigated through a critical reflection on a series of spatial interventions within a street-facing window of a studio space in Brunswick, Melbourne, an inner-city suburb where residential streets mix with spaces of industrial and creative production. The liminal space of the window became a way to speculate on the concept of thresholds between diverse conditions, including public and private, art and the everyday, urban and local, and interior and exterior. These investigations engaged with a ‘makeshift’ mode of practice, leading to the production of extra-ordinary interior conditions.
... Moreover, notations enable us to structurally create new relationships between different modes of expression. In this context, 'scores' are seen in the broadest sense, as symbolisations of processes which extend over time (Halprin 1970). The usefulness of various notation systems 5 and tools will be explored. ...
Chapter
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How can performing be transformed into cognition? Knowing in Performing describes dynamic processes of artistic knowledge production in music and the performing arts. Knowing refers to how processual, embodied, and tacit knowledge can be developed from performative practices in music, dance, theatre, and film. By exploring the field of artistic research as a constantly transforming space for participatory and experimental artistic practices, this anthology points the way forward for researchers, artists, and decision-makers inside and outside universities of the arts.
... Moreover, notations enable us to structurally create new relationships between different modes of expression. In this context, 'scores' are seen in the broadest sense, as symbolisations of processes which extend over time (Halprin 1970). The usefulness of various notation systems 5 and tools will be explored. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
How can performing be transformed into cognition? Knowing in Performing describes dynamic processes of artistic knowledge production in music and the performing arts. Knowing refers to how processual, embodied, and tacit knowledge can be developed from performative practices in music, dance, theatre, and film. By exploring the field of artistic research as a constantly transforming space for participatory and experimental artistic practices, this anthology points the way forward for researchers, artists, and decision-makers inside and outside universities of the arts.
... One of the most challenging representations in this proposed temporal domain is the score, introduced in landscape architecture by Lawrence Halprin (Halprin 1969). This revolutionary contribution was never fully appreciated. ...
Article
In this paper we discuss how participatory action research can create a unique learning experience, developing the boundary crossing competences that are crucial in contemporary complex and real contexts. We take our transdisciplinary master ‘Atelier’ for landscape architecture and planning students as an example to identify some key didactic principles of a cross-boundary learning environment.
... Moreover, notations enable us to structurally create new relationships between different modes of expression. In this context, 'scores' are seen in the broadest sense, as symbolisations of processes which extend over time (Halprin 1970). The usefulness of various notation systems 5 and tools will be explored. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
How can performing be transformed into cognition? Knowing in Performing describes dynamic processes of artistic knowledge production in music and the performing arts. Knowing refers to how processual, embodied, and tacit knowledge can be developed from performative practices in music, dance, theatre, and film. By exploring the field of artistic research as a constantly transforming space for participatory and experimental artistic practices, this anthology points the way forward for researchers, artists, and decision-makers inside and outside universities of the arts.
... Ella, en gran parte motivada por el poso que le habían dejado los maestros de la Bauhaus, empieza a investigar las relaciones entre cuerpo y espacio desde el ámbito coreográfico. Estos acercamientos tímidos, pero productivos, entre ambas disciplinas evolucionan hacia proyectos donde danza y arquitectura se fusionan más profundamente, entre los que destacan los Experiments in the Environment 17 y los RSVP Cycles 18 . ...
Article
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En 1953 la pareja formada por la bailarina de vanguardia Anna Halprin y el arquitecto paisajista Lawrence Halprin, construyen junto a su vivienda a las afueras de San Francisco una plataforma de madera para la práctica y la experimentación coreográfica. Se trata de uno de los primeros proyectos en la trayectoria de los Halprin, y en los ámbitos interdisciplinares en general, donde los campos de la danza y la arquitectura entran en una fuerte interconexión. En concreto, esta simbiosis cobra especial importancia desde el punto de vista del trabajo con el suelo y la gravedad. Este artículo aborda tres aspectos fundamentales de esta obra de dimensiones reducidas, pero de implicaciones máximas. Estos son: la condición colaborativa e interdisciplinar del proyecto, su construcción material y paisajística y, por último, su trascendencia en la historia de la danza contemporánea.
... One important concept in this design approach is that of genius loci: the tangible and intangible character of the place (Norberg-Schultz, 1980). Social-economic aspects and stakeholder involvement in spatial planning often play a central role as well (e.g., participatory design approaches) (Halprin, 1981) (Figure 9). ...
Article
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Research through design (RTD) is a fre-quently used concept in the daily practice of education and research in the field of landscape architecture. RTD as a concept usually refers to a research method in which spatial design plays the leading role. The underlying premise is that design is a form of research and involves a culture of thought. There is a dearth of literature ad-dressing the act of design as a research process in the field of landscape architecture. This article contributes to the discourse by addressing how spatial design can be applied as a research strategy. We define design as a form of research and identify how design relates to other more conventional definitions of research meth-ods. We elaborate on RTD as a concept and the types of knowledge that it generates. The article also addresses the design process and design methods in landscape architecture. Criteria for accepted, responsible research are translated into practical requirements that can guide RTD processes in academic and professional contexts. To continue developing landscape architecture as a de-sign discipline, it is important that the theoretical, meth-odological, and technical foundations of spatial design are clarified and strengthened. (PDF) Design as Research in Landscape Architecture. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/343003939_Design_as_Research_in_Landscape_Architecture [accessed Jul 19 2020].
... Evaluation of and reflection on models of participation has become a significant component of design research. In following previous models of evaluation, the field moves "up the ladder" established by Arnstein (1969) from manipulation, therapy and consultation toward citizen empowerment (Arnstein, 1969;Halprin, 1969) and transactive design (Hester, 2014). The results of this project demonstrate that the products of the social design process and participatory planning led to citizen empowerment in the creation of action steps, Outcomes of sustainable tourism planning priority setting in tourism-related project development and the adding of new capacities in seeking out a professional planner to continue growth in capacity. ...
Article
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Purpose This paper aims to describe the transdisciplinary, multiphase, mixed methods, generative design research, participatory planning and social design activities developed and implemented by the West Virginia University Rural Tourism Design Team and associated outcomes. Design/methodology/approach The multiphase methodology included quantitative and qualitative research in initial stages of the study (key informant interviews, resident attitudes toward tourism survey, visitor preferences survey, economic impact analysis) which informed social design activities at latter stages (asset mapping, landscape design/visualization of opportunities and sites targeted for development and cultural identity design) using generative design tools facilitating co-design with the communities and helping the destination take sequential steps toward achieving their goals and objectives. Findings Opportunities and challenges identified through multiple methods were triangulated and pointed to the same conclusions including the need for long term planning and managed growth; protecting community values; underutilized natural, cultural and historic assets; the opportunity to develop nature-based, cultural and historical attractions; and the need for a common vision and collective identity. Research limitations/implications This study makes a unique contribution to literature on sustainable tourism planning by incorporating social design activities to visualize findings of more traditional planning methods and provide tangible, visible outcomes of planning activities which can guide local stakeholders in rural destinations more directly to funding for planning recommendations and project implementation. Practical implications The transdisciplinary and social/generative/participatory approach provided a scaffolding of outputs to the community with citizen control and active involvement throughout the planning and design process. The incorporation of social design provided tangible outcomes including site designs and a cultural identity. Generative design research gives people a language with which they can imagine and express their ideas and dreams for future experiences. Originality/value This paper investigates the role of social design in a transdisciplinary, multiphase project to support sustainable tourism planning.
... Through observation, capturing, and reflection on movement, we hope to gain new insights or at the very least to broaden our knowledge of the latter. There exists a long history in human movement representation (Marey 1894;Muybridge 1955) as well as in movement notations (Eshkol and Wachmann 1958;Laban and Ullmann 2011;Brown 1975;Benesh and Benesh 1977;Halprin 1969), especially in the discipline of dance. Most of the movement notations were developed to make scores for choreographies, but also to archive, distribute, and analyze dance or body movements in general (Burrows 2000). ...
Chapter
- The research identifies a challenge to deepen our understanding of the concept of the embodied experience through practical experiments and aims to enrich our knowledge of spatial qualities. In the hypothesis put forward - drawn from philosopher and former dancer Maxime Sheets-Johnstone’s (2011) movement theory - we suggest visualizing, drawing, and reflecting on human movement is a possible strategy to collect new insights on the topic. The paper describes, reflects, and evaluates one specific case, in which there is examined how we can gain better insights into the matter from the perspective of performance arts.
... Many fields of course have their own master term for such collections: the 'playbook' in certain sports; cookbook; songbook; encyclopedia. The term 'score' as an organizing category is perhaps best known in connection with music, but in the hands of landscape architect Halprin (1970) extends to many other activities. Unsurprisingly perhaps, the area of language offers many organizing frames (and there's another metaphor) at different levels, including 'language' itself, library, vocabulary, dictionary, grammar, and alphabet. ...
Article
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Las “visiones de futuros sostenibles” se han propuesto como un componente clave del diseño para la transición, “un medio a través del cual los estilos de vida contemporáneos y las intervenciones de diseño pueden evaluarse y criticarse contra la visualización de un futuro deseado” (Irwin et al, 2015a, p. 8). Tales ambiciones son necesariamente de amplio alcance, y requieren unir líneas sobre el diseño y la especulación de diversas fuentes. Aquí buscamos aumentar el impulso explorando un conjunto de conceptos que se relacionan particularmente con este papel de visión en el diseño de transiciones. Sobre la base de perspectivas y proyectos de otros campos, presentamos elementos de un vocabulario visionario, que abarca diferentes escalas y grados de eliminación del presente, y la ubicación de estos términos en relación con los desafíos específicos y las oportunidades para el pensamiento y la práctica de la transición. // “Visions of sustainable futures” have been proposed as a key component of Transition Design, “a means through which contemporary lifestyles and design interventions can be assessed and critiqued against a desired future state” (Irwin et al, 2015a, p. 8). Such ambitions are necessarily wide-ranging, and call for drawing together strands on design and speculation from diverse sources. Here we seek to add to the momentum by exploring a set of concepts relating particularly to this role of vision in designing for transitions. Building on perspectives and projects from other fields, we present elements of a visionary vocabulary, covering different scales and degrees of remove from the present, and situating these terms in relation to specific challenges and opportunities for transition thinking and practice.
... He sometimes described notations as scores, which are "process oriented, rather than simply resultoriented," and are "symbolizations of processes which extend over time." 7 He had used these notational systems to "diagram documented and imagined movement through space over time in the landscape." 8 By extending the communication of design and space beyond traditional methods of representation, a new dialogue emerges that is both experimental and generative. ...
... Many fields of course have their own master term for such collections: the 'playbook' in certain sports; cookbook; songbook; encyclopedia. The term 'score' as an organising category is perhaps best known in connection with music, but in the hands of landscape architect Halprin (1970) extends to many other activities. Unsurprisingly perhaps, the area of language offers many organising frames (and there's another metaphor) at different levels, including 'language' itself, library, vocabulary, dictionary, grammar, and alphabet. ...
... Institutions responded to calls for participation by requiring public outreach, but state planners were often disingenuous in their solicitation of input (Arnstein 1969). New approaches from the 1960s to the 1990s, especially within landscape architecture, built up a body of participatory practices that are still relevant to guerrilla projects (Halprin 1970;Hester 1990;Linn 2007;Sanoff 2000). ...
Article
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Guerrilla urbanism has enjoyed widespread popularity over the past decade, provoking a reconsideration of the conventional roles of technicians, designers, and citizens and prompting a surge of creative tactics for improving cities. Nonetheless, some inquietude has accompanied the movement’s success—namely concerns about superficial citizen engagement, a focus on immediacy versus sustainability, and a disregard for expertise. While unsanctioned urban design has always existed in cities and is unlikely to disappear, the challenges that this movement faces could limit its contributions to local communities, planning institutions, and the design professions. This paper evaluates a case in Barcelona called Can Batlló in order to introduce the potential of “slowness” for sustaining guerrilla urbanism. In what began in 2009 as a guerrilla social movement and continues to thrive as an autonomous community center, this project has avoided the pitfalls of superficiality, immediacy, and amateurism by connecting with larger processes that are designed to last. Three themes are highlighted to elucidate these connections: autoconeixement (self-knowing), autogestió (self-management), and autoconstrucció (self-building). As the case study shows, tactical approaches to city-making that are deployed within a larger strategic frameworks allow time for meaningful engagement, deliberative processes, and the promotion of craft and expertise.
... Many fields of course have their own master term for such collections: the 'playbook' in certain sports; cookbook; songbook; encyclopedia. The term 'score' as an organising category is perhaps best known in connection with music, but in the hands of landscape architect Halprin (1970) extends to many other activities. Unsurprisingly perhaps, the area of language offers many organising frames (and there's another metaphor) at different levels, including 'language' itself, library, vocabulary, dictionary, grammar, and alphabet. ...
Conference Paper
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Visions of sustainable futures have been proposed as a key component of transition design, offering a way for today's situations and design proposals to be compared and critiqued in the light of desired future states. Such ambitions are necessarily wide-ranging, and call for drawing together strands on design and speculation from diverse sources. Here we seek to add to the momentum by exploring a set of concepts relating particularly to this role of vision in designing for transitions. Building on perspectives and projects from other fields, we present elements of a visionary vocabulary, situating these terms in relation to challenges and opportunities for transition thinking and practice in design research.
... De RSVP-cycle, een ontwerpmethode waar actoren een centrale rol spelen in een creatief proces. Bron: Halprin (1981) het verstandig verschillende visuele representatievormen te combineren. Het is goed om te werken met plattegronden, driedimensionale tekeningen, doorsneden en sfeerbeelden die voorzien zijn van een toelichting met trefwoorden. ...
Chapter
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Ontwerpend onderzoek is een veelgebruikt begrip in de dagelijkse praktijk van onderwijs en onderzoek in ruimtelijke planvorming. Meestal verwijst het begrip naar een onderzoeksmethode waarbij ruimtelijk ontwerp de hoofdrol speelt. Het uitgangspunt is dat het ontwerpen kan worden gezien als vorm van onderzoek of cultuur van denken. Dit hoofdstuk gaat in op de vraag hoe ontwerpen als een onderzoeksmethode kan worden toegepast. Ontwerpend onderzoek in ruimtelijke planvorming is gericht op het genereren van oplossingen voor stad en land. De onderzoeksvragen die je kunt beantwoorden hebben te maken met hoe het stedelijke of rurale landschap eruitziet, op welke manier je veranderingen in het landschap kunt vormgeven, hoe landschappelijke processen kunnen verlopen. En je kunt het ontwerpend onderzoek gebruiken om erachter te komen wat gebruikers en belanghebbenden van dit toekomstige landschap vinden. Juist door ideeën, programma’s, wensen een plek te geven in de buitenruimte kun je uitvinden wat de mogelijkheden, beperkingen en verder uit te zoeken vragen zijn. Tijdens het ontwerpproces zul je merken dat je bij elke lijn die je trekt en bij elke ruimtelijke keuze een beslissing neemt. Soms is het een aanname over de voorwaarden, soms een keuze over een alternatief, soms een aanname over hoe gebruikers en bewoners het zullen beleven en dan weer een afweging hoe het de ecologie of de milieukwaliteit zal beïnvloeden. Daarom is het van belang om de belangrijkste ontwerpbeslissingen ook te verwoorden. Dat kan in een aantekening bij of op de ontwerptekening of in een blog dat bij het ontwerp hoort. Dit hoofdstuk gaat in op hoe ontwerpen gebruikt kan worden als onderzoeksstrategie en wat de belangrijke voorwaarden daarvoor zijn. Strategie betekent hier goed doordacht te werk gaan om een doel te bereiken en om een vraag te beantwoorden. Dit hoofdstuk bestaat uit vijf delen. In paragraaf 14.1 beschrijven we ontwerpen als onderzoekende activiteit en hoe ontwerpen zich verhoudt tot andere onderzoeksmethoden. In paragraaf 14.2 wordt het begrip ontwerpend onderzoek uitgediept en de kennis die het oplevert. Daarna gaan we in op het ontwerpproces en ontwerpmethoden (paragraaf 14.3). Ook worden criteria voor geaccepteerd en verantwoord onderzoek vertaald naar praktische eisen waaraan ontwerpend onderzoek moet voldoen. Paragraaf 14.4 laat aan de hand van enkele voorbeelden zien wat ontwerpend onderzoek inhoudt en hoe aan de eisen van goed onderzoek kan worden voldaan. We sluiten het hoofdstuk af met enkele concluderende beschouwingen.
Thesis
Performance Architecture is a term that emerged from my creative practice to suggest that the architectural activities endeavored within it are influenced by concepts and histories from performance studies. This writing takes aspects of my artistic activities and recontextualizes them as academic research to develop concepts shareable across its fields of inquiry that enable new ways of evaluating it. Particular attention will be given to my performative renovations, in which domestic spaces are renovated by changing its actions rather than materials. In so doing, this thesis discovers the potential of my interdisciplinary practice to be the possibility of encountering unfamiliar subjective affects that emerge as subjects and spaces interact. Following arts-based, practice-led and practice-based research precedents, this thesis articulates a methodology for practicing architecture through performance. Judith Butler’s writing, suggesting that subjectivity is formed performatively by iteratively enacting social norms, is the philosophical point of departure of this new methodology. However, for the formation of subjectivity to become intelligible as an outcome of architectural practice this thesis qualifies, critiques, and problematizes Butler’s performative concepts by putting them in tension with the thinking of other theorists and selected projects from my artistic practice. Analyzing these works through both theory and critical self-reflection observes performative subject formation also occurs somatically. Acknowledgement of this addition is noted when term performance architecture is nuanced by the term performative space making as the thesis develops. Tracing the arc of this shift reveals how migrating attitudes and concepts acquired during my education and professional experience in architecture were detrimental to practicing architecture through performance. Using language developed by this thesis, hierarchical ways of working and assumptions about both the architect’s abilities and the client-participants’ needs are critiqued in comparison to collaborative approaches of theater. Refining performance architecture’s concepts also portray the profession’s object oriented metrics of success as a mainstay of architecture that has not been serving users of space as well as it might. Indeed, these ways of working are found to stymie the emergence of certain kinds of subjectivity that performance architecture as a methodology seeks to liberate and nurture. Further theorization of concepts from performance practices, such as the everyday, agency, renovation, and role-play, allows critical engagement with six performative renovations newly developed for this research. Scrutiny of these performative renovations discovers qualities of practicing architecture performatively and expands the discourse connecting performance and architecture. A key insight invigorating thoughts on future practice is that performance architecture operates emergently along non-linear routes around what this research calls unperformable acts. Additionally, significant revelations show that outcomes of this new practice are most compelling when power relations between architects and clients are equalized and that new subjectivities are encountered through a flow of attention between somatic and symbolic experiences.
A significant proportion of global carbon dioxide emissions are attributed to ocean-sailing ships and shipping emissions are predicted to double in less than 30 years. This paper investigates the benefit of using weather ship routing optimisation, assessing the ship emissions for minimum distance routes and optimised routes. The present contribution merges the estimation of shipping pollutants and their mitigation through weather routing optimisation; two lines of research widely analysed separately but seldom discussed together. A previously developed open software of weather ship routing is used to obtain the minimum cost (i.e. optimised route) in terms of sailing time, using high-resolution wave forecasting. The assessment of fuel consumption and ship emissions calculations were inspired by the STEAM2 bottom-up approach, in conjunction with the estimation of the power increase needed to overcome speed decrement due to waves. Several scenarios covering the Western Mediterranean Short Sea Shipping routes (from 24 to 600 nautical miles and using a real Ro-Pax vessel) are compared in terms of emissions between the minimum distance route and the optimum. The ship routing optimisation reveals a reduction up to 30% of ship emissions during severe storms on longer routes. Nevertheless, all the cases studied show emissions mitigation when ship routing optimisation is used. The expected increase of extreme weather events, in terms of frequency, intensity and duration due to climate change, suggests a gradual gain of implementing weather ship routing optimisation in all types of routes, regardless of the distance.
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Steyaert and Katz seek to reclaim, in a geographical sense, the space where entrepreneurship occurs. This framing opens the door to an intriguing dialog of possibilities where entrepreneurship is outlined and re-framed within three dimensions; geographical, discursive, and social. The geographical dimension reterritorialize entrepreneurship in a series of spatial categories that are independent yet nested. Accordingly, they place nations and regions on one hand while on the other one neighborhoods and circles are considered. The discursive dimension is a geopolitical framework that considers the multidimensionality of entrepreneurship rather than a sole economic narrative. As such, other discourses like the cultural, ecological, and civic ones are also reflected besides the economic one. The social dimension focuses on entrepreneurship as a social process in itself. Thus, it changes the focus from the exceptional individual into the everyday developments enacted by ordinary people orchestrating entrepreneurship as a local process.
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The lately published The City of Imagination by Valerio Morabito challenges the pictorial idea of landscape interpretation and explores the possibilities of storytelling to read and represent the landscape that focuses on the literary and communicative aptitudes of Landscape Architecture. The article reviews the book from the perspective of history, epistemology, method, and reception regarding its literary root, which is notably inspired by Italo Calvino. The review consists of four sections: First, word and image: the historical exemplars of landscape representation between pictorial and verbal tradition. Second, memory and foresight: the authenticity of travelogue and Morabito’s method of working with his travel memories. Third, truth and myth: how Morabito applies the cognitive imperfection in storytelling to his empirical approach that counterbalances the positivist reading of the landscape. And fourth, form and language: the tension between the formal autonomy and the bardic tradition in the visual language of Morabito. The article approaches and further opens the essential dialogues between the palpable existence and fictive landscape, the interpretation and consumption of the thick meanings in human inhabitation, and the cognitive antinomy and reconciliation of positivist and humanistic stances in the discipline.
Thesis
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in 2018 suggested that there are 25.4 million refugees worldwide (1.4 million refugees in Germany and 60,000 in Greece). But what exactly does the “refugee” mean? News media, state actors, and other bodies speak about refugees in ways that emphasize certain aspects of their experiences. What we do not often understand, is how those identified as refugees speak about themselves. In a partial attempt to explore these questions of information and identity, this thesis presents findings concerning its central question: How do self-identified refugee communities in Athens, Greece and Hamburg, Germany engage with information resources to navigate individual and community identity development during liminal phases of their refugee experiences? By adapting Srinivasan et al.’s (2007) Diasporic Information Environment Model (DIEM) to frame complex information environment questions in migration-related contexts, this thesis describes how each of reflexive ethnography, social network analysis, and community-based action and information services research can help us understand (1) how people define the liminality of refugee experiences, (2) which information resources individuals use to navigate identity and how, (3) the challenges individuals face in so doing, and (4) why the answers to these questions matter. This work makes theoretical updates to conceptions of liminality as an anthropological and sociological concept, identifies obstacles to using information resources to navigate the liminality of refugee experiences, and outlines concrete policy suggestions and directions for future research.
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Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, an experimental online course was offered by the Schools of Drama and Design at Carnegie Mellon University, aiming to "leverage interdisciplinary expertise to make live performance… born for social distancing". This is the syllabus for that experiment, geared towards maximising co-creation, productive surprise, and generative play, and annotated after the fact to capture the outcomes and learning it enabled. This piece appears in the the peer reviewed journal Well Played, Special Issue on Playable Theatre, edited by Celia Pearce and Nick Fortugno, available at https://press.etc.cmu.edu/index.php/product/well-played-vol-10-no-2/ It was originally published in an earlier form at https://medium.com/@futuryst/theatre-in-pandemic-an-experimental-syllabus-ac66885e886b
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This thesis, in the field of music composition and performance practice, presents the results of a practice-research project into performance validity and notational reliability in vigilant musical practice. From my initial inquiry into what constitutes a valid performance, three ground principles were observed: non-normative cognitive states (how the performer thinks); embodied multimodal imagery across a full effort scale (the images a performer draws with their presence); and inter-personal communication (the performer’s readiness to react to the audience’s presence) and the performance environment. These three interconnected skills form what I come to call vigilant performance practice. This thesis aims to define a conceptual framework for vigilant music practice, at the stages of composition, of rehearsal, and of performance. In support of vigilant practice, a set of developmental tools and activities were constructed that promote each of the three vigilance skills. These tools and activities are developed in practice in a sequence of sixty-four scores entitled Games for Musicians and Non-Musicians. This workbook promotes the development of vigilance skills in the context of improvised music performance in groups. Games for Musicians and Non-Musicians was rehearsed and performed publicly on several occasions. Reports of those events are presented here. Vigilant performance practice has the potential to be of use in music education and professional training, with different age groups (including children), as well as in other types of performance practice. It may be of use outside the performance environment altogether, in personal or community development.
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A lo largo de la segunda mitad del pasado siglo, las ciudades industriales fueron objeto de profundos procesos de regeneración y revitalización urbana, en un contexto de creciente globalización y fractura social. En los años sesenta, antes de que se manifestara la crisis estructural de la década posterior, el arquitecto y paisajista Lawrence Halprin, junto con la bailarina y coreógrafa contemporánea Anna Halprin, desarrollaron una singular metodología interdisciplinar de investigación, denominada RSVP Cycles, con la que trataban de dar respuesta a la progresiva desestructuración y pérdida de sentido de la experiencia del espacio urbano. El acrónimo RSVP Cycles alude a un procedimiento crítico de diseño de espacios urbanos basado en el estudio exhaustivo de los recursos presentes en el lugar, seguido de la propuesta de partituras semejantes a las notaciones coreográficas cuya evaluación desemboca en intervenciones y performances con las que se busca la sensibilización y re-significación de la experiencia urbana.
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This article argues that architecture makes possible a unique form of aesthetic experience, one involving what I will call, departing from a Kantian perspective, embodied free play. I argue that architecture's purpose is to encourage, cultivate, and enable human activities while also becoming crystallizations of those very activities. I will show that the living system of such interaction is called “place,” as I explore the role of artifacts, movement, activities, and the environment in place creation. I show that when the embodied activities and design of a place harmonize, a fullness of free play is made possible and daily living can involve aesthetic experience.
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Connecting landscape architecture and new media art, this video essay analyzes works by landscape architect Lawrence Halprin (1916-2009) and identifies contemporary media art projects implementing Halprin's strategies. Halprin's iconic landscapes including Freeway Park in Seattle, Ira Keller Fountain and Lovejoy Fountain in Portland, and Levi's Plaza in San Francisco are included along with works by curated artists, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Davide Quayola, Random International, Haubitz + Zoche, Nadine Schutz, and Isabelita Virtual. With the proliferation of video projection, screens, and outdoor installations in cities, there is much to learn from this revolutionary landscape architect. -- Video: Available on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eHA1xFjN85Y .
Article
This article stretches on cartographies and scores and their aesthetic, epistemological and experimental dimensions. Using american landscaper Lawrence Halprin 1960th work, this reflection investigates art, social science and urban planning. For the FDR Memorial project (Washington D.C) in 1975, Lawrence Halprin used cartography and score to visualize and enhance the sensible experience of the visitor in the future monument. The protocol of « maps-scores » (« cartes-partitions » in french) is thought as a navigation tool. It articulates descriptions of spatial experiments (« descriptive cartography ») and the possibility of experiences to come (prescriptive score); this tool refers to a process which traces the experience at the same time as it guides the exploration. The primary attention to in situ experience and his writing process invites to question interdisciplinarity approaches on landscape. Artistic point of view and geographical point of view are linked to question the porosity of the landscape as a living medium. With the walk as a common and shared condition of experience, with the « maps-scores » as a research tool, we aim to question the passing from the sensitive to the writing, from the living condition to what have been experienced, and therefore experiment this process which question the sensible dimension of architectural conception.
Chapter
In the 1960s, environmental designer, Lawrence Halprin, in collaboration with his wife Ann, choreographer and artistic director of the San Francisco Dance Workshop, engaged in an examination of group creative processes in search of a theory outlining their main features. He formalized his findings in the 1968 book, The RSVP Cycles: Creative Processes in the Human Environment describing a recursive schema of iteration and evaluation bearing striking resemblances to the conversational conception of second-order cybernetics. Devised Theatre is one of the fields that has been most directly influenced by, and most vividly reflects, the work of the Halprins and will serve as the “research site” for this chapter. Highlighting some prevalent features of contemporary Devised Theatre practice through examples drawn from some of the field’s most influential artists, our trip around the cycle will reveal the ways in which the RSVP Cycles reinforce, in a robustly enacted fashion, Ranulph Glanville’s cybernetic conception of design in which lack of control, trans-computable complexity, and under-specification of the problems investigated all become virtues that propel us on a conversational forward search in which we must “act in order to understand” while bound by a deep ethical commitment to the autonomy of others.
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This paper explores the representation of time within landscape architecture. While change is an everyday part of landscape, the lack of a theoretical framework or accepted best practice for the representation of time arguably affects landscape architecture’s position in today’s society, where flexibility and dynamics are key. The representation of time was explored in a ‘design experiment’ with landscape architecture students using the case of Højstrup Parken. Rather than producing one optimum proposal, the experiment revealed different ways of integrating time into traditional drawing types, while new drawing types allowed other sophisticated representations. Some are of relevance for competition entries, others for technical drawings or management prescriptions, and others for user involvement. We conclude that the introduction of temporal representations in addition to spatial representations in the taxonomical system for representation could enrich understanding of the landscape, assessment of existing landscape designs, and the creation of new designs.
Conference Paper
Abstract Changing Iranian lifestyle from living in houses with vast yards to cramped flats has had enormous effects on structure of cities and urban ecologies one of which is on quality and quantity of green spaces in private properties. Houses in Iran used to have big yards with big beds for various plants but these spaces in modern flats are no longer exists and yards in residential complexes in Iran are being turned into an empty space without any plants. This trend surely has a converging effect on ecology of cites. To have a better understanding of the problem, in this article a part of Malayer city was selected as a case study. Using questionnaires and observations the quality and quantity of green spaces in different properties were recorded and documented. The result showed the areas of plant beds in flats are smaller than that of houses. This changes are obvious more in the variety of species dominant in flats and houses.
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Modern architecture has tried to give shelter to human life, being the pillar where customs and habits rest and get freed. This attempt proposes a flexible space which is open to its surroundings in order to regain contact with the landscape, and thus turn it into a site. A place that aspires to dissolve the geometry of architecture and relate it to the ground, despite its patent transparency or modernity. Therefore, architects, in their search for order in chaos, make of their drawings a threshold between architecture and nature, a method for succeeding in this creation of sites. This essay will address the idea of the delimitation of the territory through the analysis of some drawings from architects and artists, where some reflections are made on the transformation of nature into landscape through construction. Thanks to these drawings, it will be possible to find a series of elements and relations that will determine the space in which the architecture is set, trying to conquer a poetic dimension that arises when the constructions unite the properties of the site and bring them closer to the man. In addition, this text will try to state the capability of the drawing to recreate those components that define a specific place, and also its competence to synthesize an idea or a project, focusing on everything that modern architecture has been able to transmit about the concept of the site itself.
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The following sections are included: Differentiating externally motivated application and internally motivated practice The pleasure of constructing the world Cybernetic machines for thinking and showing
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This ongoing doctoral project focuses on human movement in public space and how qualitative observation can lead to new insights into the architectural design process. With this study we endeavour to find a method to visualize human motion in relation to architecture so it can be communicated in an efficient manner. Moreover we explore how motion-oriented design strategies can be developed. Through a literature review, this paper will look to the significance of human movement within the field of architecture and especially within outdoor, public spaces. Movement is conceived as a basic element, which makes it possible to experience our build environment and thus forms a key element in relation between man and architecture. Furthermore we will look to a range of existing types of movement notation throughout history. This practice-based research project makes use of experiential learning methods. We will discuss a trajectory that was followed to set up some first spatial interventions and how these may lead to motion-orientated design strategies. Finally the outcome of these first test cases will be elaborated and evaluated leading us to new insights for further experiments.
Chapter
Design is a process of determining how to transform existing conditions into preferred ones. The designer—or design team—must determine needs, formulate a strategy to meet them, then select materials and compose them into patterns to achieve some desired objective, typically within the limits of available time and resources. In landscape architecture, the process of design is complicated by the need to coordinate a series of tasks to be performed by a number of people over an extended period of time. Landscape architects also contend with the variety of competing interests to be resolved by the participating parties, as well as the fact that many of the materials used in their designs have a life of their own. Given the complexity of the challenge, procedural theories have been developed to facilitate the process of design and improve the predictability of outcomes. The next four chapters address different aspects of procedural theory.
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Anna Halprin pioneered what became known as "postmodern dance," creating work that was key to unlocking the door to experimentation in theater, music, Happenings, and performance art. This first comprehensive biography examines Halprin's fascinating life in the context of American culture-in particular popular culture and the West Coast as a center of artistic experimentation from the Beats through the Hippies. Janice Ross chronicles Halprin's long, remarkable career, beginning with the dancer's grandparents-who escaped Eastern European pogroms and came to the United States at the turn of the last century-and ending with the present day, when Halprin continues to defy boundaries between artistic genres as well as between participants and observers. As she follows Halprin's development from youth into old age, Ross describes in engrossing detail the artist's roles as dancer, choreographer, performance theorist, community leader, cancer survivor, healer, wife, and mother. Halprin's friends and acquaintances include a number of artists who charted the course of postmodern performance. Among her students were Trisha Brown, Simone Forti, Yvonne Rainer, Meredith Monk, and Robert Morris. Ross brings to life the vital sense of experimentation during this period. She also illuminates the work of Anna Halprin's husband, the important landscape architect Lawrence Halprin, in the context of his wife's environmental dance work. Using Halprin's dance practices and works as her focus, Ross explores the effects of danced stories on the bodies who perform them. The result is an innovative consideration of how experience becomes performance as well as a masterful account of an extraordinary life.