Reactive oxygen species prime Drosophila haematopoietic progenitors for differentiation. Nature

Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.
Nature (Impact Factor: 41.46). 10/2009; 461(7263):537-41. DOI: 10.1038/nature08313
Source: PubMed


Reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced during various electron transfer reactions in vivo, are generally considered to be deleterious to cells. In the mammalian haematopoietic system, haematopoietic stem cells contain low levels of ROS. However, unexpectedly, the common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) produce significantly increased levels of ROS(2). The functional significance of this difference in ROS level in the two progenitor types remains unresolved. Here we show that Drosophila multipotent haematopoietic progenitors, which are largely akin to the mammalian myeloid progenitors, display increased levels of ROS under in vivo physiological conditions, which are downregulated on differentiation. Scavenging the ROS from these haematopoietic progenitors by using in vivo genetic tools retards their differentiation into mature blood cells. Conversely, increasing the haematopoietic progenitor ROS beyond their basal level triggers precocious differentiation into all three mature blood cell types found in Drosophila, through a signalling pathway that involves JNK and FoxO activation as well as Polycomb downregulation. We conclude that the developmentally regulated, moderately high ROS level in the progenitor population sensitizes them to differentiation, and establishes a signalling role for ROS in the regulation of haematopoietic cell fate. Our results lead to a model that could be extended to reveal a probable signalling role for ROS in the differentiation of CMPs in mammalian haematopoietic development and oxidative stress response.

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    • "In this review, we briefly discussed selected aspects of redox biology and the proteomic tools employed to identify several oxidative modifications of proteins, and their biological functions, paying special attention to modifications of Cys sulfhydryl. migration, and angiogenesis (Nishikawa, 2008; Owusu-Ansah & Banerjee, 2009; Arana et al., 2012). On the other hand, large increases in ROS, which can overwhelm cellular antioxidant defense system, elicit cellular oxidative stress and induce aging and cell death (Benhar, Engelberg, & Levitzki, 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Post-translational modifications (PTMs) occurring in proteins determine their functions and regulations. Proteomic tools are available to identify PTMs and have proved invaluable to expanding the inventory of these tools of nature that hold the keys to biological processes. Cysteine (Cys), the least abundant (1-2%) of amino acid residues, are unique in that they play key roles in maintaining stability of protein structure, participating in active sites of enzymes, regulating protein function and binding to metals, among others. Cys residues are major targets of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are important mediators and modulators of various biological processes. It is therefore necessary to identify the Cys-containing ROS target proteins, as well as the sites and species of their PTMs. Cutting edge proteomic tools which have helped identify the PTMs at reactive Cys residues, have also revealed that Cys residues are modified in numerous ways. These modifications include formation of disulfide, thiosulfinate and thiosulfonate, oxidation to sulfenic, sulfinic, sulfonic acids and thiosulfonic acid, transformation to dehydroalanine (DHA) and serine, palmitoylation and farnesylation, formation of chemical adducts with glutathione, 4-hydroxynonenal and 15-deoxy PGJ2, and various other chemicals. We present here, a review of relevant ROS biology, possible chemical reactions of Cys residues and details of the proteomic strategies employed for rapid, efficient and sensitive identification of diverse and novel PTMs involving reactive Cys residues of redox-sensitive proteins. We propose a new name, "ROSics," for the science which describes the principles of mode of action of ROS at molecular levels. © 2014 The Authors. Mass Spectrometry Reviews published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Mass Spectrometry Reviews
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    • "The Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathway is activated by a variety of environmental stress signals, including elevated levels of ROS [12], [58], [59], [72]. Downstream effectors of this pathway include FOS/Jun heterodimers, which are a subset of the Activating protein-1 (AP-1) family of conserved transcriptional regulators [12], [58], [72], [73]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate a variety of biological processes by networking with signal transduction pathways to maintain homeostasis and support adaptation to stress. In this capacity, ROS have been shown to promote the differentiation of progenitor cells, including mammalian embryonic and hematopoietic stem cells and Drosophila hematopoietic progenitors (prohemocytes). However, many questions remain about how ROS alter the regulatory machinery to promote progenitor differentiation. Here, we provide evidence for the hypothesis that ROS reduce E-cadherin levels to promote Drosophila prohemocyte differentiation. Specifically, we show that knockdown of the antioxidants, Superoxide dismutatase 2 and Catalase reduce E-cadherin protein levels prior to the loss of Odd-skipped-expressing prohemocytes. Additionally, over-expression of E-cadherin limits prohemocyte differentiation resulting from paraquat-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, two established targets of ROS, Enhancer of Polycomb and FOS, control the level of E-cadherin protein expression. Finally, we show that knockdown of either Superoxide dismutatase 2 or Catalase leads to an increase in the E-cadherin repressor, Serpent. As a result, antioxidants and targets of ROS can control E-cadherin protein levels, and over-expression of E-cadherin can ameliorate the prohemocyte response to oxidative stress. Collectively, these data strongly suggest that ROS promote differentiation by reducing E-cadherin levels. In mammalian systems, ROS promote embryonic stem cell differentiation, whereas E-cadherin blocks differentiation. However, it is not known if elevated ROS reduce E-cadherin to promote embryonic stem cell differentiation. Thus, our findings may have identified an important mechanism by which ROS promote stem/progenitor cell differentiation.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Thus, H 2 O 2 is recognized as the most potent signaling ROS in plants. Among other functions, it participates in the regulation of cell state decisions and influences the induction of proliferation and differentiation (Neill et al. 2002; Dunand et al. 2007; Sarsour et al. 2008; van Breusegem et al. 2008; Owusu-Ansah and Banerjee 2009; Tsukagoshi et al. 2010). Proteomic analysis has shown that H 2 O 2 -induced proteins are related to plant signaling during cell elongation and division (Barba-Espin et al. 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: This work demonstrated how reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the regulation of rhizogenesis from hypocotyls of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. cultured on a medium containing 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The increase of NADPH oxidase activity was correlated with an increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content and induction of mitotic activity in vascular cylinder cells, leading to root formation from cultured hypocotyls. Diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, inhibited H2O2 production and blocked rhizogenesis. Ultrastructural studies revealed differences in H2O2 localization between the vascular cylinder cells and cortex parenchyma cells of cultured explants. We suggest that NADPH oxidase is responsible for H2O2 level regulation in vascular cylinder cells, while peroxidase (POD) participates in H2O2 level regulation in cortex cells. Blue formazan (NBT) precipitates indicating superoxide radical (O2 •−) accumulation were localized within the vascular cylinder cells during the early stages of rhizogenesis and at the tip of root primordia, as well as in the distal and middle parts of newly formed organs. 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining of H2O2 was more intense in vascular bundle cells and in cortex cells. In newly formed roots, H2O2 was localized in vascular tissue. Adding DPI to the medium led to a decrease in the intensity of NBT and DAB staining in cultured explants. Accumulation of O2 •− was then limited to epidermis cells, while H2O2 was accumulated only in vascular tissue. These results indicate that O2 •− is engaged in processes of rhizogenesis induction involving division of competent cells, while H2O2 is engaged in developmental processes mainly involving cell growth.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Protoplasma
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