Reprogramming the epigenome during germline and seed development

Brown University, Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, and Biochemistry, Providence, RI 02912, USA.
Genome biology (Impact Factor: 10.81). 09/2009; 10(8):232. DOI: 10.1186/gb-2009-10-8-232
Source: PubMed


Gene silencing by DNA methylation and small RNAs is globally reconfigured during gametogenesis in Arabidopsis, affecting transposon activity, gene regulation and development.

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    • "For example, the proteomic study of post-translational modification, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination, etc., during the process is still limited (Mayank et al., 2012). In addition, epigenetic regulation by small non-coding RNAs and modification of DNA and histone has emerged for with roles in male reproductive system development (Johnson and Bender, 2009; Slotkin et al., 2009). However, with the great improvements in RNA and protein detection technology, such as single molecular sequencing (Fang et al., 2012) and label-free MS (Levin and Bahn, 2010), and combined with laser capture microdissection technology, we would have the ability to achieve more subtle spatio-temporal expression profiles with less tissue. "
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    ABSTRACT: Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well-exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male-sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), photoperiod-sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility, and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein, and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male-sterile lines for hybrid rice production.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Frontiers in Plant Science
    • "But it does not explain how transposons, genes, and other genetic elements are selected for epigenetic inactivation or how the process is initiated. Conversely, although major epigenetic reprogramming occurs in both animal and plant development , including widespread DNA demethylation (Feng et al., 2010; He et al., 2011; Johnson and Bender, 2009), little is known about the mechanisms by which specific genes are targeted. Nor is it known how specific sequences are targeted for demethylation at specific developmental stages or in a subset of cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Spm-suppressible Alleles Spm-dependent Alleles Cryptic Spm Presetting Molecular Machinery of Epigenetic Regulation Summary References
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    • "Alternatively, parental “mismatch” could be due to sequence divergence between TEs in different lineages, whereby small RNAs generated from one lineage may fail to recognize or to effectively interact with target sequences from the alternative lineage, due to base-pairing mismatches (Figure 2(b)). Although there is no direct empirical evidence, it has been suggested that sequence specificity plays an important role in TE suppression [38, 39] and the proteins that interact with small RNAs rely on sequence complementarity to target TEs for methylation and silencing [40]. Given this, transcripts from one TE copy may not be able to target slightly different TE copies, although currently it is not clear how much sequence divergence must occur before TE copies can no longer suppress one another. "
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    ABSTRACT: New models of TE repression in plants (specifically Arabidopsis) have suggested specific mechanisms by which TE misregulation in hybrids might result in the expression of hybrid inviability. If true, these models suggest as yet undescribed consequences for (1) mechanistic connections between hybrid problems expressed at different postzygotic stages (e.g., inviability versus sterility), (2) the predicted strength, stage, and direction of isolation between diverging lineages that differ in TE activity, and (3) the association between species attributes that influence TE dynamics (e.g., mode of reproduction, geographical structure) and the rate at which they could accumulate incompatibilities. In this paper, we explore these implications and outline future empirical directions for generating data necessary to evaluate them.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012
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