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Filtered Molasses Concentrate from Sugar Cane: Natural Functional Ingredient Effective in Lowering the Glycaemic Index and Insulin Response of High Carbohydrate Foods

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An aqueous filtered molasses concentrate (FMC) sourced from sugar cane was used as a functional ingredient in a range of carbohydrate-containing foods to reduce glycaemic response. When compared to untreated controls, postprandial glucose responses in the test products were reduced 5–20 %, assessed by accredited glycaemic index (GI) testing. The reduction in glucose response in the test foods was dose-dependent and directly proportional to the ratio of FMC added to the amount of available carbohydrate in the test products. The insulin response to the foods was also reduced with FMC addition as compared to untreated controls. Inclusion of FMC in test foods did not replace any formulation ingredients; it was incorporated as an additional ingredient to existing formulations. Filtered molasses concentrate, made by a proprietary and patented process, contains many naturally occurring compounds. Some of the identified compounds are known to influence carbohydrate metabolism, and include phenolic compounds, minerals and organic acids. FMC, sourced from a by-product of sugar cane processing, shows potential as a natural functional ingredient capable of modifying carbohydrate metabolism and contributing to GI reduction of processed foods and beverages.
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Filtered Molasses Concentrate from Sugar Cane: Natural
Functional Ingredient Effective in Lowering the Glycaemic Index
and Insulin Response of High Carbohydrate Foods
Alison G. Wright &Timothy P. Ellis &Leodevico L. Ilag
Published online: 6 November 2014
#Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014
Abstract An aqueous filtered molasses concentrate (FMC)
sourced from sugar cane was used as a functional ingredient in
a range of carbohydrate-containing foods to reduce glycaemic
response. When compared to untreated controls, postprandial
glucose responses in the test products were reduced 520 %,
assessed by accredited glycaemic index (GI) testing. The
reduction in glucose response in the test foods was dose-
dependent and directly proportional to the ratio of FMC added
to the amount of available carbohydrate in the test products.
The insulin response to the foods was also reduced with FMC
addition as compared to untreated controls. Inclusion of FMC
in test foods did not replace any formulation ingredients; it
was incorporated as an additional ingredient to existing
Filtered molasses concentrate, made by a proprietary and
patented process, contains many naturally occurring com-
pounds. Some of the identified compounds are known to
influence carbohydrate metabolism, and include phenolic
compounds, minerals and organic acids. FMC, sourced from
a by-product of sugar cane processing, shows potential as a
natural functional ingredient capable of modifying carbohy-
drate metabolism and contributing to GI reduction of proc-
essed foods and beverages.
Keywords Filtered molasses .Glycaemic index .Reduced
glycaemicresponse .Reduced insulinresponse .Carbohydrate
CE Catechin equivalent (non-specific measure
of phenolic activity)
FMC Filtered molasses concentrate
GI Glycemic index (measurement of 2 h
postprandial glycemic response relative
to pure glucose)
II Insulinemic index or response (measurement
of 2 hour postprandial insulin response relative
to glucose)
ORAC Oxygen-radical absorbance capacity
(measure of antioxidant activity)
pmol/L Picomole per litre
The increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in devel-
oped and developing populations and projected rates of obe-
sity and diabetes are among the greatest health concerns in
many countries [1]. In addressing these challenges, there is a
growing interest in the demonstrated benefits of low
glycaemic index (GI) diets as effective tools in addressing
metabolic disorders and weight maintenance [2]. A meta-
analysis suggests the benefits of low GI diets on medium-
term glycaemic control among diabetic patients are compara-
ble to those of known pharmacological agents which target
hyperglycaemia [3].
Improved metabolic effects, including reduced glycemic
response, have been attributed to crude plant extracts contain-
ing many naturally occurring compounds. Hsieh et al. [4]
A. G. Wright (*):T. P. Elli s :L. L. Ilag
Horizon Science Pty. Ltd, 6/84-90 Lakewood Blvd.Braeside
Melbourne VIC 3195, Australia
T. P. Elli s
L. L. Ilag
L. L. Ilag
Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of
Melbourne, 30 Flemington Rd, Parkville VIC 3010, Australia
Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2014) 69:310316
DOI 10.1007/s11130-014-0446-5
found aqueous extracts of Ajuga species containing a range of
phenolic compounds were effective in reducing glucose uptake
in vitro and in vivo. Thompson et al [5] showed a correlation
between increasing levels of polyphenols and reduction in GI
for both healthy and diabetic individuals. Multiple modes of
action for polyphenols moderating carbohydrate metabolism
have been demonstrated in vitro, acting by inhibition of glyco-
lytic enzymes as well as inhibiting or delaying intestinal glu-
cose uptake [5,6].
The minerals magnesium, calcium and potassium,
abundant in molasses, may play a beneficial role in
carbohydrate metabolism. Magnesium deficiency has
been correlated with insulin resistance [7], calcium sup-
plementation has been shown to increase insulin sensi-
tivity [8] and low potassium levels have been associated
with increased risk of developing diabetes, particularly
in young African-Americans [9] and in otherwise
healthy Japanese men [10]. Glucose and insulin re-
sponses can also be reduced in the presence of organic
acids [11].
Molasses from sugar cane provides a ready source of
plant derived compounds, including polyphenols, min-
erals and organic acids. This work describes the use of
a filtered molasses concentrate (FMC) from sugar cane
as a functional ingredient, observed to reduce both
glycaemic and insulin responses in food and beverage
matrices, assessed by accredited GI testing. Potential
mechanisms for the observed effects are discussed.
This study demonstrates the potential for FMC in the
development of low GI foods and beverages as part of a
low GI diet, contributing natural bioactive compounds
and minerals.
Materials and Methods
Filtered Molasses Concentrate Syrup
Filtered molasses concentrate (FMC) used in this study is a
crude extract made by a proprietary and patented aqueous
filtration process from unrefined sugar cane mill molasses.
Composition of FMC is provided in Table 1. Phenolic com-
pounds present in FMC were analysed by LC-MS. The syrup
was fractionated using ion exclusion chromatography.
Fractions were diluted in mobile phase A (10 % aqueous
acetonitrile with 0.1 % formic acid) and separated using a
C18 column with a 105 minute gradient program. Known
standards and literature data were used for preliminary iden-
tification. Compounds were confirmed by the
pseudomolecular peak and characteristic fragmentation pat-
terns detected under at least two different conditions: positive
and negative ionisation or different in-source fragmentation
voltages. [Gunter Kuhnle, personal communication]
Glycaemic Index, Insulin Index Testing
Control and test foods for GI and Insulin Index (II) testing
were prepared, with FMC added extrinsically to test foods as a
functional ingredient, with no replacement of other ingredi-
ents other thanminor formula modifications to compensate for
sugar and moisture contributed by FMC (Table 2). FMC was
added with liquid ingredients ensuring even
GI testing measures the glycaemic response to a standard
quantity of carbohydrate, in this case 50 g. GI testing for this
study was conducted by the accredited GI testing facility,
Tabl e 1 Composition and nutrition information for filtered molasses concentrate (FMC)
Component Average values Minerals Average values
Moisture, g/100 g 38.7 Sodium, mg/100 g 47
Energy, (calc) kJ/100 g 942 Calcium, mg/100 g 535
Protein(N x 6.25, g/100 g) 2.1 Iron, mg/100 g 7.3
Fat, g/100 g 0.9 Magnesium, mg/100 g 218
Sucrose, g/100 g 29.0 Manganese, mg/100 g 4.4
Glucose, g/100 g 5.4 Potassium, mg/100 g 2,350
Fructose, g/100 g 6.0 Zinc, mg/100 g 0.34
Total sugars, g/100 g 41.0 Phytochemicals
Insoluble dietary fiber 0 Polyphenols
,mgCE/100g Minimum1,150
Soluble dietary fiber, g/100 g 0.9 Flavonoids
, mg/100 g 398
Total carbohydrate (by difference, g/100 g) 53.0 ORAC Value
Vit E equivalent (total), μmol/100 g 19,970
Ash, g/100 g 6.1
Organic acids, mg/100 g 110
Reference methods for determination
Polyphenols: [26];
Flavonoids: [27];
ORAC value: [28]. (CE= catechin equivalents, calc = calculated, N=nitrogen, Vi t =vitamin)
Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2014) 69:310316 311
Sydney Universitys Glycaemic Index Research Service,
Sydney, NSW, Australia according to the international stan-
dard GI test protocol (ISO/FDIS 26642:2010 Food products
Determination of the glycaemic index (GI) and recommenda-
tion for food classification).
The GI and II values of test foods were determined using
healthy, non-smoking human volunteer subjects from the staff
and student population of the University of Sydney. Test and
control foods were tested by 10 subjects in a cross-over
design. Age of the subjects ranged from 18 to 39 (average
26). Subject BMI ranged from 18.2 to 24.8 (average of 22.7).
This study was conducted in accordance with the ethical
principles that have their origins in the Declaration of
Helsinki. The experimental procedures used in this study were
in accordance with international standards for conducting
ethical research with humans and were approved by the
Human Research Ethics Committee of Sydney University
(approval number 08-2009/12029, valid August 13, 2009
August 31, 2012). This study was performed between March
2011 and March 2012.
Statistical Analysis
A sample size calculation was done to detect a reduction in GI
of 10 points from a starting GI of 65 (a mid-range value) and a
standard deviation of 10 points. The two-sided alpha was set
at 0.05 and the power at 80 %. The sample size requirement
was a minimum of eight subjects; each individual test was
conducted with a sample size of 10 subjects to allow for the
possibility of outliers.
All individual subject GI and II values for each tested food
were pooled (n=50) and analysed by a paired t-test comparing
responses of product treated with FMC to untreated control
products. Glucose and insulin responses were analysed by
repeated measures ANOVAwith time (7 points) and treatment
(2 points; FMC presence or absence in product) as within-
subject factors. The primary endpoints were differences in
both glucose and insulin responses.Secondary endpoints were
the time points at which glucose and insulin responses
changed if the primary endpoint was significant.
Significance was set at p<0.05. The wheat flake cereal tests
were excluded from this analysis due to the absence of insulin
response data.
Results and Discussion
Filtered Molasses Concentrate Reduces Glycaemic
and Insulin Responses
Responses for GI and II to products tested are provided in
Tab le 3. Reductions in GI and II due to FMC addition are
calculated where possible.
Tab l e 2 Foods tested for GI, II: Ingredients and approximate composition of test products shows the variety in type and amount of carbohydrate, and macronutrient composition
Food tested Ingredients
Test products also contain filtered
molasses concentrate, FMC
Proximate composition, g/100 g g CHO/ 100 g Portion tested g FMC added per
100 g
g FMC/ 100 g
Protein Fat Moisture Dietary fiber (est)
White bread Flour, water, butter, salt, yeast, sugar 8 3 37 10.7 C : 41.3 T: 41.4 121.1 120.8 2.50 g 6.04
Glucose syrup Glucose syrup 0.1 0 18.5 0 C: 81.4 T: 79.2 61.4 63.1 3.5 g 4.42
Fruit flavoured beverage Water, sugar, citric acid, flavour,
colour, sodium benzoate,
sodium metabisulphite
0 0 93.5 0 C : 6.5 T: 6.1 769.2 819.7 0.22 g/ 100 ml 3.6
Energy bar Soy protein isolate, peanut butter,
corn syrup, inulin, fructose, sugar,
rice starch, wheat germ, salt, high-fructose
corn syrup, whey, vitamins, flavours,
preservatives. Coating: sugar, palm kernel oil,
cocoa, whey, nonfat milk, soy lecithin,
flavours and preservatives.
11 13 19 5.3 C: 51.7 T : 49.9 96.7 100.2 2.0 4.01
HFCS Fructose 55 %, glucose 40 % 0 0 22 0 C: 77.5 T: 80.3 64.5 62.3 3.3 g 4.16
Wheat flake cereal bricks Wholegrain wheat, raw sugar, salt, barley
malt extract, minerals (zinc gluconate, iron)
vitamins (niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, folate)
12 1.5 8 11.5 C : 67 T1: 67.1 T2: 66.7 74.6 74.5 74.9 1.4 g 2.0 g 2.08 2.98
C=control product, T=test sample containing filtered molasses concentrate, ND=not determined, CHO= carbohydrate, HFCS = high fructose corn syrup, (est) =estimated
312 Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2014) 69:310316
The addition of FMC to the food products tested resulted in
a universal reduction in GI. In comparing the reduction in GI
in each individual study across the range of products tested,
the percentage reduction due to addition of FMC was found to
be dose-dependent, and directly proportional to the amount of
FMC added as a percentage of available carbohydrate
content of the food (Fig. 1). The high correlation (R
0.922) of FMC to available carbohydrate on glucose response
indicates FMC may have a direct effect on carbohydrate
metabolism, despite containing approximately 40 % sugar.
The observed doseresponse correlation indicates FMC is
effective in reducing the 2-h glucose response to a range of
carbohydrate types. The correlation is consistent across test
products including bread, with starch based carbohydrates,
and glucose syrup containing simple carbohydrates, irrespec-
tive of fiber content.
The pooled individual subject data for all samples tested
was also analysed for glucose and insulin responses over the
2-h test period (Fig. 2). Average responses for both glucose
(GI) and insulin (II) of the treated products were found to be
significantly lower (p<0.001) than their untreated controls
using a paired Studentst-test (Figs. 2a, c).
Analysis of all 2-hour glucose response curves (Fig. 2b)
over the test period using repeated measures ANOVA shows a
significant treatment effect (p<0.005) and time by treatment
effect (p<0.01). Glucose responses were significantly reduced
at both 30 and 45 minutes (both p< 0.01) for the treated
products compared to the untreated controls.
Analysis of the combined insulin response curve (Fig. 2d)
using repeated measures ANOVA shows a significant treat-
ment effect (p<0.005). Insulin responses were significantly
lower at 60 min (p<0.05) for the treated product compared to
control, and were of borderline significance at the 30 min time
point (p=0.05).
In most test products the observed reductions in glucose
and insulin responses were comparable. In the case of the
energy bar product, however, no reduction in insulin response
was observed. The energy bar contained ingredients contrib-
uting varying types of carbohydrate, protein and fat. The
insulin response values of the energy bar were 36 and 58 %
higher than the corresponding GI value. Elevated insulin
responses may have been due to soy and milk proteins [12]
and/or fat content [13], all of which have been shown to be
Potential Bioactive Components of Filtered Molasses
While the active compounds in FMC are currently
unknown, possible candidates are one or more
Tabl e 3 Addition of FMC reduces glucose, insulin responses. Addition of FMC reduces glycaemic index (GI) in all food matrices tested. Degree of GI
reduction is dependent on ratio of FMC to available carbohydrate (see Fig. 1)
Food tested GI± SEM % GI reduction II± SEM % II reduction
White bread C: 74± 3
T: 59±6
20 %
C: 78±3
T: 67±6
14 %
Glucose syrup C: 107 ±7
T: 93±9
13 %
C: 104 ±4
T: 87±7
17 %
Fruit flavoured beverage C: 67±5
T: 58±3
13 %
C: 66±4
T: 56±3
13 %
Energy bar C: 45± 6
T: 40±4
11 %
C: 61±3
T: 63±3
- 3.3 %
HFCS C: 56 ±5
T: 50±3
10 %
C: 65±5
T: 58±3
11 %
Wheat flake cereal bricks C: 76 ±5
C=control product, T=test sample containing filtered molasses concentrate, SEM=standard error of the mean, ND=not determined
Fig. 1 Correlation of GI reduction to FMC addition, relative to
carbohydrate content. As the amount of FMC added to the food
matrix is increased (relative to carbohydrate content of the food), the
glycemic index (GI) value is reduced (correlation R
=0.922). Foods
tested include: 1 - white bread, 2 glucose syrup, 3 fruit flavoured
beverage, 4 high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), 5 energy bar, 6
wheat flake cereal bricks (1.4 g/100 g), 7 wheat flake cereal bricks
(2 g/100 g)
Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2014) 69:310316 313
phenolic compounds, minerals, organic acids, or a
synergistic activity between several components. As
the specific mechanism for bioactivity is as yet un-
known, the bioactive levels of any particular com-
pound, or combinations of compounds required, has
yet to be determined.
The phenolic compound profile of FMC is complex, and
current understanding of the bioactivity of the identified peaks
is limited. Preliminary characterisation by LC-MS has identi-
fied phenolic compounds with known activities related to
carbohydrate metabolism; details of these are provided in
Tab le 4. Schaftoside, a prevalent phenolic compound in sugar
Fig. 2 Comparison of combined glucose and insulin responses to prod-
ucts tested at all addition levels; control product (no treatment) to product
containing FMC. (a). Combined individual glycaemic index (GI) values
(n=50) of white bread, fruit-flavoured beverage, energy bar, high fructose
corn syrup (HFCS) and glucose syrup, control vs. FMC-fortified (b).
Average combined individual 2-h glucose response change from baseline.
Open circles, control products; closed squares, FMC-fortified products
(c). Combined individual insulin index (II) values (n=50) of white bread,
fruit-flavoured beverage, energy bar, HFCS andglucose syrup, control vs.
FMC-fortified (d). Average combined individual 2-h insulin response
change from baseline. Open circles, control products; closed squares,
FMC-fortified products. Bars show standard error. *p<0.05, **p<0.01,
Tabl e 4 Phenolic compounds found in FMC with known roles in carbohydrate metabolism. Schaftoside, a prevalent phenolic compound in sugar cane
molasses was used as a quantification standard, but has no identified role in CHO metabolism
Phenolic compounds
found in FMC using
Bioactivity References
Inhibition of
Inhibition of glucose
intestinal absorption
Increased insulin
secretion/ content
Induction of
Schaftoside 1,900
Orientin 340 x [29]
Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside 330 x [6]
Ferulic acid 250 x x x x x [6]
Malvidin-glycoside 180 x [30]
Diosmin 140 x [31]
Epigallocatechin 100 x x [6]
p-coumaric acid 90 x [6]
Vitexin 40 x [32]
314 Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2014) 69:310316
cane molasses, was used as a quantitative standard.
Schaftoside has no reported activity on carbohydrate metabo-
lism. The non-specific polyphenol content in FMC (1,150 mg
CE/100 g) compares favourably to other rich sources of poly-
phenols such as coloured rice brans, raspberries, raisins and
black pepper; the ORAC value of FMC is also comparable to
other rich sources of antioxidants [1416].
Some of the minerals found in FMC known to influence
carbohydrate metabolism are present in quantities sufficient to
contribute to dietary intake. For comparison, a 20 g quantity of
FMC contains 10.7, 10.9 and 13.4 % of the U.S. FDA daily value
for adults, for calcium, magnesium and potassium, respectively.
The inclusion of organic acids in foods results in reductions
in postprandial responses for both glucose and insulin. While
the amount of organic acid present in FMC is significantly
lower than those studied by Liljeberg et al. [11]complemen-
tary effects on carbohydrate metabolism are possible.
Possible Effect of FMC on Glucose, Insulin Responses
Although the mechanism for the observed effects of FMC is
not yet fully understood, the observed linear relationship
between GI reduction and amount of FMC added is indepen-
dent of carbohydrate type or presence of fiber (Fig. 1, Table 1).
This suggests FMC may not be inhibiting enzymatic carbo-
hydrate digestion. In support of this theory, an in vitro model
study performed essentially as described by Munro et al [17]
demonstrated FMC does not inhibit pancreatic digestion of
pre-gelatinised starch under simulated gastrointestinal condi-
tions, in a 50:50 ratio of starch to FMC. In addition, FMC did
not inhibit in vitro activity of α-glucosidase or salivary or
pancreatic α-amylase (unpublished results).
As digestive enzymes do not appear to be inhibited by
FMC, and FMC addition does not increase insulin responses,
the indicated action of FMC may be in inhibiting intestinal
glucose transport and absorption. If this is the case, it could
explain the similar magnitude of reduction in bothglucose and
insulin responses observed (excepting the energy bar). This
theory is supported by research demonstrating aqueous ex-
tracts containing polyphenols and flavonoids reduce sugar
absorption [18], or slow intestinal glucose transport by com-
petition with receptor sites [19,20]. As phenolic compounds
have been shown to have varied effects on carbohydrate
metabolism (Table 4), other mechanisms are also possible.
It remains possible that FMC has a role to play in directly
moderating insulin response. Various flavonoids and phenolic
acids have been shown in in vitro studies to increase the
uptake of glucose into peripheral tissue cells [21]. They have
been shown to enhance or bypass insulin signalling via nu-
merous mechanisms: activation of insulin-dependent and-in-
dependent signalling pathways such as AMP kinase [21,22]
and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase [23], mimicking insulin and
activating the insulin receptor [24,25]. Any or all of these
mechanisms may result in decreased levels of insulin secreted
from the pancreas.
The minerals calcium, magnesium and potassium found in
FMC are known to affect insulin response, by increasing sen-
sitivity with calcium supplementation in T2D and hypertensive
patients [8], while long term observational studies of chronic
deficiencies of magnesium [7] and low levels of dietary potas-
sium are correlated to insulin resistance and increased incidence
of developing diabetes [9,10]. Although the acute effects are
unknown, the presence of these minerals, alone or in combina-
tion with plant derived phenolic compounds in FMC, may be
partly responsible for the observed reduction in glucose and/or
insulin response in most of the food matrices tested.
Organic acids are also known to have acute effects on
postprandial glucose and insulin responses [11]. Levels of
organic acids present in FMC at typical application rates in
foods are approximately 200-fold lower than that studied by
Liljebergetal[11] with similar reductions in glycemic re-
sponse, suggesting any potential effect of organic acids would
likely be synergistic in nature.
The observations in this study demonstrate that ingestion of
FMC lowers postprandial glucose and insulin response to car-
bohydrate in acute studies. It is possible that chronic consump-
tion of FMC may place less metabolic stress on pancreatic β-
cells, and slow progression to insulin resistance. The effects of
FMC on insulin response and insulin sensitivity require further
exploration; additional studies will determine which of the com-
ponents of FMC are responsible for the observed bioactivity,
investigate chronic effects, and identify mechanisms of action.
Filtered molasses concentrate sourced from sugar cane mo-
lasses provides a natural, abundant and inexpensive source of
valuable plant-derived phenolic compounds, minerals and
organic acids. The work described here demonstrates FMC
is effective in reducing glucose responses in a dose-dependent
manner in acute human studies, as well as reducing insulin
responses to carbohydrate. The work shows the potential for
FMC as a natural functional ingredient for use in reducing
glycaemic index and decreasing insulin response, as well as
increasing the antioxidant potential and mineral content of
carbohydrate-containing foods and beverages.
Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Fiona Atkinson of
the Sydney University Glycaemic Index Research Service for extensive
GI testing, analysis and reporting; Ria Setyabudi (formerly Horizon
Science) for sample preparation and analysis, Gunter Kuhnle of the
University of Reading for polyphenol determination, and Plant and Food
Research New Zealand for in vitro digestive enzyme studies.
Conflict of Interest The authors declare they have no conflict of
Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2014) 69:310316 315
Study subjects The authors declare this research study involved human
subjects. This study was conducted in accordance with the ethical prin-
ciples that have their origins in the Declaration of Helsinki. The experi-
mental procedures used in this study were in accordance with interna-
tional standards for conducting ethical research with humans and were
approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of Sydney
University (approval number 08-2009/12029, valid August 13, 2009
August 31, 2012). This study was performed between March 2011 and
March 2012.
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... Identification and characterization of antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial properties, and health benefits Asikin et al. (2013), Chen et al. (2015), Deseo et al. (2020), Guan et al. (2014), Guimaraes et al. (2007), Kaushik et al. (2018), Valli et al. (2012), Wright et al. (2014) Culture medium Assessment of molasses as culture medium for filamentous fungi Bento et al. (2020) Beta-carotene production Rhodotorula glutinis mutant producing beta-carotene production in sugarcane molasses Bhosale and Gadre (2001) Bioethanol/biofuel production Optimization of ethanol production and production of biofuel from Pongamia pinnata. Bioethanol production by column reactor of immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 and thermophilic anaerobic structured-bed reactors. ...
... Phenolic compounds present in molasses exhibit in vitro anticancer properties (Chen et al. 2015;Deseo et al. 2020). Anti-glycemic and additional health benefits from molasses have been described (Jamir et al. 2021;Wright et al. 2014;Yu et al. 2017). In addition to antioxidative and anticancer properties, polyphenols are used as a source for microbes to aid in bioremediation (Ikegami et al. 2020). ...
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Around the world, growing energy consumption from rapid urbanization and industrialization together with the overwhelming reliance on fossil fuels is affecting the integrity of both natural and human systems. Additionally, rising oil and gas prices and potential future shortages lead to concerns about the security of the energy supply needed to sustain our economic growth. This has resulted in an increased awareness for environmental sustainability in all industrial sectors. In the agricultural sector, sugar crops processing for the production of sugar generates a wide variety of by-products. Their reuse represents a prime opportunity for value capture and for the sugar processing industry to be in the forefront of sustainability, while possibly realizing additional profits. Sugar crops such as sugarcane and sugar beets are versatile in that they include a rich sugar fraction (sucrose, syrups) in addition to fiber (cellulose), fodder (green and brown leaves and tops), fuel and chemicals (bagasse, molasses), and fertilizer (press mud). This is the first of two papers where production of several by-products is detailed together with their specific physicochemical properties and the ways in which they can be utilized beneficially and sustainably. In the second paper, state of the art value-added conversion technologies for these by-products are described in detail.
... SCM extract can reduce hazardous compound formation during meat processing (Cheng et al. 2021). It also has potentials as a natural functional ingredient capable of modifying carbohydrate metabolism and contributing to glycaemic index reduction of processed foods and beverages (Wright et al. 2014). Moreover, SCM can also be used in the production of ...
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The worldwide expansion in energy and resource use has resulted in a number of unsustainable innovations, necessitating the development of resource sustainability and a reduction in energy usage. Valorization of industrial waste is centred on reducing the amount of pollutants in the environment as well as increasing the revenue generated by industries. Sugarcane processing generates large amount of by-products, namely cane trash, bagasse, molasses and press mud which can be valorized into various value-added products. In this paper, the authors reviewed the variety of applications of sugar industry by-products that has been physically and chemically transformed. It also observed that the technology for producing power from the by-products has advanced, while the manufacture of value-added chemicals has not. The key technological challenges in this area are downstream separation and purification. The difficulties in putting these waste valorization methods in place are also discussed. The amount of investigation and implementation of various solutions varies a lot. In order to translate research findings into commercial products, both business participation and government encouragement are essential. Economic and technological constraints must be recognized for effective commercialization. Some interesting areas were also highlighted which can become the basis for further investigations and could act as guidance for further research in this domain.
... Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is known to be a rich source of polyphenols and has been shown to have a number of biological effects. Preparations of the liquid extracts of sugarcane have been shown to be both antimicrobial [20] and antioxidant [21], as well as being able to modulate insulin responses to food intake [22,23]. Sugarcane is an abundant crop, with high value as both a source of nutrition and as an economic vehicle in countries around the world. ...
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As inflammatory lifestyle factors become more prevalent and as the population ages, the management of inflammation will become increasingly relevant. Plant polyphenols are powerful antioxidants that are known to have beneficial effects in a number of diseases with an inflammatory or oxidative component, such as malignancy, cardiovascular disease and arthritis. Polyphenol-rich sugarcane extract (PRSE) is a novel preparation with high concentrations of polyphenolic antioxidants, with some evidence to show benefits in health, but there is limited research investigating its effects on immunomodulation. This study determined the effects of PRSE on human monocyte cells in vitro. We show that PRSE has an immunomodulatory effect in U937 human monocyte cells, altering the expression of cellular surface markers, with an increased expression of CD16 and CD11b, as well as small changes in CD40, CD80, CD80, CD206 and MHCI. It also modulates the profile of secreted cytokines, increasing IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-4 and IL-10. These changes are consistent with the advanced differentiation of the monocyte, as well as the switch from the M1 to M2 phenotype in macrophages. We also demonstrate that this effect is likely to be independent of the NF-κB signalling pathway, suggesting that other mechanisms drive this effect. PRSE exerts an immunomodulatory effect on U937 monocytes in vitro, potentially facilitating the conversion from inflammation to healing. Future studies should identify specific mechanisms underlying the changes and evaluate their effectiveness in animal models of disease.
... It has been widely advertised for its therapeutic properties believed to be a result of its rich mineral content (Wang et al., 2011).It is considered to be generally regarded as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and a rich source of phenolic compounds (Guimarãeset al., 2007). Moreover, it could be used as a good dietary supplement in place of refined sugar (Jain and Venkatasubramanian, 2017).The minerals; magnesium, calcium and potassium, abundant in molasses, may play a beneficial role in carbohydrate metabolism (Wright et al., 2014).Different minerals such as selenium, iron, magnesium, zinc, potassium and bulk of the vitamin B complex also constitute to the make-up of molasses, which may be effective in reducing the risk to different forms of cancers (Hannah et al., 2011). Molasses may be used as a supplement in the human diet to treat numerous diseases such as anemia, constipation, varicose veins, nerve damage, eczema, high blood pressure, dermatitis, anemia, colds, coughs, ear aches, arthritis, ulcers, hair damage, colitis, bladder problems and many other health problems (Rahiman and Pool, 2010). ...
Conference Paper
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Skim milk drink was prepared by adding varying concentrations of sugar cane molasses at ratio (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2%) to liquid skim milk then stored at 6±2°C up to 12 days. Results showed that, the sugar cane molasses was rich in K, Mn, Fe and Cu, TS, sugar, TN, ash contents and low in pH values. Sugar cane molasses skim milk drink had an increase in TS, acidity, TN, ash, carbohydrates and density in contrast to the pH values with increasing of molasses concentrations during storage periods up to 12 days. Molasses skim milk drink had higher values of K, Ca, Mn, Na, P, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn contents than that control. Microbiologically, there was increase in total viable bacterial count with increasing of molasses concentrations during storage periods in all treatments. Mo ulds and yeasts were not found in all treatments up to 8 days during storage period, but appeared after 12 days in the samples containing 1.5 and 2% molasses. Additionally, the coliform bacteria not found in all treatments. Organolepticaly, the T4 with 2% molasses stored at 8 days had superior scores, while, T3 with 1.5% molasses stored at 12 days had the lowest scores.
... Sugar cane is of great economic importance for food production and processing, including that of food preservation, ethanol and sugar production including syrup, juices and molasses [19]. PRSE, a natural plant extract of sugar cane and a by-product of sugar processing, is high in polyphenols and in general provides health benefits in reducing obesity, aiding in diabetes and controlling blood glucose levels [22] and decreasing the glycemic index of high carbohydrate foods [23]. However, the anti-microbial properties of PRSE on common pathogenic bacteria affecting humans have not been reported. ...
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Plants that are primarily used as a food source commonly have undervalued biological properties beyond the basic supply of nutrients. One important example of this are the antimicrobial properties of plants. Inclusion of natural and food grade antimicrobial ingredients in recipes to prevent food spoilage and disease transmission, or in cosmetic products to prevent transient and pathogenic bacteria would have worldwide public health implications. A patented natural polyphenol rich sugar cane extract (PRSE), is marketed as a high anti-oxidant and polyphenol ingredient, but its anti-microbial activity has not been reported previously. We determined the anti-bacterial properties of PRSE on common human pathogens relating to a range of diseases including food poisoning, tooth decay, acne and severe skin infections using disc/well diffusion experiments. Our findings indicate that PRSE is an efficient antimicrobial, which could be included at differing dosages to target a range of food borne and environmental pathogens.
... A metabolic study in rats found that molasses lowered the peak and global responses of glucose, and improved insulin, amylin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide after oral ingestion (St-Pierre et al., 2014). In a human study, it was found to reduce plasma glucose and insulin responses to carbohydrate (Wright, Ellis, & Ilag, 2014). Recent preclinical studies on a polyphenol rich sugarcane extract showed therapeutic potential to regulate carbohydrate metabolism and protect against metabolic disorders such as type-2 diabetes by upregulation of insulin production in dysfunctional pancreatic cells and modulate glucose and fructose transport across epithelial membranes in Caco-2 cells (Ji, Yang, Flavel, Shields, & Kitchen, 2019). ...
The antioxidant activity of sugarcane molasses ethanol extract (ME) and its fraction (ME-RBF) was evaluated using ABTS, ORAC 6.0 and CAA assays and ME-RBF demonstrated 26-fold, 12-fold and 2-fold higher values, respectively than ME. Likewise, total polyphenol and flavonoid concentration in ME-RBF are more than 10-fold higher than ME, that suggested antioxidant activity is correlated with polyphenol composition. Quantitative analysis of 13 polyphenols (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, sinapic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, homoorientin, orientin, vitexin, swertisin, diosmin, apigenin, tricin and diosmetin) was carried out by LCMS. MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of seven apigenin-C-glycosides, three methoxyluteolin-C-glycosides and three tricin-O-glycosides some of which have not been reported in sugarcane before to the best of our knowledge. The results demonstrated that sugarcane molasses can be used as potential source of polyphenols that can be beneficial to health.
... Furthermore, the more upstream in the pathway the target is the better. Most targets of current drugs Furthermore, from a clinical nutrition standpoint, these polyphenols can lower the glycemic index of carbohydrate-rich foods [10,11]. ...
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Advances in medical science have led to the cure and prevention of major diseases leading to longer lifespans. However, increasing lifespan has presented new medical challenges such as the rise of chronic and age-related illnesses. Chronic diseases are often associated with perturbations of multiple disease pathways and may require simultaneous modulation of multiple targets. Thus, the current paradigm of drug discovery and development based on a specific, single disease target may need to be complemented with a holistic systems-based approach. Although botanicals have historically been a source of new drugs, botanical extracts are not widely accepted in Western medicine. A relatively new regulatory approach with botanical extracts as a new class of drugs may pave the way for a new paradigm in discovering and developing therapies for chronic diseases.
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The rise in population is driving up the global food demand, which, in turn, influences the processing of foods that leads to the ample generation of waste material throughout the world. Molasses is one of the wastes generated from the sugarcane processing industry by repeated crystallization during sugar preparation. The yield varies from 2.2 to –3.7% per tons of sugarcane. Due to its composition and economic importance, it is the major choice (as a carbon source) for food, feed and fermentation industries in the fructification of ethyl alcohol, liquor (rum), dry yeast, acetone, butanol, certain organic acids, etc. However, the on-going scenario of global research, the largest quantity of molasses is being utilized for the manufacture of ethanol. Traditionally, this is used for the manufacture of hukas, tobacco and liquors. However, due to its improper management, such as storage, packaging and transportation, the entire production of molasses is not being commercially utilized. It possesses numerous health benefits, such as antioxidant, anti-obese, anti-cancerous, antimicrobial, anti-anaemic, improves bone and hair health, used for the treatment of skin and anaemia. The present review is aimed to enlighten the composition, types of molasses, its respective utilization (traditional/conventional), health benefits and regulations.
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Plant polyphenols have an array of health benefits primarily thought to be related to their high content of anti-oxidants. These are commonly undervalued and knowledge of their biological properties have grown exponentially in the last decade. Polyphenol-rich sugarcane extract (PRSE), a natural extract from sugar cane, is marketed as high in anti-oxidants and polyphenols, but its anti-cancer activity has not been reported previously. We show that, PRSE exerts anti-cancer properties on a range of cancer cells including human (LIM2045) and mouse (MC38, CT26) colon cancer cells lines; human lung cancer (A549), human ovarian cancer (SKOV-3), pro-monocytic human leukemia (U937) and to mouse melanoma (B16) cell lines; whereas no effects were noted on human breast (ZR-75-1) and human colon (HT29) cancer cell lines, as well as to human normal colon epithelial cell line (T4056). Anti-proliferative effects were shown to be mediated via alteration in cytokines, VEGF-1 and NF-κB expression.
Non-centrifugal sugar (NCS) has several traditional names, such as brown sugar (Europe & North America), Gula Melaka (Malaysia), Jaggery and Gur (India), Kokuto (Japan), Panela (Colombia) and Muscovado (Philippines). It is obtained by boiling down the sugarcane juice until its water content evaporates. NCS has various benefits for our health as it is anti-diabetic, anti-cariogenic, is an antioxidant and has radical scavenging activity due to a presence of vitamins, minerals, phenolic acids and flavonoid components as well as total antioxidant capacity. This review provides a general overview of the nutritional composition and health outcomes of NCS compared to refined sugar based on literature published in scientific journals. The NCS can be considered as a nutraceutical and functional food. However, more scientific research will be needed to confirm the outcomes and increase awareness, which could then encourage more usage of this product in sugar-based food
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The Ajuga species with abundant flavonoids, terpenoids and other active compounds might be a potential remedies for diabetes. In this study, we used five common Ajuga species in Taiwan, including A. decumbens, A. nipponensis, A. pygmaea, A. taiwanensis and A. dictyocarpa, to determine the hypoglycaemic effects of the extracts in vitro and in vivo. Amongst the five Ajuga species, A. nipponensis contained the highest content of flavonoids (7.76 ± 0.21 mg/g) and ecdysterone (0.785 ± 0.031 mg/g). In addition, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) produced better yield than supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Furthermore, A. nipponensis has the best effect in α-glucosidase inhibition (28.62 ± 1.56%) and glucose uptake (54.15 ± 2.56%). Subsequent STZ (streptozotocin)-induced diabetic mice administration of A. nipponesis extracts (200 mg/kg BW) moderately decreased postprandial blood glucose levels in. Thus, A. nipponensis extracts may be a potential remedy for diabetes in the future.
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The antioxidant capacities of 15 commercial raspberry varieties grown in North China were evaluated and their anthocyanin profiles determined by LC–ESI-MS. Total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total anthocyanin content (TAC) and antioxidant capacities (AOC) of the 15 raspberries were measured, respectively and the results showed that the TPC, TFC and TAC contents of raspberries correlated well with their antioxidant capacities. Raspberries with higher contents of phytochemicals showed higher antioxidant capacity. The results indicated that the 15 raspberry varieties may be divided into three groups according to their anthocyanin component analysis. The first group was made up of Triple Crown, Shawnee, and Navaho varieties with identical anthocyanin profiles and dark red color. The second group included Canby, Bristol and Mac black varieties, which possessed higher TAC/TPC ratio and contribute more to antioxidant capacity and the rest of the varieties were in the third group with lower antioxidant capacities. The higher phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities of raspberry varieties in the second group indicated that their consumption would be more beneficial to health.
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Polyphenols are a major class of bioactive phytochemicals whose consumption may play a role in the prevention of a number of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes and cancers. Phenol-Explorer, launched in 2009, is the only freely available web-based database on the content of polyphenols in food and their in vivo metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Here we report the third release of the database (Phenol-Explorer 3.0), which adds data on the effects of food processing on polyphenol contents in foods. Data on >100 foods, covering 161 polyphenols or groups of polyphenols before and after processing, were collected from 129 peer-reviewed publications and entered into new tables linked to the existing relational design. The effect of processing on polyphenol content is expressed in the form of retention factor coefficients, or the proportion of a given polyphenol retained after processing, adjusted for change in water content. The result is the first database on the effects of food processing on polyphenol content and, following the model initially defined for Phenol-Explorer, all data may be traced back to original sources. The new update will allow polyphenol scientists to more accurately estimate polyphenol exposure from dietary surveys. Database URL:
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Evidence has suggested that low serum potassium concentrations decrease insulin secretion, leading to glucose intolerance, and that hypokalaemia induced by diuretics increases the risk for diabetes in hypertensive individuals. However, no prospective study has investigated the association between serum potassium and the development of type 2 diabetes in a healthy cohort comprised of Asian individuals not being administered antihypertensive medications. This study aimed to investigate whether low serum potassium is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in apparently healthy Japanese men. We followed 4,409 Japanese men with no history of diabetes, use of antihypertensives, renal dysfunction or liver dysfunction (mean ± SD age, 48.4 ± 8.4 years). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate HRs for incident diabetes (fasting plasma glucose level ≥ 7.0 mmol/l, HbA(1c) ≥ 6.5% or self-reported) including serum potassium concentration as either a categorical or a continuous variable. During a 5 year follow-up, 250 individuals developed type 2 diabetes. The lowest tertile of serum potassium (2.8-3.9 mmol/l) was independently associated with the development of diabetes after adjustment for known predictors (HR 1.57 [95% CI, 1.15-2.15]) compared with the highest tertile (4.2-5.4 mmol/l). Every 0.5 mmol/l lower increment in the baseline serum potassium level was associated with a 45% (12-87%) increased risk of diabetes. Mild to moderately low serum potassium levels, within the normal range and without frank hypokalaemia, could be predictive of type 2 diabetes in apparently healthy Japanese men.
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Vaccinium arctostaphylos is a traditional medicinal plant in Iran used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In our search for antidiabetic compounds from natural sources, we found that the extract obtained from V. arctostaphylos berries showed an inhibitory effect on pancreatic alpha-amylase in vitro [IC50 = 1.91 (1.89-1.94) mg/mL]. The activity-guided purification of the extract led to the isolation of malvidin-3-O-beta-glucoside as an a-amylase inhibitor. The compound demonstrated a dose-dependent enzyme inihibitory activity [IC50 = 0.329 (0.316-0.342) mM].
The leaves of Ficus deltoidea are used as a traditional medicine by diabetes patients in Malaysia. The objective of the study is to identify and evaluate bioactive constituents with in vivo α-glucosidase inhibition. The partitioned extracts, subfractions and pure bioactive constituents were subjected to α-glucosidase inhibition assay. The identified bioactive constituents were administered orally to sucrose loaded normoglycemic mice and induced diabetic rats. The postprandial blood glucose levels were monitored at 30 min interval. Acute toxicity was evaluated in both normoglycemic mice and induced diabetic rats. Bioactivity guided fractionation led to the isolation of both vitexin (1) and isovitexin (2). Oral administration of 1mg/kg of either vitexin (1) or isovitexin (2) significantly (p<0.05) reduced the postprandial blood glucose level in sucrose loaded normoglycemic mice at 30 min. The percentage of postprandial blood glucose reduction was highest in sucrose loaded induced diabetic rats administered orally with 200mg/kg of vitexin (1) or 100mg/kg of isovitexin (2). Both vitexin (1) and isovitexin (2) did not exert any signs of toxicity at the highest dose of 2g/kg administered orally to normoglycemic mice and induced diabetic rats. Both the C-glycosyl bioflavonoids, namely, vitexin (1) and isovitexin (2) exhibited in vivo α-glucosidase inhibition.
Polyphenolic phytochemical extractions of six cultivars of plums (Beltsville Elite B70197, Cacak Best, French Damson, Long John, Stanley, Yugoslavian Elite T101) and Gala apples were performed using 80% aqueous methanol with ultrasound assistance and extracts were analyzed for total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity. The total phenolic contents of various cultivars of plums were in a range of 174 to 375 mg/100 g, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE), on a fresh weight basis. Total flavonoid concentrations ranged from 118 to 237 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g fresh weight. The concentrations of total phenolics and flavonoids in Gala apples were 118±1.4 mg GAE and 62.0±6.9 mg CE per 100 g fresh sample weight, respectively. The stable radical chromogen, ABTS•−, commonly employed for the antioxidant activity measurement, was used to evaluate antioxidant capacity of plums and apples. The total antioxidant capacities, expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), of fresh plums ranged from 266 to 559 mg/100 g. The order of total antioxidant capacity among different plum cultivars was as follows: Beltsville Elite B70197>Cacak Best⩾French Damson>Yugoslavian Elite T101>Long John>Stanley. The total antioxidant capacity of fresh Gala apple was 205±5.6 mg VCEAC/100 g. There was a good correlation between total phenolics or flavonoids contents and VCEAC at the high level of P<0.001. Dietary polyphenolics from plums may supply substantial antioxidants, which may provide health-promoting advantages to the consumer.
Serum potassium has been found to be a significant predictor of diabetes risk, but the effect of dietary potassium on diabetes risk is not clear. We sought to determine if dietary potassium is associated with risk of incident type 2 diabetes in young adults. We used data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Potassium intake was measured by (1) an average of three 24 h urinary potassium collections at the 5-year study visit, and (2) the CARDIA dietary assessment instrument at baseline. Incident type 2 diabetes cases were ascertained on the basis of use of diabetes medication and laboratory measurements. Analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders including intake of fruit and vegetables and other dietary factors. Of 1,066 participants with urinary potassium measurements, 99 (9.3%) developed diabetes over 15 years of follow-up. In multivariate models, adults in the lowest urinary potassium quintile were more than twice as likely to develop diabetes as their counterparts in the highest quintile (HR 2.45; 95% CI 1.08, 5.59). Of 4,754 participants with dietary history measurements, 373 (7.8%) developed diabetes over 20 years of follow-up. In multivariate models, African-Americans had a significantly increased risk of diabetes with lower potassium intake, which was not found in whites. Low dietary potassium is associated with increased risk of incident diabetes in African-Americans. Randomised clinical trials are needed to determine if potassium supplementation, from either dietary or pharmacological sources, could reduce the risk of diabetes, particularly in higher-risk populations.
Rice bran, a byproduct of the rice milling process, contains most of the phytochemicals. This study aimed at determining the concentrations of lipophilic, solvent-extractable (free), and cell wall-bound (bound) phytochemicals and their antioxidant capacities from brans of white, light brown, brown, purple, and red colors, and broccoli and blueberry for comparison. The concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants of vitamin E (tocopherol and tocotrienols) and γ-oryzanols were 319.67 to 443.73 and 3861.93 to 5911.12 μg/g bran dry weight (DW), respectively, and were not associated with bran color. The total phenolic, total flavonoid, and antioxidant capacities of ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, and iron-chelating in the free fraction were correlated with the intensity of bran color, while variations of these in the bound fraction were less than those in the free fraction among brans. Compounds in the bound fraction had higher antioxidant capacity of ORAC than DPPH, relative to those in the free fraction. The bound fraction of light-color brans contributed as much to its total ORAC as the free fraction. Total proanthocyanidin concentration was the highest in red rice bran, while total anthocyanin was highest in purple brans. The predominant anthocyanin was cyanidin-3-glucoside. Red and purple brans had several fold higher total phenolics and flavonoids as well as ORAC and DPPH, from both free and bound fractions, than freeze-dried blueberry and broccoli. These results indicate that rice brans are natural sources of hydrophilic and lipophilic phytochemicals for use in quality control of various food systems as well as for nutraceutical and functional food application.