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Filtered Molasses Concentrate from Sugar Cane: Natural Functional Ingredient Effective in Lowering the Glycaemic Index and Insulin Response of High Carbohydrate Foods

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An aqueous filtered molasses concentrate (FMC) sourced from sugar cane was used as a functional ingredient in a range of carbohydrate-containing foods to reduce glycaemic response. When compared to untreated controls, postprandial glucose responses in the test products were reduced 5–20 %, assessed by accredited glycaemic index (GI) testing. The reduction in glucose response in the test foods was dose-dependent and directly proportional to the ratio of FMC added to the amount of available carbohydrate in the test products. The insulin response to the foods was also reduced with FMC addition as compared to untreated controls. Inclusion of FMC in test foods did not replace any formulation ingredients; it was incorporated as an additional ingredient to existing formulations. Filtered molasses concentrate, made by a proprietary and patented process, contains many naturally occurring compounds. Some of the identified compounds are known to influence carbohydrate metabolism, and include phenolic compounds, minerals and organic acids. FMC, sourced from a by-product of sugar cane processing, shows potential as a natural functional ingredient capable of modifying carbohydrate metabolism and contributing to GI reduction of processed foods and beverages.
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ORIGINAL PAPER
Filtered Molasses Concentrate from Sugar Cane: Natural
Functional Ingredient Effective in Lowering the Glycaemic Index
and Insulin Response of High Carbohydrate Foods
Alison G. Wright &Timothy P. Ellis &Leodevico L. Ilag
Published online: 6 November 2014
#Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014
Abstract An aqueous filtered molasses concentrate (FMC)
sourced from sugar cane was used as a functional ingredient in
a range of carbohydrate-containing foods to reduce glycaemic
response. When compared to untreated controls, postprandial
glucose responses in the test products were reduced 520 %,
assessed by accredited glycaemic index (GI) testing. The
reduction in glucose response in the test foods was dose-
dependent and directly proportional to the ratio of FMC added
to the amount of available carbohydrate in the test products.
The insulin response to the foods was also reduced with FMC
addition as compared to untreated controls. Inclusion of FMC
in test foods did not replace any formulation ingredients; it
was incorporated as an additional ingredient to existing
formulations.
Filtered molasses concentrate, made by a proprietary and
patented process, contains many naturally occurring com-
pounds. Some of the identified compounds are known to
influence carbohydrate metabolism, and include phenolic
compounds, minerals and organic acids. FMC, sourced from
a by-product of sugar cane processing, shows potential as a
natural functional ingredient capable of modifying carbohy-
drate metabolism and contributing to GI reduction of proc-
essed foods and beverages.
Keywords Filtered molasses .Glycaemic index .Reduced
glycaemicresponse .Reduced insulinresponse .Carbohydrate
metabolism
Abbreviations
CE Catechin equivalent (non-specific measure
of phenolic activity)
FMC Filtered molasses concentrate
GI Glycemic index (measurement of 2 h
postprandial glycemic response relative
to pure glucose)
II Insulinemic index or response (measurement
of 2 hour postprandial insulin response relative
to glucose)
ORAC Oxygen-radical absorbance capacity
(measure of antioxidant activity)
pmol/L Picomole per litre
Introduction
The increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in devel-
oped and developing populations and projected rates of obe-
sity and diabetes are among the greatest health concerns in
many countries [1]. In addressing these challenges, there is a
growing interest in the demonstrated benefits of low
glycaemic index (GI) diets as effective tools in addressing
metabolic disorders and weight maintenance [2]. A meta-
analysis suggests the benefits of low GI diets on medium-
term glycaemic control among diabetic patients are compara-
ble to those of known pharmacological agents which target
hyperglycaemia [3].
Improved metabolic effects, including reduced glycemic
response, have been attributed to crude plant extracts contain-
ing many naturally occurring compounds. Hsieh et al. [4]
A. G. Wright (*):T. P. Elli s :L. L. Ilag
Horizon Science Pty. Ltd, 6/84-90 Lakewood Blvd.Braeside
Melbourne VIC 3195, Australia
e-mail: alison@horizonscience.com
T. P. Elli s
e-mail: tim.ellis@horizonscience.com
L. L. Ilag
e-mail: vic@horizonscience.com
L. L. Ilag
Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of
Melbourne, 30 Flemington Rd, Parkville VIC 3010, Australia
Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2014) 69:310316
DOI 10.1007/s11130-014-0446-5
found aqueous extracts of Ajuga species containing a range of
phenolic compounds were effective in reducing glucose uptake
in vitro and in vivo. Thompson et al [5] showed a correlation
between increasing levels of polyphenols and reduction in GI
for both healthy and diabetic individuals. Multiple modes of
action for polyphenols moderating carbohydrate metabolism
have been demonstrated in vitro, acting by inhibition of glyco-
lytic enzymes as well as inhibiting or delaying intestinal glu-
cose uptake [5,6].
The minerals magnesium, calcium and potassium,
abundant in molasses, may play a beneficial role in
carbohydrate metabolism. Magnesium deficiency has
been correlated with insulin resistance [7], calcium sup-
plementation has been shown to increase insulin sensi-
tivity [8] and low potassium levels have been associated
with increased risk of developing diabetes, particularly
in young African-Americans [9] and in otherwise
healthy Japanese men [10]. Glucose and insulin re-
sponses can also be reduced in the presence of organic
acids [11].
Molasses from sugar cane provides a ready source of
plant derived compounds, including polyphenols, min-
erals and organic acids. This work describes the use of
a filtered molasses concentrate (FMC) from sugar cane
as a functional ingredient, observed to reduce both
glycaemic and insulin responses in food and beverage
matrices, assessed by accredited GI testing. Potential
mechanisms for the observed effects are discussed.
This study demonstrates the potential for FMC in the
development of low GI foods and beverages as part of a
low GI diet, contributing natural bioactive compounds
and minerals.
Materials and Methods
Filtered Molasses Concentrate Syrup
Filtered molasses concentrate (FMC) used in this study is a
crude extract made by a proprietary and patented aqueous
filtration process from unrefined sugar cane mill molasses.
Composition of FMC is provided in Table 1. Phenolic com-
pounds present in FMC were analysed by LC-MS. The syrup
was fractionated using ion exclusion chromatography.
Fractions were diluted in mobile phase A (10 % aqueous
acetonitrile with 0.1 % formic acid) and separated using a
C18 column with a 105 minute gradient program. Known
standards and literature data were used for preliminary iden-
tification. Compounds were confirmed by the
pseudomolecular peak and characteristic fragmentation pat-
terns detected under at least two different conditions: positive
and negative ionisation or different in-source fragmentation
voltages. [Gunter Kuhnle, personal communication]
Glycaemic Index, Insulin Index Testing
Control and test foods for GI and Insulin Index (II) testing
were prepared, with FMC added extrinsically to test foods as a
functional ingredient, with no replacement of other ingredi-
ents other thanminor formula modifications to compensate for
sugar and moisture contributed by FMC (Table 2). FMC was
added with liquid ingredients ensuring even
distribution.tgroup1
GI testing measures the glycaemic response to a standard
quantity of carbohydrate, in this case 50 g. GI testing for this
study was conducted by the accredited GI testing facility,
Tabl e 1 Composition and nutrition information for filtered molasses concentrate (FMC)
Component Average values Minerals Average values
Moisture, g/100 g 38.7 Sodium, mg/100 g 47
Energy, (calc) kJ/100 g 942 Calcium, mg/100 g 535
Protein(N x 6.25, g/100 g) 2.1 Iron, mg/100 g 7.3
Fat, g/100 g 0.9 Magnesium, mg/100 g 218
Sucrose, g/100 g 29.0 Manganese, mg/100 g 4.4
Glucose, g/100 g 5.4 Potassium, mg/100 g 2,350
Fructose, g/100 g 6.0 Zinc, mg/100 g 0.34
Total sugars, g/100 g 41.0 Phytochemicals
Insoluble dietary fiber 0 Polyphenols
a
,mgCE/100g Minimum1,150
Soluble dietary fiber, g/100 g 0.9 Flavonoids
b
, mg/100 g 398
Total carbohydrate (by difference, g/100 g) 53.0 ORAC Value
c
Vit E equivalent (total), μmol/100 g 19,970
Ash, g/100 g 6.1
Organic acids, mg/100 g 110
Reference methods for determination
a
Polyphenols: [26];
b
Flavonoids: [27];
c
ORAC value: [28]. (CE= catechin equivalents, calc = calculated, N=nitrogen, Vi t =vitamin)
Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2014) 69:310316 311
Sydney Universitys Glycaemic Index Research Service,
Sydney, NSW, Australia according to the international stan-
dard GI test protocol (ISO/FDIS 26642:2010 Food products
Determination of the glycaemic index (GI) and recommenda-
tion for food classification).
The GI and II values of test foods were determined using
healthy, non-smoking human volunteer subjects from the staff
and student population of the University of Sydney. Test and
control foods were tested by 10 subjects in a cross-over
design. Age of the subjects ranged from 18 to 39 (average
26). Subject BMI ranged from 18.2 to 24.8 (average of 22.7).
This study was conducted in accordance with the ethical
principles that have their origins in the Declaration of
Helsinki. The experimental procedures used in this study were
in accordance with international standards for conducting
ethical research with humans and were approved by the
Human Research Ethics Committee of Sydney University
(approval number 08-2009/12029, valid August 13, 2009
August 31, 2012). This study was performed between March
2011 and March 2012.
Statistical Analysis
A sample size calculation was done to detect a reduction in GI
of 10 points from a starting GI of 65 (a mid-range value) and a
standard deviation of 10 points. The two-sided alpha was set
at 0.05 and the power at 80 %. The sample size requirement
was a minimum of eight subjects; each individual test was
conducted with a sample size of 10 subjects to allow for the
possibility of outliers.
All individual subject GI and II values for each tested food
were pooled (n=50) and analysed by a paired t-test comparing
responses of product treated with FMC to untreated control
products. Glucose and insulin responses were analysed by
repeated measures ANOVAwith time (7 points) and treatment
(2 points; FMC presence or absence in product) as within-
subject factors. The primary endpoints were differences in
both glucose and insulin responses.Secondary endpoints were
the time points at which glucose and insulin responses
changed if the primary endpoint was significant.
Significance was set at p<0.05. The wheat flake cereal tests
were excluded from this analysis due to the absence of insulin
response data.
Results and Discussion
Filtered Molasses Concentrate Reduces Glycaemic
and Insulin Responses
Responses for GI and II to products tested are provided in
Tab le 3. Reductions in GI and II due to FMC addition are
calculated where possible.
Tab l e 2 Foods tested for GI, II: Ingredients and approximate composition of test products shows the variety in type and amount of carbohydrate, and macronutrient composition
Food tested Ingredients
Test products also contain filtered
molasses concentrate, FMC
Proximate composition, g/100 g g CHO/ 100 g Portion tested g FMC added per
100 g
g FMC/ 100 g
CHO
Protein Fat Moisture Dietary fiber (est)
White bread Flour, water, butter, salt, yeast, sugar 8 3 37 10.7 C : 41.3 T: 41.4 121.1 120.8 2.50 g 6.04
Glucose syrup Glucose syrup 0.1 0 18.5 0 C: 81.4 T: 79.2 61.4 63.1 3.5 g 4.42
Fruit flavoured beverage Water, sugar, citric acid, flavour,
colour, sodium benzoate,
sodium metabisulphite
0 0 93.5 0 C : 6.5 T: 6.1 769.2 819.7 0.22 g/ 100 ml 3.6
Energy bar Soy protein isolate, peanut butter,
corn syrup, inulin, fructose, sugar,
rice starch, wheat germ, salt, high-fructose
corn syrup, whey, vitamins, flavours,
preservatives. Coating: sugar, palm kernel oil,
cocoa, whey, nonfat milk, soy lecithin,
flavours and preservatives.
11 13 19 5.3 C: 51.7 T : 49.9 96.7 100.2 2.0 4.01
HFCS Fructose 55 %, glucose 40 % 0 0 22 0 C: 77.5 T: 80.3 64.5 62.3 3.3 g 4.16
Wheat flake cereal bricks Wholegrain wheat, raw sugar, salt, barley
malt extract, minerals (zinc gluconate, iron)
vitamins (niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, folate)
12 1.5 8 11.5 C : 67 T1: 67.1 T2: 66.7 74.6 74.5 74.9 1.4 g 2.0 g 2.08 2.98
C=control product, T=test sample containing filtered molasses concentrate, ND=not determined, CHO= carbohydrate, HFCS = high fructose corn syrup, (est) =estimated
312 Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2014) 69:310316
The addition of FMC to the food products tested resulted in
a universal reduction in GI. In comparing the reduction in GI
in each individual study across the range of products tested,
the percentage reduction due to addition of FMC was found to
be dose-dependent, and directly proportional to the amount of
FMC added as a percentage of available carbohydrate
content of the food (Fig. 1). The high correlation (R
2
=
0.922) of FMC to available carbohydrate on glucose response
indicates FMC may have a direct effect on carbohydrate
metabolism, despite containing approximately 40 % sugar.
The observed doseresponse correlation indicates FMC is
effective in reducing the 2-h glucose response to a range of
carbohydrate types. The correlation is consistent across test
products including bread, with starch based carbohydrates,
and glucose syrup containing simple carbohydrates, irrespec-
tive of fiber content.
The pooled individual subject data for all samples tested
was also analysed for glucose and insulin responses over the
2-h test period (Fig. 2). Average responses for both glucose
(GI) and insulin (II) of the treated products were found to be
significantly lower (p<0.001) than their untreated controls
using a paired Studentst-test (Figs. 2a, c).
Analysis of all 2-hour glucose response curves (Fig. 2b)
over the test period using repeated measures ANOVA shows a
significant treatment effect (p<0.005) and time by treatment
effect (p<0.01). Glucose responses were significantly reduced
at both 30 and 45 minutes (both p< 0.01) for the treated
products compared to the untreated controls.
Analysis of the combined insulin response curve (Fig. 2d)
using repeated measures ANOVA shows a significant treat-
ment effect (p<0.005). Insulin responses were significantly
lower at 60 min (p<0.05) for the treated product compared to
control, and were of borderline significance at the 30 min time
point (p=0.05).
In most test products the observed reductions in glucose
and insulin responses were comparable. In the case of the
energy bar product, however, no reduction in insulin response
was observed. The energy bar contained ingredients contrib-
uting varying types of carbohydrate, protein and fat. The
insulin response values of the energy bar were 36 and 58 %
higher than the corresponding GI value. Elevated insulin
responses may have been due to soy and milk proteins [12]
and/or fat content [13], all of which have been shown to be
insulinogenic.
Potential Bioactive Components of Filtered Molasses
Concentrate
While the active compounds in FMC are currently
unknown, possible candidates are one or more
Tabl e 3 Addition of FMC reduces glucose, insulin responses. Addition of FMC reduces glycaemic index (GI) in all food matrices tested. Degree of GI
reduction is dependent on ratio of FMC to available carbohydrate (see Fig. 1)
Food tested GI± SEM % GI reduction II± SEM % II reduction
White bread C: 74± 3
T: 59±6
-
20 %
C: 78±3
T: 67±6
-
14 %
Glucose syrup C: 107 ±7
T: 93±9
-
13 %
C: 104 ±4
T: 87±7
-
17 %
Fruit flavoured beverage C: 67±5
T: 58±3
-
13 %
C: 66±4
T: 56±3
-
13 %
Energy bar C: 45± 6
T: 40±4
-
11 %
C: 61±3
T: 63±3
-
- 3.3 %
HFCS C: 56 ±5
T: 50±3
-
10 %
C: 65±5
T: 58±3
-
11 %
Wheat flake cereal bricks C: 76 ±5
T1:72±5
T2:70±4
-
5%
8%
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
C=control product, T=test sample containing filtered molasses concentrate, SEM=standard error of the mean, ND=not determined
Fig. 1 Correlation of GI reduction to FMC addition, relative to
carbohydrate content. As the amount of FMC added to the food
matrix is increased (relative to carbohydrate content of the food), the
glycemic index (GI) value is reduced (correlation R
2
=0.922). Foods
tested include: 1 - white bread, 2 glucose syrup, 3 fruit flavoured
beverage, 4 high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), 5 energy bar, 6
wheat flake cereal bricks (1.4 g/100 g), 7 wheat flake cereal bricks
(2 g/100 g)
Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2014) 69:310316 313
phenolic compounds, minerals, organic acids, or a
synergistic activity between several components. As
the specific mechanism for bioactivity is as yet un-
known, the bioactive levels of any particular com-
pound, or combinations of compounds required, has
yet to be determined.
The phenolic compound profile of FMC is complex, and
current understanding of the bioactivity of the identified peaks
is limited. Preliminary characterisation by LC-MS has identi-
fied phenolic compounds with known activities related to
carbohydrate metabolism; details of these are provided in
Tab le 4. Schaftoside, a prevalent phenolic compound in sugar
Fig. 2 Comparison of combined glucose and insulin responses to prod-
ucts tested at all addition levels; control product (no treatment) to product
containing FMC. (a). Combined individual glycaemic index (GI) values
(n=50) of white bread, fruit-flavoured beverage, energy bar, high fructose
corn syrup (HFCS) and glucose syrup, control vs. FMC-fortified (b).
Average combined individual 2-h glucose response change from baseline.
Open circles, control products; closed squares, FMC-fortified products
(c). Combined individual insulin index (II) values (n=50) of white bread,
fruit-flavoured beverage, energy bar, HFCS andglucose syrup, control vs.
FMC-fortified (d). Average combined individual 2-h insulin response
change from baseline. Open circles, control products; closed squares,
FMC-fortified products. Bars show standard error. *p<0.05, **p<0.01,
***p<0.001
Tabl e 4 Phenolic compounds found in FMC with known roles in carbohydrate metabolism. Schaftoside, a prevalent phenolic compound in sugar cane
molasses was used as a quantification standard, but has no identified role in CHO metabolism
Phenolic compounds
found in FMC using
LC-MS
Quantification
(μg/g)
Bioactivity References
Inhibition of
carbohydrate
digestion
Inhibition of glucose
intestinal absorption
Increased insulin
secretion/ content
Improved
glucose
uptake
Induction of
hepatic
glucokinase
Schaftoside 1,900
Orientin 340 x [29]
Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside 330 x [6]
Ferulic acid 250 x x x x x [6]
Malvidin-glycoside 180 x [30]
Diosmin 140 x [31]
Epigallocatechin 100 x x [6]
p-coumaric acid 90 x [6]
Vitexin 40 x [32]
314 Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2014) 69:310316
cane molasses, was used as a quantitative standard.
Schaftoside has no reported activity on carbohydrate metabo-
lism. The non-specific polyphenol content in FMC (1,150 mg
CE/100 g) compares favourably to other rich sources of poly-
phenols such as coloured rice brans, raspberries, raisins and
black pepper; the ORAC value of FMC is also comparable to
other rich sources of antioxidants [1416].
Some of the minerals found in FMC known to influence
carbohydrate metabolism are present in quantities sufficient to
contribute to dietary intake. For comparison, a 20 g quantity of
FMC contains 10.7, 10.9 and 13.4 % of the U.S. FDA daily value
for adults, for calcium, magnesium and potassium, respectively.
The inclusion of organic acids in foods results in reductions
in postprandial responses for both glucose and insulin. While
the amount of organic acid present in FMC is significantly
lower than those studied by Liljeberg et al. [11]complemen-
tary effects on carbohydrate metabolism are possible.
Possible Effect of FMC on Glucose, Insulin Responses
Although the mechanism for the observed effects of FMC is
not yet fully understood, the observed linear relationship
between GI reduction and amount of FMC added is indepen-
dent of carbohydrate type or presence of fiber (Fig. 1, Table 1).
This suggests FMC may not be inhibiting enzymatic carbo-
hydrate digestion. In support of this theory, an in vitro model
study performed essentially as described by Munro et al [17]
demonstrated FMC does not inhibit pancreatic digestion of
pre-gelatinised starch under simulated gastrointestinal condi-
tions, in a 50:50 ratio of starch to FMC. In addition, FMC did
not inhibit in vitro activity of α-glucosidase or salivary or
pancreatic α-amylase (unpublished results).
As digestive enzymes do not appear to be inhibited by
FMC, and FMC addition does not increase insulin responses,
the indicated action of FMC may be in inhibiting intestinal
glucose transport and absorption. If this is the case, it could
explain the similar magnitude of reduction in bothglucose and
insulin responses observed (excepting the energy bar). This
theory is supported by research demonstrating aqueous ex-
tracts containing polyphenols and flavonoids reduce sugar
absorption [18], or slow intestinal glucose transport by com-
petition with receptor sites [19,20]. As phenolic compounds
have been shown to have varied effects on carbohydrate
metabolism (Table 4), other mechanisms are also possible.
It remains possible that FMC has a role to play in directly
moderating insulin response. Various flavonoids and phenolic
acids have been shown in in vitro studies to increase the
uptake of glucose into peripheral tissue cells [21]. They have
been shown to enhance or bypass insulin signalling via nu-
merous mechanisms: activation of insulin-dependent and-in-
dependent signalling pathways such as AMP kinase [21,22]
and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase [23], mimicking insulin and
activating the insulin receptor [24,25]. Any or all of these
mechanisms may result in decreased levels of insulin secreted
from the pancreas.
The minerals calcium, magnesium and potassium found in
FMC are known to affect insulin response, by increasing sen-
sitivity with calcium supplementation in T2D and hypertensive
patients [8], while long term observational studies of chronic
deficiencies of magnesium [7] and low levels of dietary potas-
sium are correlated to insulin resistance and increased incidence
of developing diabetes [9,10]. Although the acute effects are
unknown, the presence of these minerals, alone or in combina-
tion with plant derived phenolic compounds in FMC, may be
partly responsible for the observed reduction in glucose and/or
insulin response in most of the food matrices tested.
Organic acids are also known to have acute effects on
postprandial glucose and insulin responses [11]. Levels of
organic acids present in FMC at typical application rates in
foods are approximately 200-fold lower than that studied by
Liljebergetal[11] with similar reductions in glycemic re-
sponse, suggesting any potential effect of organic acids would
likely be synergistic in nature.
The observations in this study demonstrate that ingestion of
FMC lowers postprandial glucose and insulin response to car-
bohydrate in acute studies. It is possible that chronic consump-
tion of FMC may place less metabolic stress on pancreatic β-
cells, and slow progression to insulin resistance. The effects of
FMC on insulin response and insulin sensitivity require further
exploration; additional studies will determine which of the com-
ponents of FMC are responsible for the observed bioactivity,
investigate chronic effects, and identify mechanisms of action.
Conclusions
Filtered molasses concentrate sourced from sugar cane mo-
lasses provides a natural, abundant and inexpensive source of
valuable plant-derived phenolic compounds, minerals and
organic acids. The work described here demonstrates FMC
is effective in reducing glucose responses in a dose-dependent
manner in acute human studies, as well as reducing insulin
responses to carbohydrate. The work shows the potential for
FMC as a natural functional ingredient for use in reducing
glycaemic index and decreasing insulin response, as well as
increasing the antioxidant potential and mineral content of
carbohydrate-containing foods and beverages.
Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Fiona Atkinson of
the Sydney University Glycaemic Index Research Service for extensive
GI testing, analysis and reporting; Ria Setyabudi (formerly Horizon
Science) for sample preparation and analysis, Gunter Kuhnle of the
University of Reading for polyphenol determination, and Plant and Food
Research New Zealand for in vitro digestive enzyme studies.
Conflict of Interest The authors declare they have no conflict of
interest.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2014) 69:310316 315
Study subjects The authors declare this research study involved human
subjects. This study was conducted in accordance with the ethical prin-
ciples that have their origins in the Declaration of Helsinki. The experi-
mental procedures used in this study were in accordance with interna-
tional standards for conducting ethical research with humans and were
approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of Sydney
University (approval number 08-2009/12029, valid August 13, 2009
August 31, 2012). This study was performed between March 2011 and
March 2012.
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... Identification and characterization of antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial properties, and health benefits Asikin et al. (2013), Chen et al. (2015), Deseo et al. (2020), Guan et al. (2014), Guimaraes et al. (2007), Kaushik et al. (2018), Valli et al. (2012), Wright et al. (2014) Culture medium Assessment of molasses as culture medium for filamentous fungi Bento et al. (2020) Beta-carotene production Rhodotorula glutinis mutant producing beta-carotene production in sugarcane molasses Bhosale and Gadre (2001) Bioethanol/biofuel production Optimization of ethanol production and production of biofuel from Pongamia pinnata. Bioethanol production by column reactor of immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 and thermophilic anaerobic structured-bed reactors. ...
... Phenolic compounds present in molasses exhibit in vitro anticancer properties (Chen et al. 2015;Deseo et al. 2020). Anti-glycemic and additional health benefits from molasses have been described (Jamir et al. 2021;Wright et al. 2014;Yu et al. 2017). In addition to antioxidative and anticancer properties, polyphenols are used as a source for microbes to aid in bioremediation (Ikegami et al. 2020). ...
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