Article

Difference between Team and Individual Sports with Respect to Psychological Skills, Overall Emotional Intelligence and Athletic Success Motivation in Shiraz City Athletes

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Abstract

This research was conducted to compare the psychological skills, overall emotional intelligence and athletic success motivation between team and individual sports. The research sample consisted of 400 male athletes (247individual and 153team) that were selected via randomly multistage sampling method and subjects completed the psychological skills questionnaire Ottawa-3, Bar-On emotional intelligence inventory and perception of sport success questionnaire. Data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and MANOVA statistical method .The finding(MANOVA) showed that there was significant difference between the two groups (individual and team sports) in terms of psychological skills and motivation of athletic success but there wasn't a significant difference between the two groups (individual and team sports) with respect to overall emotional intelligence. KEY WORDS: Psychological skills; overall emotional intelligence; motivation of athletic success; team and individual sports.

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... (Khan, Khan, Khan, & Khan, 2017). With high stress levels, sports anxiety and low sports motivation being direct psychological influences to athletic performance and sports behaviour (Kajbafnezhad et al., 2011), there is therefore a need to study these problems within the population of competitive youth in order to help educate and control the different psychological processes experienced throughout an athletes' career to maximize their athletic potential. ...
... There is also a significant difference between team sports and individual sports in terms of psychological skills and athletic motivation (Kajbafnezhad et al., 2011). A team sport is defined as any sport, which involves players working together towards a shared objective where individuals are organized into opposing teams, which compete to win such as basketball, football or baseball (Kumar, 2015). ...
... A team sport is defined as any sport, which involves players working together towards a shared objective where individuals are organized into opposing teams, which compete to win such as basketball, football or baseball (Kumar, 2015). When an athlete competes in individual sports, they are entirely dependent on their sole ability where the performance criteria is unidimensional (Kajbafnezhad et al., 2011). Individual sports athletes require more motivation to excel compared to team sports athletes (Kumar, 2015) where they require a higher level of preparation as their success is entirely Hence, the purpose of this study is to determine the significant difference between perceived stress, sports anxiety and sports motivation among competitive youth athletes in individual vs. team sports. ...
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Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio fue determinar si existe una diferencia significativa entre el estrés percibido, la ansiedad deportiva y la motivación deportiva entre los jóvenes atletas competitivos de deportes individuales y de equipo. Antecedentes: Se ha demostrado que el deporte organizado es la forma más óptima de actividad física asociada con la mejora de la salud mental. Esto es especialmente importante en la población de jóvenes, donde la prevalencia de problemas de salud mental ha tenido una tendencia al alza. Aún se desconoce si los deportes individuales y de equipo varían en términos de su impacto sobre el estrés percibido, la ansiedad deportiva y la motivación deportiva entre los atletas jóvenes competitivos. Métodos: Llevamos a cabo una investigación cuasi- experimental ex post facto en la que se estudió a los participantes en deportes individuales o en equipo en retrospectiva sobre el estrés percibido, la ansiedad deportiva y la motivación deportiva. Comparamos las medidas autoinformadas de estrés percibido, ansiedad deportiva y motivación deportiva entre los atletas en deportes individuales y de equipo. Resultados: Los resultados indican que existe una diferencia significativa entre el estrés percibido (p <.001), la ansiedad deportiva (p <.001) y la motivación deportiva (p = .002) entre los jóvenes atletas competitivos de deportes individuales vs. Conclusión: los deportistas deportivos individuales tienen más probabilidades de reportar un mayor estrés percibido, mayor ansiedad deportiva y menor motivación deportiva en comparación con los deportistas de deportes de equipo.
... Research carried out specifically with athletes has studied the relationships between EI and other variables related to sports experience, finding positive relationships between EI and higher athletic prowess (Saies et al., 2014;Arribas-Galarraga et al., 2017;Vaughan et al., 2019). Studies have also analyzed differences according to the type of sports (individual vs. team sports) and their relationship to EI (Kajbafnezhad et al., 2011;Ghaderi and Ghasemi, 2012;Laborde et al., 2014Laborde et al., , 2017. While these studies found no significant differences according to the type of sports (individual vs. team sports), another study (Castro-Sánchez et al., 2018a) found significant differences in emotional management depending on the type of sports. ...
... Despite the existing research, various aspects of the relationship between sports experience and EI remain unclear (Costarelli and Stamou, 2009;Kajbafnezhad et al., 2011;Ghaderi and Ghasemi, 2012;Laborde et al., 2014Laborde et al., , 2017Saies et al., 2014;Szabo and Urban, 2014;Castro-Sánchez et al., 2018a,b;Lepir et al., 2018;Vaughan et al., 2019). The type of sport, time spent practicing (frequency days/week, years of practice), the number of different sports practiced, and the highest competitive level achieved are all characteristics of sports experience that may be related to EI. ...
... However, this relationship was weak. Previous studies showed no significant differences between the team and individual sports (Kajbafnezhad et al., 2011;Ghaderi and Ghasemi, 2012;Laborde et al., 2014Laborde et al., , 2017. Likewise, Castro-Sánchez et al. (2018a;2018b) found that EI correlates more strongly with team sports than individual sports athletes, finding significant differences in emotional self-management (similar to ER, assessed using the Schutte Self Report Inventory). ...
Article
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Sport is an emotional experience. Studies have shown that high emotional intelligence (EI) is associated with better sports performance, though different aspects of sports experience and their relationship with EI are still unclear. This study examined the possible relationships between sports experience and EI dimensions of undergraduate athletes. Likewise, according to the differences described in the literature between men and women, the secondary aim was to identify the possible relationship between EI and sports experience in both subgroups. A total of 1784 [712 men (39.9%), 1072 women (60.1%); mean age = 21.3 years, SD = 4.2)] undergraduate athletes completed the Trait Meta Mood Scale and a sports experience questionnaire. Comparisons between groups were performed using Mann-Whitney-U and H-Kruskal-Wallis tests and correlations between variables were analyzed using Spearman correlation. We found that the number of different sports practiced and the number of years practicing sports were positively associated with emotional repair (ER). However, the number of years practicing sports was negatively associated with emotional attention (EA). Male athletes who trained more and had a higher competitive level were more likely to show higher ER. In any case, it is necessary to take into account that all the associations were weak. Our study suggested that athletes tend to attend to and value their feelings and use positive thinking to repair their negative moods.
... Not all sports, however, impact mental health in the same way. Kajbafnezhad et al. (2011) discovered "significant difference between [team sports and individual sports] in terms of psychological skills and motivation of athletic success" (p. 1904). ...
... While individual sports often provide less social opportunity, they encourage responsibility and self-reliance. Individual sport athletes may engage in a "higher level of preparation" because their success depends completely on their own skills and training (Kajbafnezhad et al., 2011). Yet, this increased sense of accountability can lead to intense feelings of shame or guilt after losing (Nixdorf et al., 2016). ...
... Dedicating all of their energy to succeeding in a single athletic pursuit, they may be overly focused on the outcomes and experience greater internal attribution after failure (Nixdorf et al., 2016). Whereas team sport athletes can depend on the support of their teammates, individual sport athletes rely on only their own preparation and skill level to achieve success (Kajbafnezhad et al., 2011;Nixdorf et al., 2016). Competing alone, individual sport athletes can not only experience loneliness, but also, if they do not succeed in accomplishing their goals, may experience the weight of failure alone (Nixdorf et al., 2016). ...
Article
The objective of the study was to determine whether 1) the proportion of athletes with mental health diagnoses and 2) athlete motivations for playing differ between team sports and individual sports. We conducted a cross-sectional study of child and adolescent athletes assessed at a sports injury prevention center. We compared self-reported anxiety, depression, and reasons for participating in sports between athletes in individual sports (e.g. gymnastics, running, diving) and team sports (e.g. soccer, football, hockey). In addition, we categorized motivation for participating in sports as 1) for fun, with associated benefits of participation including, motives such as making friends and being part of a team or 2) for goal-oriented reasons with associated benefits of participation including motives such as obtaining scholarship or controlling weight. At the time of this analysis, 756 athletes between the ages of 6 and 18 years had undergone a sports injury prevention evaluation. Most athletes were White (85%) and there was a slight female predominance (56%). Of the total population, 8% reported suffering from anxiety or depression. A higher proportion of individual sport athletes reported anxiety or depression than team sport athletes (13% vs. 7%, p < 0.01). Individual sport athletes were more likely than athletes in team sports to play their sports for goal-oriented reasons, as opposed to for fun (30% vs. 21%, p < 0.05). Individual sport athletes are more likely to report anxiety and depression than team sport athletes. The mental health benefits of participation in organized sports may vary between individual sport athletes and those playing team sports.
... For example, the specificity of emotion-related variables in team contact sports has been described by Campo, Mellalieu, Ferrand, Martinent, and Rosnet (2012). However, because previous research showed no differences in EI between athletes from individual and team sports when using the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (Kajbafnezhad, Ahadi, Heidarie, Askari, & Enayati, 2011), we did not expect to find a relationship between trait EI and the type of sport. ...
... Given the empirical evidence of trait EI being linked to several aspects of sports performance, found with both subjective (Laborde et al., 2012) and objective (Laborde et al., 2011(Laborde et al., , 2014 measures, we hypothesized that the original factor structure of the TEIQue would be replicated within a sports sample. In addition, we hypothesized the following relationships with demographic variables: There would be a positive relationship with age Yeung et al., 2011); male athletes would score higher than female athletes ; there would be no relationship with type of sport (Kajbafnezhad et al., 2011); and finally, there would be a positive relationship with expertise level (Johnson et al., 2006; and years of training (Hedelin et al., 2000;Laborde et al., 2011). ...
... No relationship was found with the type of sport considered, which is in line with the findings of Kajbafnezhad et al. (2011). This can be interpreted as trait EI being equally important in individual and team sports. ...
... It was further explained that individual sports athletes were better at goal-oriented performance than team sports athletes, namely 30% vs. 21%. The results of another study revealed that there were differences between individual sports athletes and team sports athletes in terms of psychological skills and motivation for athletic success (Kajbafnezhad et al., 2011). Based on this, it can be seen that individual sports athletes experience higher anxiety because they have a heavier burden on their shoulders than team sports athletes. ...
... When athletes train alone, they can improve their ability to concentrate, increase mental strength, and encourage responsibility and independence. Athletes in individual sports have a higher level of preparation because their success depends entirely on the skills and training of the athletes themselves (Kajbafnezhad et al., 2011). Based on the results of this study, it is necessary to conduct further research that aims to reduce anxiety levels, increase self-confidence, and overcome psychological problems in training and competition. ...
Article
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The objectives to be achieved in this study are knowing the level of the mental toughness of student-athletes in Bengkulu City. This research applies a quantitative descriptive method through a causal-comparative design. The research population was 34 student-athletes from 5 sports. Determination of the sample using purposive random sampling. Data were collected using the Mental Toughness in Sport Questionnaire instrument. The data analysis technique uses standard deviation and the ideal mean to determine the level of the mental toughness of student-athletes, meanwhile to determine the level of the mental toughness of student-athletes who are reviewed based on sport and gender by hypothesis testing (one-way ANOVA and t-test) using SPSS. The results of data analysis found the category of the mental toughness of student-athletes in Bengkulu City was very high and there were no differences in the mental toughness of athletes from each sport and gender. However, this study has not yet discussed the strategies and mental training programs implemented by athletes in each sport. Therefore, it is recommended that researchers who have an interest in continuing this research are advised to study further the strategies and programs of athletes' mental training.
... Nevertheless, the existing research on potential EI differences among athletes from different sport types and/or with different athletic profiles is limited and provides contradictory data, so far. In some studies it has been found that athletes from different types of sport present similar EI levels (Bal, Singh, Sood & Kumar, 2011;Laborde et al., 2017); whereas, there are other studies showing significant differences between teamand individual sports in specific aspects of EI, such as psychological skill and motives (Kajbafnezhad et al., 2011;Sudheesh, 2020). Regarding the association of the athletic profile with EI, research is quite limited. ...
... However, statistical analyses did not reveal any differences between the gymnasts. Nevertheless, previous researchers noted that team sport athletes are involved with their teammates, spending time training together (Kajbafnezhad et al., 2011); however, they present high emotional management (Castro-Sánchez et al., 2018) and higher rates of emotional self-regulation and sociability than individual sport athletes (Petrides, 2009). ...
Article
Emotional intelligence (EI) is considered to be an important parameter in the world of sports, as it affects the athletic performance and wellbeing of athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine EI in athletes of Acrobatic gymnastics (ACROGYM). Furthermore, potential differences in EI that may be associated with athletic profile (age, years of participation in ACROGYM, number of competitions, competition category) were investigated. In total, 95 acrobatic gymnasts, 9-18 years old (15.92 ± 3.17 years) participated voluntarily. The athletes’ EI was assessed with the Emotional Quotient Inventory-Youth Version (EQ-i: YV), culturally adapted for the Greek population. According to the results, the ACROGYM athletes presented high levels of EI. However, the correlation analyses revealed that the association between the athletes’ profile and scores on EI scales was not statistically significant (p >.05). The t-tests and the MANOVAs applied showed no statistically significant differences in the EI subscales associated with gymnasts’ (a) participation in national competitions (p > .05); (b) frequency of training sessions per week (p > .05); (c) (not) being a member of a duet or a trio (p > .05); (d) position in the group (base, middle, top). It can be concluded that Greek acrobatic gymnasts present high levels of EI regardless of their age, their sport's experience or their level of performance. Moreover, neither their participation in a group nor their role in it seem to differentiate the dimensions of EI. Nevertheless, further research is needed in order to shed more light into EI in gymnastics.
... Athletes usually attend two training sessions in water and one on land during the day, which leads to more than 24 hours of training itself during the week [1, 34,42]. The training groups in which the swimmers are located, especially those with a high level of training and significant sports performance, motivate even more to compete and make you feel the team spirit and know that you have support from your teammates despite the individuality of the discipline [2,12,15]. Being in a strong group of swimmers, this allows you to compete already at the training level, which contributes to more ...
... Athletes usually attend two training sessions in water and one on land during the day, which leads to more than 24 hours of training itself during the week [1, 34,42]. The training groups in which the swimmers are located, especially those with a high level of training and significant sports performance, motivate even more to compete and make you feel the team spirit and know that you have support from your teammates despite the individuality of the discipline [2,12,15]. Being in a strong group of swimmers, this allows you to compete already at the training level, which contributes to more significant progress over the season than when you train alone and race against your times at each training session [17,36]. ...
Article
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Our decisions are usually influenced by many factors, which makes it challenging to choose the optimal solution. The problem may be to determine which aspects should be taken into account and how they influence the final result. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods are helpful in this case, and they allow to evaluate defined alternatives despite the lack of precise expert knowledge. In this paper, the COMET (Characteristic Objects Method) method was used to create a multi-criteria model to assess the progression of swimmers over the season. Presented alternatives were divided into two groups of players, and after obtaining preference values from the model, they were compared with each other using statistical values. The research has shown that in the proposed model created based on expert knowledge, the size of the progress combined with the best FINA (Fédération Internationale de Natation) score can be an effective indicator of the swimmers’ progress.
... These abilities are abetted by a particular anthropometric or physiologic profile encompassing a wide variety of variables from body height, body type, and muscle fiber composition to metabolic capacity, muscle contractile properties, or motor proficiency. In addition to these characteristics, there are also a number of psychological factors that dictate performance such as athlete motivation, cognitive skills, and emotional intelligence [2]. All of the above factors influence the rate at which an athlete can achieve mastery and can be treated as determinants of competitive success. ...
... While team athletes may have greater experience with performing movements associated with the UN structure, it is possible that individual athletes showed better cognitive processing during task execution [23,35]. Previous studies have highlighted this difference where peripheral perception and other cognitive components are more critical for effective performance than in team sports in which the final results rely on teamwork [2,35]. Therefore, it seems that the spatio-temporal variability in implementing agility in a particular discipline had a significant impact on obtained results in applied agility tests. ...
Article
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This study assessed differences in agility performance between athletes of team and individual sports by assessing change-of-direction speed (CODS) as pre-planned agility and reactive agility (RA) as non-planed in different spatial configurations. The study involved 36 individual (sprint, hurdles, jumping, tennis, and judo) and 34 team (soccer, basketball, and handball) athletes. CODS and RA were measured with a light-based reactive training system in a frontal (FR), universal (UN), semicircular (SC), and lateral (LA) design. Lower limb power and sprint performance were also measured in a 10 m single leg jump test and 15 m sprint. Individual athletes showed significantly better performance in three of the eight agility tests: LA-RA, UN-RA, and SC-CODS (p < 0.008, p < 0.036, and p < 0.027, respectively) and were found to present stronger correlations (p < 0.01) between jump test performance and the CODS condition. Team athletes showed stronger associations between sprint performance and the CODS condition. In the RA condition both jump and sprint performance showed stronger correlations in the group of individual athletes. Agility performance as measured by CODS and RA should improve with enhanced of motor proficiency. Finally, the tests applied in this experiment seem to be multidimensional, but require spatio-temporal adjustment for their implementation, so that they meet the requirements of the particular sport
... Concerning the relations of academic achievement depending on the type of sport being practiced, a higher number of previous research works indicate that athletes engaged in individual sports have better academic results than their peers engaged in collective sports (Bradley, Keane, & Crawford, 2013;Eitle, & Eitle, 2002). The explanation is usually found in differences of personality traits of athletes in different sports which reflect on their academic achievement too (Craft, Magyar, Becker, & Feitz, 2003;Han et al., 2006;Kajbafnezhad, Ahadi, Heidarie, & Enayati, 2011;Zeng, 2003). ...
... On the other, athletes who opt for collective sports select sports that are more accessible to wider population in this country, so that the explanation of the predominance of excellent students in individual sports should also be based on the socioeconomic status and educational level of parents. Besides, the collective sports enable more intensive development of social skills that can contribute to academic achievement, whereas individual sports give prominence to integrated functions which seem to be predominant in academic achievement (Kajbafnezhad, Ahadi, Heidarie, Askari & Enayati, 2011). Our research indicates that sports engagement has a significant role in understanding the relations of academic achievement and sports engagement especially with girls who achieve better academic results through a longer sports engagement. ...
Conference Paper
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Considering inconsistent previous findings on the relationship between academic achievement and sports engagement, the study was conducted with the aim to examine the relations between students’ academic achievement and selected indicators of sports engagement, including the type of sport (individual/ team), years of sport experience and the level of competition. The sample consisted of 194 secondary school third-graders, 89 males and 105 females. As for the academic achievement, 85 participants achieved an excellent overall score in the previous school year, 44 achieved a very good overall score, and 65 achieved a good overall score. In addition, 87 participants were non-athletes and 107 were athletes, with 34 of them being engaged in individual sports and 73 in team sports. Descriptive statistics was applied, as well as contingency tables (Chi-square test) and Freeman-Halton extension of the Fisher exact probability test. The results indicate that the academic achievement of athletes and non-athletes does not differ significantly. The relations between sports engagement and academic achievement were more prominent in male students; non-athletes had significantly better academic achievement than athletes (X2 (2, N = 89) = 10.536, p = .00). As for the whole sample, students engaged in individual sports achieved better academic results than those engaged in team sports (X2 (2, N = 107) = 6.44, p = .04). In the female student subsample the relationship between academic achievement and sports engagement was more related to sport experience; students who have been training for a longer period turned out to be better in terms of academic achievement. The level of competition was not identified as a significant variable in explaining the differences in academic achievement. Keywords: academic achievement, sports engagement, individual/team sports, sport experience
... On the same line, the type of sport did not emerge as a significant predictor in the study of Guillen and Laborde (2014), where mental toughness was considered as a higher-order dimension of four positive PTLID. Regarding a trait that has been considered as a positive PTLID , emotional intelligence, no difference emerged between individual and team sport athletes (Kajbafnezhad, Ahadi, Heidarie, Askari, & Enayati, 2011;Laborde, Dosseville, Guill en, & Ch avez, 2014). However, some evidence would favor a positive relationship between positive PTLID and individual athletes. ...
... Our finding draws on the links established between PTLID, morningness, and athletes from individual sports Lastella et al., 2015). It differs however from results found with single PTLID, such as mental toughness (Guillen & Laborde, 2014;Nicholls et al., 2009), or emotional intelligence (Kajbafnezhad et al., 2011;Laborde et al., 2014). For the case of emotional intelligence, we could suggest that sport sciences students have been asked to participate, and therefore they were very likely involved in other type of sports than their main sport. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was twofold: first, to replicate the positive association between sport participation and positive personality-trait-like individual differences (PTLID), and second to investigate whether athletes from individual and team sports would differ regarding positive PTLID. Participants of this study 600 non-athletes and 600 athletes (280 practicing individual sports, 320 team sports) completed a battery of questionnaires designed to assess five characteristics grouped under the umbrella term of positive PTLID, including: perseverance, positivity, resilience, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. A first MANOVA revealed that athletes scored systematically higher than non-athletes on positive PTLID. A second MANOVA showed that athletes from individual sports scored higher on positive PTLID than athletes from team sports. This could be explained by the individual responsibility that comes from performing alone and the need to possess greater enduring personal dispositions to succeed.
... On the same line, the type of sport did not emerge as a significant predictor in the study of Guillen and Laborde (2014), where mental toughness was considered as a higher-order dimension of four positive PTLID. Regarding a trait that has been considered as a positive PTLID , emotional intelligence, no difference emerged between individual and team sport athletes (Kajbafnezhad, Ahadi, Heidarie, Askari, & Enayati, 2011;Laborde, Dosseville, Guill en, & Ch avez, 2014). However, some evidence would favor a positive relationship between positive PTLID and individual athletes. ...
... Our finding draws on the links established between PTLID, morningness, and athletes from individual sports Lastella et al., 2015). It differs however from results found with single PTLID, such as mental toughness (Guillen & Laborde, 2014;Nicholls et al., 2009), or emotional intelligence (Kajbafnezhad et al., 2011;Laborde et al., 2014). For the case of emotional intelligence, we could suggest that sport sciences students have been asked to participate, and therefore they were very likely involved in other type of sports than their main sport. ...
... Figure 1 shows the Fig. 2. An example of sports categories based on references [37]- [39]. ...
Article
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To understand human behaviors, action recognition based on videos is a common approach. Compared with image-based action recognition, videos provide much more information, reducing the ambiguity of actions. In the last decade, many works focus on datasets, novel models and learning approaches have improved video action recognition to a higher level. However, there are challenges and unsolved problems, in particular in sports analytics where data collection and labeling are more sophisticated, requiring people with domain knowledge and even sport professionals to annotate data. In addition, the actions could be extremely fast and it becomes difficult to recognize them. Moreover, in team sports like football and basketball, one action could involve multiple players, and to correctly recognize them, we need to analyze all players, which is relatively complicated. In this paper, we present a survey on video action recognition for sports analytics. We introduce more than ten types of sports, including team sports, such as football, basketball, volleyball, hockey and individual sports, such as figure skating, gymnastics, table tennis, tennis, diving and badminton. Then we compare numerous existing frameworks for sports analysis to present status quo of video action recognition in both team sports and individual sports. Finally, we discuss the challenges and unsolved problems in this area and to facilitate sports analytics, we develop a toolbox using PaddlePaddle, which supports football, basketball, table tennis and figure skating action recognition.
... Pocas investigaciones anteriores han centrado su interés en el estudio del efecto del tipo de deporte (individual/colectivo) en la IE de los deportistas con resultados poco concluyentes. Por un lado, algunas de estas investigaciones, han encontrado que no existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la IE de ambos tipos de deportistas (Kajbafnezhad et al., 2011;Laborde et al., 2014). Por otro, una investigación reciente ha demostrado que las diferentes dimensiones de la IE correlacionan entre sí con mayor fortaleza en el caso de las personas que practican deportes colectivos que en el de las que realizan deporte individual (Castro-Sánchez et al., 2018). ...
Article
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The development of emotional intelligence has been related in previous studies to sports practice and physical activity. The purpose of this research was to analyze the effects of extracurricular sports practice, sports grouping (collective or individual), and gender on the emotional intelligence of adolescents. The sample comprised 384 secondary school students. Students averaged 14.1 years, being 53.5% girls and 46.5% boys. The measurement of emotional intelligence was carried out using the Bar-On’s Emotional Intelligence Inventory Youth Version (EQ-I: YV, Bar-On and Parker, 2000). Results showed that there is an uneven development in the different dimensions of emotional intelligence among Spanish secondary school students (n2=.478), with general mood and interpersonal intelligence being the most prominent features. In addition, girls outperformed boys in interpersonal (n2=.014) and intrapersonal intelligences (n2=.023), reaching boys higher scores in adaptability (n2=.016). At the same time, an impact of extracurricular sports practice and, in particular, of team sports on the students’ general state of mind was detected (n2=.028), while intrapersonal intelligence is directly related to the practice of individual sports. Finally, an interaction effect (n2=.032) between sport grouping and sex was observed in intrapersonal intelligence, indicating that girls could present an advantage in the development of this trait when practicing individual sports. Keywords: Extracurricular activity; Emotional Intelligence; Team sport; Individual Sport; Sex; Adolescents
... Perkara ini adalah disebabkan oleh atlet individu perlu menghadapi pihak lawan secara bersendirian berbanding atlet berpasukan. Kenyataan ini disokong oleh Kajbafnezhad et al. (2011) yang menyatakan bahawa atlet individu bergantung kepada kebolehan mereka berbanding atlet berpasukan bergantung kepada prestasi rakan sepasukan. Atlet berpasukan menghabiskan banyak latihan berlatih dengan rakan sebaya dan lebih banyak menghabiskan masa berinteraksi. ...
... While there are few differences related to gender, the persons who preferred team sports (M = 3.5, SD = 1.5) were somewhat more aware that their behavior changed; however, the difference is on the upper end of the threshold for being significant (p = 0.0496, Figure 7). It is well known that team and individual athletes show different psychological traits [42][43][44][45][46]. In line with these findings, the results of this study highlight different needs between those who participate in individual and team sports for maintaining physical activity levels. ...
Article
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In pandemic times, the possibilities for conventional sports activities are severely limited; many sports facilities are closed or can only be used with restrictions. To counteract this lack of health activities and social exchange, people are increasingly adopting new digital sports solutions—a behavior change that had already started with the trend towards fitness apps and activity trackers. Existing research suggests that digital solutions increase the motivation to move and stay active. This work further investigates the potentials of digital sports incorporating the dimensions gender and preference for team sports versus individual sports. The study focuses on potential users, who were mostly younger professionals and academics. The results show that the SARS-CoV-19 pandemic had a significant negative impact on sports activity, particularly on persons preferring team sports. To compensate, most participants use more digital sports than before, and there is a positive correlation between the time spent physically active during the pandemic and the increase in motivation through digital sports. Nevertheless, there is still considerable skepticism regarding the potential of digital sports solutions to increase the motivation to do sports, increase performance, or raise a sense of team spirit when done in groups.
... Recently two studies have compared individual and team sports (Reche et al., 2019;Reche-García et al., 2020) but not lifesaving and futsal, which are addressed in this study. It is clear from the scientific literature that individual sports athletes have different characteristics from team sports athletes, in relation to personality (Nia and Besharat, 2010;Raharjo et al., 2018), in terms of the use of mental skills (Kajbafnezhad et al., 2011) in mental toughness (Kumar, 2017) in relation to manifesting anxiety and depression are athletes in individual sports are more likely to present them than those in team sports (Pluhar et al., 2019), in addition in team sports passion profiles are higher than those of individual sports (Kovacsik et al., 2020). ...
Article
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This research aims to analyse the differences in optimism, resilience, engagement and competitive anxiety as a function of the sport modality practiced in lifeguarding (individual sport) and futsal (team sport); the sport category by age (cadet or youth) and gender. The LOT-R optimism questionnaire, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) and the Competitive Anxiety Scale (SAS-2) were applied to a sample of 189 participants (139 men and 50 womwn) aged between 14 and 17 years. The following statistical tests are performed: Cronbach's alpha, Pearson's linear correlation, Student's t-test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Levene's test and multivariate linear regression. The data indicate that there are significant gender differences in total anxiety (p <0.001) and all its dimensions (somatic, worry, worry-free), also in optimism and pessimism (p < 0.001), as well as in total engagement (p = 0.051) and the absorption dimension (p < 0.001). When comparing the sample by sport categories, there are statistically significant differences in somatic anxiety (p = 0.036) and deconcentration (p = 0.034), as well as in LOT-total (p ≤ 0.001) and pessimism (p ≤ 0.001). In relation to the sport modalities, lifeguards show more anxiety 38.39 (0.49) and more commitment 4.58 (0.87) while futsal athletes reach higher scores in deconcentration 8.45 (2.29). It is concluded that the variables of commitment and resilience had a statistically significant positive effect, and the category of <16 years had a statistically significant negative effect, so the lower the category, the higher the optimism.
... These differences in psychological and mental skills can be explained by the nature of the sport practiced, the sports program/ organization, the type of training and the sporting adversity [19]. In the same line of work, our results are consistent with a previous study that compared psychological skills in team and individual sports [20,21], which highlighted the significant difference in psychological skills between team and individual sports. The advantage of team sports can be explained, in part, by the additional social dimension of team sports [22]. ...
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Due to this unexpected pandemic situation, the objective of this study is to explore the mental strength of elite athletes and their coping strategies to manage stress in different types of sports and according to their level of competition. 344 competitive athletes responded to a questionnaire on the training characteristics during this period, a Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire to assess mental strength and coping strategies to manage stress was assessed by the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory ACSI-28. The data were analyzed by ANOVAI. We found that the coping strategies adopted by elite athletes during this pandemic period vary significantly depending on the type of sport practiced, namely in terms of confidence and achievement motivation, freedom from worry and coping with adversity. We also found that coping strategies to manage stress have significant relationship with level of competition in terms of goal setting and mental preparation. For mental strength we found significant variation in self-confidence and control depending on the type of sport practiced. Also, depending on the level of competition, the control dimension varied significantly. It is suggested that the mental health for professional athletes be carefully managed during confinement to anticipate a possible recurrence of this epidemic. Keywords COVID-19, Mental Strength, Coping Strategy, Elite Athlete
... Social benefits of physical activity, especially for team-based sports, are well established and are known to mediate positive health outcomes by providing opportunities for social interaction, companionship, and feelings of belonging and community (Eime et al., 2013), many of which were mentioned by participants in this study. Playing on a team encourages both fitness and psychological skill development (Kajbafnezhad et al., 2011). Legg et al. (2017) noted that participants often interact with teammates and other league players outside of training/matches, which would also have been prevented by COVID-19 restrictions. ...
Article
Background and Aims The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in associated lockdown restrictions for individuals across England, including the postponement of all recreational sporting provisions. The beneficial effects of regular physical activity are well established yet to the authors' knowledge, no research addresses the cancellation of all recreational provisions. Using quantitative and qualitative methods, this study assessed the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on recreational sports players, what alternative exercise methods have been sought and how players feel about returning to their sport. Method An online survey was distributed across England for six-weeks commencing in May 2020. A questionnaire explored differences in the impact of COVID-19 restrictions between sex, winter/summer/year-round sports, team/individual sports, age, and resilience groups. The use of alternative exercise methods, coping strategies and feelings about returning to sport were also investigated. Responses were gathered from 2023 adults whose recreational sport had been cancelled by COVID-19. All completed questionnaires (n= 1213) were taken for analysis (mean age = 49.41 years, SD = 17.165, 55.2% female). Results Quantitative findings showed the negative impact of COVID-19 restrictions was greater for females, those involved in winter and team sports, those aged 18-39 and low-resilient copers (p<0.05). No significant differences were found between individuals that had had COVID-19 or were considered vulnerable by government guidelines. Acceptance was the most common coping strategy. The average number of days per week that participants exercised significantly increased during lockdown, with significant increases also seen in the use of online workouts, fitness apps and home-gym exercise. Qualitative findings suggested that participants are looking forward to the social and physical benefits of recreational activity restarting yet are concerned about the logistics of returning under social distancing restrictions. Other worries included loss of fitness, spreading (younger age groups) and catching (older age groups) COVID-19 and being in a crowd. Conclusions Results highlight what is currently accessible to home-based exercisers and inform the reintroduction of recreational sports clubs. As COVID-19 restrictions look to persist, club representatives should provide accessible home-exercise options and be cautious of participant concerns when considering the return of recreational sport.
... Second, when controlling for different types of sports, results remained unchanged. This corresponds to the results of previous analyses [47,48] and shows that the trait EI is relevant for all three groups (individual athletes without direct opponent, individual athletes with direct opponent and team athletes). Furthermore, the explained variance for trait EI and self-assessment of athletic performance is small. ...
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Emotional intelligence (EI) is considered a determinant of sports performance. Two opposing perspectives have been discussed in the theoretical discourse on EI: EI as an ability versus EI as a trait, both widely differing in content and method of assessment. Previous applied sport psychology research is characterized by a heterogeneous use of different conceptualizations and measurements of EI. However, evidence for the superiority of an EI concept does not exist. This study directly compares the ability and trait EI concepts in the relationship with athletic performance. An online survey was conducted (response rate = 19%). Participants completed the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form, a list of questions about biographical information as well as information related to sports performance and sport participation. We used regression analyses and controlled type of sports to investigate how sports performance is influenced by EI. Trait EI positively predicted self-assessment of athletes’ performance (B = 1.02; p < 0.01) whereby ability EI did not predict any outcome of sports performance. The effect of trait EI was independent of the ability EI. Overall, the result indicates some evidence for the superiority of the trait EI in applied sports psychology.
... Kinesthetic is the ability to use all or part of the body to express ideas and feelings or use the hands to produce and transform something [3]. This kinesthetic intelligence skills include special physical skills such as coordination, balance, agility, strength, flexibility and speed [4]. The children with kinesthetic intelligence can respond well through sensory stimuli which then convey something with their body parts, especially the hands [5]. ...
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Aim: to produce a game learning model based on kinesthetic perception to improve kinesthetic perception, play intelligence, and collaboration among elementary school children. Material and methods. The game learning model based on kinesthetic perception is adapted to the growth and development aspects of students which is packaged through the processing of limbs that is focused on the psychomotor domain consisting of a series of basic locomotor movements, manipulative, non-manipulative, cognitive play intelligence, and effective cooperation. The method used is research and development, namely descriptive, evaluative and experimental methods. This research method is used to produce a product, namely a game learning model based on the kinesthetic perception of children aged 7-8 years which is equivalent to lower grade elementary school students. Development procedures: (1) collecting research results and information, (2) analyzing the product to be developed, (3) developing the initial product, (4) conducting expert validation, (5) conducting small-scale trials and revisions, (6) conducting large-scale trials and revisions, (7) making final products, and (8) conducting effectiveness tests. The subjects of this study were grade 1 elementary school students. The data analysis techniques used were quantitative and qualitative descriptive analysis. The final product effectiveness test used one group pretest-posttest design experiment. Results. The results of this study are in the form of a kinesthetic perception-based game learning model to improve kinesthetic perception, playing intelligence, primary school children's collaboration which contains four games, namely (1) Target Shooting Games, (2) Train Car Games, (3) Flag Games, and ( 4) Rakartugu Games. From the results of the assessment of experts and practitioners, the game learning model based on kinesthetic perception has a validity of 0.963. Conclusions. Kinesthetic perception based game learning model is effective for developing kinesthetic perception limb processing skills, playing intelligence and cooperation.
... Examinando la relación entre la experiencia deportiva y la AE, nuestros resultados sugieren que hubo una AE significativamente más alta en los deportistas de deportes individuales en comparación con los deportistas de deportes de equipo. A diferencia de nuestros resultados, otros estudios no encontraron dichas diferencias(Ghaderi y Ghasemi, 2012;Kajbafnezhad, Ahadi, Heidarie, Askari y Enayati, 2011; Laborde, Dosseville, Guillén y Chávez, 2014; Laborde, Guillén y Watson, 2017). Del mismo modo, Castro-, encontraron que la IE se correlaciona más fuertemente con los deportistas de deportes de equipo que con los deportistas de deportes individuales, encontrando diferencias significativas en la variable gestión de las propias emociones (similar a la RE pero evaluada con la herramienta SSRI). ...
Thesis
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Alcanzar los niveles recomendados de actividad física (AF) está relacionado con importantes beneficios en la salud y con la prevención de numerosas enfermedades no contagiosas. Los estudiantes universitarios se encuentran en una etapa con muchos cambios que provocan un descenso en los niveles de AF. Del mismo modo, la inteligencia emocional (IE) se ha convertido en una variable muy estudiada ya que también se relaciona con importantes beneficios de salud psicológica y física. No obstante, existen pocas evidencias en el análisis de las relaciones entre AF y las dimensiones de la IE: atención (AE), claridad (CE) y reparación emocional (RE). Por ello, el objetivo principal de la presente tesis doctoral fue analizar las relaciones entre AF, experiencia deportiva e IE en estudiantes universitarios de Madrid. Para alcanzar dicho objetivo se han desarrollado tres estudios. El primero, “Niveles de AF en estudiantes universitarios de Madrid”, tuvo por objetivo evaluar el cumplimiento de las recomendaciones de AF en dichos estudiantes, teniendo en cuenta variables sociodemográficas, académicas y de estilo de vida. El segundo, “Relaciones entre AF e IE en estudiantes universitarios de Madrid”, examinó las relaciones que existían entre los dominios de la AF [AF total, AF en el tiempo libre (AFTL), AF ocupacional (AFO) y AF en el transporte (AFT)] y las dimensiones de la IE (AE, CE y RE), considerando las diferencias en función del sexo. Por último, en el tercer estudio, “Asociaciones entre experiencia deportiva e IE en deportistas universitarios de Madrid”, se analizaron las relaciones entre la experiencia deportiva (número de deportes practicados, años de práctica, frecuencia de entrenamiento, tipo de deporte y nivel máximo de competición alcanzado) y las dimensiones de la IE (AE, CE y RE) en deportistas universitarios de Madrid. En los dos primeros estudios participaron 2960 (21,3 ± 4,3 años) estudiantes de grado de universidades públicas y privadas de Madrid, mientras que en el tercero tomaron parte 1748 (21,3 ± 4,3 años) estudiantes que declararon ser deportistas en el momento del estudio. Para la medición de la AF se utilizó la versión 2 del cuestionario llamado Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (QPAQ). Para evaluar la inteligencia emocional, se empleó la versión española del cuestionario Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24) y para la experiencia deportiva se desarrolló una encuesta ad hoc, basada en la encuesta de hábitos deportivos de los españoles (Ministerio de Educación y Cultura, 2015) y validada por juicio de expertos. Para analizar los resultados relativos a los niveles de AF, se realizó un análisis descriptivo y se efectuaron regresiones logísticas. Se utilizó un análisis MANOVA para comparar los niveles de AF e IE según el sexo. Diferentes regresiones lineales se llevaron a cabo para calcular el poder predictivo de la AF y la edad en base a los niveles de IE. Para las comparaciones entre grupos de las variables relativas a la experiencia deportiva y la IE, se utilizaron pruebas de Mann-Whitney-U y H-Kruskal Wallis. Cuando fue necesario, se utilizó la prueba post-hoc de Dunn-Bonferroni. Las correlaciones entre las variables de experiencia deportiva y las dimensiones de la IE se analizaron usando la correlación de Spearman. Los resultados de nuestros estudios muestran que de los alumnos universitarios de Madrid participantes, el 22,4% teniendo en cuenta la AF total y el 55,6% teniendo en cuenta únicamente la AFTL, no cumplían con los niveles recomendados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Ser hombre, tener un IMC de normo peso o sobrepeso, pasar un menor tiempo sentado o reclinado, trabajar, y estudiar un grado universitario relacionado con ciencias de la salud, ciencias sociales, ingeniería o arquitectura, fueron predictores del cumplimiento de las recomendaciones de AF, al considerar la AF total realizada por los estudiantes (todos p < ,001; r2 = ,075). Si se tiene en cuenta únicamente la AFTL, los predictores fueron ser hombre, tener un IMC de normo peso o sobrepeso, trabajar, y estudiar en una universidad pública un grado relacionado con ciencias de la salud (r2 = ,048). Por otro lado, se encontraron diferencias en los niveles de AF según el sexo (p ≤ ,001; r¡2p = ,038), siendo los hombres quienes mostraron mayores puntuaciones en AFTL (p ≤ ,002) y AFO (p ≤ ,001). En el caso de las relaciones entre los niveles de AF y las dimensiones de la IE, nuestros resultados revelan que existen asociaciones significativas entre estas variables. El análisis de regresión lineal controlado por todas las variables mostró que el sexo y la AFTL estaban asociados con la AE (r2c = ,025). El sexo, la edad y la AFTL se asociaron a la RE (r2c = ,024). Sin embargo, el poder predictivo de la AFTL sobre la AE y la RE fue débil. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en IE según el sexo (p ≤ ,001; tfp = ,039). Las mujeres mostraron una mayor AE (p ≤ ,001) y los hombres una mayor CE (p ≤ ,001) y RE (p ≤ ,001). Por último, en relación con la experiencia deportiva, nuestros resultados señalan que los diferentes deportes practicados (/•s = ,076, p = ,001) y el número de años de práctica (rs = ,059, p = ,012) estaban positivamente asociados a la RE. Sin embargo, el número de años de práctica estaba negativamente asociado a la AE (rs = -,073, p = ,002). Los practicantes de deportes individuales mostraron valores de AE significativamente superiores a los deportistas de equipo (p ≤ ,001). Además, se encontraron diferencias significativas en los niveles de AE según el nivel de competición (p < ,001). En conclusión, los estudiantes universitarios con mayores niveles de AFTL mostraron mejores niveles de IE, específicamente en AE y RE. Los hombres revelaron tener mejores niveles de AFTL, AFO y mejores niveles de CE y RE que las mujeres. Sin embargo, las mujeres mostraron niveles más elevados de AE. Por último, nuestros resultados sugieren que una experiencia deportiva extensa y diversa se relaciona con una mejor IE. Los estudiantes universitarios de Madrid deben mejorar sus niveles de AF. Concretamente, se debe poner el foco en los niveles de AFTL donde más de la mitad de los estudiantes no cumplía con las recomendaciones de OMS. To achieve recommended physical activity (PA) levels are related to important health benefits and the prevention of large non-communicable diseases. Undergraduate students are in a life stage full of changes that cause PA levels to decrease. Similarly, emotional intelligence (EI) has become a highly studied variable since it also related to important psychological and physical health benefits. However, there is little evidence in the analysis of the relationships between PA and EI dimensions: attention (EA), clarity (EC), and repair (ER). Therefore, the main objective of this doctoral thesis was to analyze the relationships between PA, sports experience, and EI in undergraduate students from Madrid. To achieve this aim, three studies have been developed. The first, “PA levels in undergraduate students from Madrid”, aimed to assess the achievement of PA recommendations in these students, taking into account sociodemographic, academic, and lifestyle variables. The second, “PA and EI relationships in undergraduate students from Madrid”, examined the current relationships between PA domains [overall PA, leisure-time PA (LTPA), occupational PA (OPA), and commuting PA (CPA)] and EI dimensions (EA, EC, and ER), considering the differences according to sex. Finally, the third study, “Associations between sports experience and EI in university athletes from Madrid”, analyzed the relationships between sports experience (number of practised sports, number of years practising sports, training frequency, type of sport, and competitive level) and EI dimensions (EA, EC, and ER) in university athletes from Madrid. In the first two studies, the sample was 2960 (21.3 ± 4.3 years) undergraduate students from public and private Madrid universities, while in the third study, 1748 (21.3 ± 4.3 years) took part students who declared themselves to be athletes at the time of the study. PA was assessed by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) versión 2. EI was assessed by the Spanish version of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24), and an ad hoc survey was designed for the sports experience assessment, this tool was based on the Spanish sports habits survey (Ministerio de Educación y Cultura, 2015) and was validated by experts. To analyze PA levels results, descriptive analysis and logistic regressions were performed. A MANOVA analysis was used to compare PA and EI levels according to sex. Different linear regressions were carried out to calculate the predictive power of PA and age according to EI. For comparisons between groups of the variables related to sports experience and EI, Mann-Whitney-U and H-Kruskal Wallis tests were performed and, when necessary, the Dunn-Bonferroni posthoc test was used. The correlations between sports experience variables and EI dimensions were analyzed using Spearman's correlation. The results of our studies show that of the participating university students in Madrid, 22.4% according to overall PA and 55.6% according to LTPA, did not meet the recommended PA levels by the WHO. Being a man, having a BMI of normal weight or overweight, spending less time sitting or reclining, working, and studying a university degree related to health sciences, social sciences, engineering or architecture, were predictors of the achievement of PA recommendations, according to overall PA performed by the students (all p <001; r2 = .075). According to LTPA, the predictors were being a man, having a BMI of normal weight or overweight, working, and studying in a public university a degree related to health sciences (r2 = .048). On the other hand, differences were found in the levels of PA according to sex (p ≤ .001; rj2p = .038), with men showing the highest scores in LTPA (p ≤ .002) and OPA (p ≤ .001). In the case of relationships between PA levels and EI dimensions, our results show that there were significant associations between these variables. Fully adjusted linear regression showed that sex and LTPA were associated with EA (r2c = .025). Sex, age, and LTPA were associated with ER (r2c = .024). However, the predictive power of the LTPA over EA and ER was weak. Significant differences were found in EI according to sex (p ≤ .001; rj2p = .039). Women showed a higher AE (p ≤ .001) and men a higher EC (p ≤ .001) and ER (p ≤ .001). Finally, regarding sports experience, our results indicate that the different practiced sports (rs = .076,/? = .001) and the number of years practicing sports (rs = .059, p = .012) were positively associated to the RE. However, the number of years practising sports were negatively associated with EA (rs = -.073, p = .002). Individual sports athletes showed significantly higher EA values than team athletes (p ≤ .001). In addition, significant differences were found in the levels of EA according to the level of competition (p < 001). In conclusion, undergraduate students with higher levels of LTPA showed better levels of EI, specifically in EA and ER. Men showed better levels of LTPA, OPA, and better levels of EC and ER than women. However, women showed higher levels of EA. Finally, our results suggest that extensive and diverse sports experience was related to better EI. Undergraduate students in Madrid should improve their PA levels. Specifically, the focus should be placed on the levels of LTPA where more than half of the students did not achieve WHO recommendations.
... This construct has recently been linked to athletic performance, and many researchers have focused their attention on how it conditions said performance (Meyer & Fletcher, 2007). For example, Kajbafnezhad, Ahadi, Heidarie, Askari and Enayati (2011) analysed the differences of emotional intelligence between individual and team sports, demonstrating that they have similar characteristics at the emotional level. Along this line, Fradejas and Espada (2018) recently studied the relationship between psychological features and athletic performance. ...
Article
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Emotional intelligence and personality traits are aspects that have been studied in the field of Sports. Some research studies establish a relationship between psychological characteristics and sport performance. Certain psychological aspects have also been studied in the field of Dance, in which some dancing styles identify with the culture of a country. This is the case of the different styles of dance that exist in Spain. However, studies that focus on the psychological aspects of these specific styles are scarce. The aim of this study is to assess Spanish and flamenco dancers' emotional intelligence, particularly with regard to the age at which they began dance training and whether or not they belong to the Spanish National Ballet of Spanish Dance. The second aim is to analyse the connection between emotional intelligence and personality traits. The research follows a descriptive quantitative methodology with the use of a survey. The total number of participants was 143 dancers: 96 women (67.1%) and 47 men (32.9%) between the ages of 18 and 51 (30.52±7.86). The most important results show statistically significant differences between emotional self-regulation and the age when they began dance F (4) = 2.940, p = .02; and between emotional utilisation and whether or not the dancers belonged to the National Ballet, t (28.818) = 2.067, p = .04. Furthermore, the results show that emotional intelligence is related to the personality traits developed by dancers, highlighting the characteristics of responsibility and agreeableness. The results of this study can have a practical aspect, since they provide more and better information to directors/choreographers about the psychological profile of Spanish and flamenco dancers.
... With regard to self-motivation, the results of the present study are similar to those obtained in the study by Kajbafnezhad et al. [59] with elite athletes. In this case, the authors analyzed differences related to motivation, emotional intelligence, and psychological state among those who participated in team sports and individual sports. ...
Article
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The objective of the present study is to analyze the influence of coaches on emotional intelligence and on levels of anxiety, motivation, self-esteem, and resilience among athletes. Five-hundred forty-seven semi-professional athletes between the ages of 16 and 19 participated in this study. Various statistical analyses were conducted which explain the causal relationships between the variables. The results, obtained using a structural equations model, find that while autonomy support positively predicts emotional intelligence, perceived control predicts it negatively. Moreover, emotional intelligence positively predicts self-esteem and self-determined motivation, but negatively predicts anxiety. Other results show that self-esteem positively predicts self-determined motivation, whereas anxiety predicts it negatively. Finally, self-determined motivation positively predicts resilience. Indeed, the study demonstrates the influence and the importance of coaches in relation to the emotional intelligence, psychological well-being, and motivational processes of adolescent athletes when the latter engage in their respective sports. These results help to better understand how different behavioral, emotional, and social aspects belonging to the athlete interrelate with one another during competition.
... This has been previously shown by Kajbafnezhad et al. [50]. This suggests that task-oriented motivational climates enable improved perceptions, understanding, and emotional regulation [52]. This is due to the better understanding of goals, decreased levels of frustration, involvement of more hedonistic motivations, more positive processes in the acceptance of change, and more positive group influences. ...
Article
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This study developed a Structural Equation Model (SEM) in order to identify the associations between motivational climate, emotional intelligence, adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD), Physical Activity (PA), and some health indicators in a sample of future teachers. A non-experimental and cross-sectional study was carried in 775 university students (22.22 ± 3.76), using as main scales the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ-2), Emotional Intelligence Inventory adapted for the sport context, Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A), Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED), 20 meter Shuttle Run Test (20mSRT), and percentage of lean and fat mass as calculated by the Tanita TBF300®® (Tanita-Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) electronic scale. The results showed a positive association between emotional intelligence and task climate, whereas the relationship with an ego climate was low. Ego-oriented climate was positively related to MD and high levels of PA. Emotional intelligence was directly related to higher levels of PA and the level of adherence to MD. PA was negatively associated with fat mass and positively with lean mass and VO2MAX. Task-oriented motivational climate showed a positive relation with the emotional intelligence of young people. Ego-oriented motivational climates were related to higher rates of physical-sport engagement and better diet quality.
... Although previous studies did not reveal clear trait EI differences between athletes in individual and team sports (Laborde, Guille´n, & Watson, 2017), some characteristics of team sports are important to interpreting these data. In contrast to individual sports, team sports athletes are involved with teammates and spend time training together and interacting often with each other (Kajbafnezhad, Ahadi, Heidarie, Askari, & Enayati, 2011), which also allows the pressure felt by athletes during the training sessions and competitions to be shared between members of a team (Webster, Hardy, & Hardy, 2017). In addition, competition training and participation require both the ability to overcome stress and the ability to regulate one's own emotions and those of others on the team (Laborde, Dosseville, et al., 2016;Laborde, Guille´n, & Mosley, 2016). ...
Article
The relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and successful athletic performance has been previously recognized, but there remains a need to investigate how EI impacts athletes’ sports motivation. This cross-sectional study investigated how different EI dimensions related to athletes’ motivation among 239 adult basketball players (129 females) aged 18-34 years. Our research participants completed questionnaires that included the self-reported Emotional Intelligence Scale and Sport Motivation Scale II. We found significant correlations between total EI and intrinsic, integrated, identified, and introjected regulation. Higher EI was negatively related to athletes’ amotivation. More specifically, the self-reported abilities to perceive emotion and manage others’ emotions were significantly related to intrinsic, integrated, and identified regulation, and only managing one’s own emotions negatively related to athletes’ amotivation.
... Thus, individual personality characteristics play a major role in determining the result. In addition, EI research demonstrated the difference in personality characteristics between individual athletes and team sport athletes [45,46]. It should, therefore, be interesting to explore whether effect sizes vary depending on the type of sport. ...
Article
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Emotional intelligence (EI) is considered as a factor influencing sport performance. The research findings are inconsistent with respect to the size and even the direction of the relationship, however. In order to summarise the available evidence, we conducted a meta-analysis examining the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and sports performance in competitive sports. A systematic literature search was conducted in June 2018. We identified 21 studies targeting EI and sports performance in competitive sports. We calculated correlation (r) to estimate the effect of the relationship. A random effects model was used to interpret findings. The meta-analysis of 22 effect sizes on the response of 3.431 participants found a small but significant relationship between EI and sports performance (r = 0.16). Additionally, the conceptualisation of EI (ability concept, trait concept, or mixed-model concept), type of publication, citation counts, and publication date turned out not to be significant moderators. Overall, the result is encouraging regarding the value of EI as a possible predictor in sports performance.
... Regarding the differences between athletes from team sports and athletes from individual sports, no differences emerged yet in the literature (Kajbafnezhad, Ahadi, Heidarie, Askari, & Enayati, 2011;Laborde, Dosseville, et al., 2014). While the main focus is usually on EI at the individual level, a novel perspective taken by Crombie, Lombard, and Noakes (2009), showed that the average ability EI of six national level cricket teams predicted objective team performance parameters (i.e., the final log points standing for the team at the end of a competition). ...
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is twofold: first, to introduce the reader to the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in sports and physical activity, and second, to have an intervention focus achieved through applied activities that enable the development of different dimensions of EI. The chapter begins with an introduction to the theory that underpins EI in sports – the tripartite model comprising knowledge, ability, and trait levels. Subsequently, measurement issues are addressed in regard to instruments measuring the ability and trait aspects of EI. In continuation, the role of EI is discussed within the sport performance domain, specifically in athletes, coaches, and officials, as well as its role in physical activity. Finally, an applied perspective of EI training in sport performance is presented, along with EI training through sports and physical activity. Thirteen EI training activities are suggested that are based on the tripartite model and target the five main dimensions of EI: identifying, expressing, understanding, regulating, and using emotions. Such activities aim to contribute to the dissemination of EI training at school, which may have an important further impact on performance, society, and health policies.
... En suggérant que l'IE joue un rôle déterminant dans les contextes sportifs, des travaux se sont focalisés sur l'influence des pratiques sportives, du niveau d'expertise ou encore du sexe des athlètes. Des études ont ainsi comparé l'IE entre des athlètes de sports collectifs et de sports individuels mais sans observer de différence significative (Kajbafnezhad, Ahadi, Heidarie, Askari & Enayati, 2011 ;Laborde, Dosseville et al., 2014). D'autres ont exploré les différences en fonction du sexe (Costarelli & Stamou, 2009 ;Dunn et al., 2007 ;Laborde, Dosseville et al., 2014) et deux d'entre elles montrent que les hommes présentent des traits d'IE plus élevés que les femmes (Costarelli & Stamou, 2009 ;Laborde, Dosseville et al., 2014) confirmant ainsi les travaux chez des populations non sportives (Mikolajczak, Luminet, Leroy & Roy, 2007). ...
... 00 ± 5. 29 points. Regarding disabled sportsmen we did not noticed substantial differences between individual kinds' representatives and team kinds of sport ones [7] (see table 2). Among questions with the least quantity of points we can mention such as: "I often feel pain", "In my relations with surrounding people there are often competitiveness and struggle", "I rare give up pleasure for the sake of higher values", "I have no plans for the future", or "It is difficult for me to forgive anybody". ...
Article
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Purpose: To evaluate the perception of quality of life for athletes - disabled, participating in individual and team Paralympic sports. Material: The study involved 32 athletes sports club "Start" in Wroclaw in 2013, engaged in individual sports: swimming, weightlifting, powerlifting (powerlifting) and command: wheelchair basketball and volleyball in a sitting position. Results: Studies have proven that sports people with physical disabilities have a positive effect on the quality of their lives. Conclusions: 1. Study aspects of perception of quality of life is a complex issue, but deserves proper attention and appropriate force to study it. 2. Athletes - Disabled involved both individual and team sports, the perception of quality of life is average.
... Two studies compared EI between team sport athletes and individual sport athletes and found no observable differences (Kajbafnezhad et al., 2011;Laborde et al., 2014a). Sex differences were also explored in three studies (Dunn et al., 2007;Costarelli & Stamou, 2009;Laborde et al., 2014a), two of which found that men had higher levels of trait EI than women (Costarelli & Stamou, 2009;Laborde et al., 2014a) -a finding that is in line with findings in nonathletic samples (Mikolajczak et al., 2007) -and one that found women score higher than men on one particular dimension of ability EIemotion management (Dunn et al., 2007). ...
Article
This review targets emotional intelligence (EI) in sport and physical activity. We systematically review the available literature and offer a sound theoretical integration of differing EI perspectives (the tripartite model of EI) before considering applied practice in the form of EI training. Our review identified 36 studies assessing EI in an athletic or physical activity context. EI has most often been conceptualized as a trait. In the context of sport performance, we found that EI relates to emotions, physiological stress responses, successful psychological skill usage, and more successful athletic performance. In the context of physical activity, we found that trait EI relates to physical activity levels and positive attitudes toward physical activity. There was a shortage of research into the EI of coaches, officials, and spectators, non-adult samples, and longitudinal and experimental methods. The tripartite model proposes that EI operates on three levels - knowledge, ability, and trait - and predicts an interplay between the different levels of EI. We present this framework as a promising alternative to trait and ability EI conceptualizations that can guide applied research and professional practice. Further research into EI training, measurement validation and cultural diversity is recommended. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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Objective: In this study, personality characteristics of neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to new experiences, consensus, and task of male and female athletes were compared in team and individual sports. Methods: 160 athletes (13 athletes dropped out) were selected from professional athletes in two disciplines (75 men: 39 men and 36 women) and group (72 men: 41 men and 31 women) in Kerman province. The athletes were asked to complete the NEO-FFI questionnaire for 60 questions. For data analysis, descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviations and inferential statistics: independent t-test were used. Results: The findings of the study showed that the athletes' score in group sports in agreement, extraversion and task is significantly higher than individual sports. Individual athletes had a high risk of neuroticism, and athletes had a lower score than men in all of the components except for neuroticism. Conclusion: It can be concluded that personality characteristics of male and female athletes and team and individual athletes are different. It is hoped that this research will be conducted in different ages, communities and disciplines, and the results will be reported.
This systematic review with a meta-analysis was conducted to compare the effects of small-sided games (SSGs)-based interventions with the effects of running-based high-intensity interval training (HIIT) interventions on soccer players’ repeated sprint ability (RSA). The data sources utilized were Web of Science, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and PubMed. The study eligibility criteria were: (i) parallel studies (SSG-based programs vs. running-based HIIT) conducted in soccer players with no restrictions on age, sex, or competitive level; (ii) isolated intervention programs (i.e., only SSG vs. only running-based HIIT as individual forms) with no restrictions on duration; (iii) a pre–post outcome for RSA; (iv) original, full-text, peer-reviewed articles written in English. An electronic search yielded 513 articles, four of which were included in the present study. There was no significant difference between the effects of SSG-based and HIIT-based training interventions on RSA (effect size (ES) = 0.30; p = 0.181). The within-group analysis revealed no significant effect of SSG-based training interventions (ES = −0.23; p = 0.697) or HIIT-based training interventions (ES = 0.08; p = 0.899) on RSA. The meta-comparison revealed that neither SSGs nor HIIT-based interventions were effective in improving RSA in soccer players, and no differences were found between the two types of training. This suggests that complementary training may be performed to improve the effects of SSGs and HIIT. It also suggests that different forms of HIIT can be used because of the range of opportunities that such training affords.
Conference Paper
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Emotional intelligence (EI) is considered to be important in all aspects of life, as it is connected with social adjustment, mental and physical health. Sports as an environment of achievement, in which many intense negative and positive emotions are caused, consists a context, in which EI can be a significant factor of success; whereas, many aspects of EI can be developed. The purpose of the present study was to examine the existing literature regarding the association of EI with the participation in sports. For this purpose, a literature search was conducted in the Google Scholar and Psyinfo electronic data bases, using as key words (a) terms relating to sport in general and specifically to certain sports (sports, gymnastics, basketball, swimming, etc.) and b) terms relating to EI (emotional intelligence, self-esteem, self-confidence, self-perception). From the studies identified, the 19 ones who met the following criteria were included in this review: a) were written in Greek or English language and b) had been published in peer reviewed scientific journals. In total, 3.481 people participated in those studies. Most of them were adults (children and adolescents were included in only five studies). From the review of the studies, it was revealed that EI, reducing the negative emotions that are related to anxiety, positively contributes to athletic performance. Athletes present higher levels of EI compared to non-athletes, while no significant differences among the athletes of different sports were found. Regarding to athletes’ individual characteristics, such as sex, age, and athletic level, there was a strong relation between age and EI, with the highest growth rate of the latter being noted in the early years of youth. Taking into consideration the above findings, it seems that there is an interrelated relationship between EI and participation in sports, which, however, should be proved by longitudinal studies.
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This study examines the impact of the University of Vermont Club Sports’ recently implemented new participant orientation. Using program evaluation theory and a survey instrument, this study measured the efficacy of the new program. A survey was designed and sent to all 312 participants with a response rate of 23%. Descriptive statistics from the instrument indicate strong efficacy for participants who completed the program with all outcome measures reporting moderate to considerable growth. T-tests and ANOVAs, in most instances, indicate similar efficacy of outcomes among different groups of respondents. However, statistically significant differences exist based on individual or team gender on three specific outcome measures. Results of this study suggest value in the implementation of the club sports new participant orientation while identifying groups where additional attention may be needed through adjustments to the curriculum or additional outreach strategies.
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Objective: In this study, we explored the relationship between migraine and sport in a physically active population of students, analyzing the risk of migraine among sporty students. Background: The relationship between sport and migraine is controversial; moreover, several studies report on sport as a migraine trigger, but there is evidence that physical activity could have a relevant role in migraine prevention. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using the validated ID-migraine questionnaire including specific demo-anthropometric (gender, age, weight, height) and sports variables on a potentially active student population of the University of Palermo. Evaluation in putative migraine subjects of clinical features and disability was explored through the administration of the Italian version of the Migraine Disability Assessment Scale. Statistical analyses were performed using univariate and logistic regression analyses. Results: Three hundred and ninety-three out of 520 students (210 F, mean age: 23.5 ± 0.7 years; 183 M; mean age: 20.5 ± 0.7 years) participated in this study. Migraine screened positive in 102 subjects (26.0%) and its prevalence was significantly higher among females (P < .001). An increased risk of migraine was found in females, and a protective effect of sport on the risk of migraine among females, but not among males. Conclusions: The role of exercise in migraine is still unclear. This study supports a protective role of sport in migraine reporting a protective effect in females. Further studies are needed to deepen the association between sport and migraine.
Research
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The goal of my dissertation was to understand Sport Commitment Model and their relationships with psychological behavior and other motivational theories. The Sport Commitment Model distinguishes two types (Enthusiastic and Constrained Commitment) and seven possible source of commitment. Two data collection was conducted and a total of 860 adolescent athletes participated in the studies. During my research three scales were adapted (sport commitment questionnaire-2, sport enjoyment scale, athletic identity scale). I can conclude from my results that if the athletes are committed to a sport enthusiastically, they will participate because they enjoy it and they find opportunities in it, which encourage them to put more energy and effort into their sport and they also find their goals in the activity. From my sample, it turned out that, the enthusiastically committed athlete trains more, competes higher level and most of them are representative of a team sport. On the other hand, Constrained Commitment has a positive effect on sport participation, but also has negative effect on adolescent motivational attitude since alternatives play a big role in their commitment and it seems they are staying in sport for acknowledgment from others and they do not want to lose the effort and energy what they already put into their sport activity. The adolescent who feels obligation in their commitment does not train much and does not compete at a high level. My results also showed that higher sport commitment not only increased sport participation, but also it could affect the individual’s health psychology, hence their life goals and well-being. For example, my studies showed that subjective well-being, future orientation, perfectionism, aspirations, not only could be increased by regular physical activity, but also it seems that level of commitment is affecting psychological behavior as well. I believe my findings may help psychologists and coaches to facilitate adolescents engagement in sports activities since the beginning of their sports, as per the fact that it can have many beneficial effects on their health behavior.
Article
Evidence indicates emotional intelligence (EI) positively influences performance in leadership, nursing, and business. In sport, preliminary evidence indicates EI positively influences athlete and coach performances. To date, one review has systematically analyzed the literature examining EI’s influence on sport up to 2015. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to review the contemporary scholarship examining EI in sport. Pertinent scholarship published between 2008-2018 was searched for, sifted through, and either discarded or included within the review. As a result, forty- four articles were included and created the foundation for thematic analysis to commence. The analysis revealed four themes relating to EI’s influence on psychological skills in sport, coaching, sport performance, and factors transcending sport. Collectively, results indicate EI is advantageous for both athletes and coaches concerning performance, psychological skills, and factors that transcend sport. Furthermore, methodological considerations are discussed, and recommendations are provided to both practitioners and researchers.
Article
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Objective: In this study, the personality characteristics of neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to new experiences, consensus, and tasks of male and female athletes were compared in a team and individual sports. Methods: 160 athletes (13 athletes dropped out) were selected from professional athletes in two disciplines (75 men: 39 men and 36 women) and group (72 men: 41 men and 31 women) in Kerman province. The athletes were asked to complete the NEO-FFI questionnaire for 60 questions. For data analysis, descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviations ... and inferential statistics: independent t-test were used. Results: The findings of the study showed that the athletes' score in group sports in agreement, extraversion and task is significantly higher than individual sports. Individual athletes had a high risk of neuroticism, and athletes had a lower score than men in all of the components except for neuroticism. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the personality characteristics of male and female athletes and team and individual athletes are different. It is hoped that this research will be conducted at different ages, communities, and disciplines, and the results will be reported.
Article
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Several studies showed that athletes from different sports have diverse attitudes and motivations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore sport commitment differences between sports, com- petition levels and, school class. 526 high school athletes were involved in this study and we investi- gated sport commitment with the Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2. Our results revealed that team athletes scored significantly higher scores on most of the variables and the comparison of school classes showed similar result. It is well-known that extrinsic factors play a larger role in the case of team athletes. Although our results showed that intrinsic factor is also important for team athletes. These results suggest that athletes in team sports do not just play because of themselves but their teammates as well. By examining competition levels, it seems that as the level of competition increases, so does the commitment. Football players had the highest level of commitment compared to players of other ball sports. This may partially stem from the training system provided for them, since children attending the new academics are also prepared for other fields of life (e.g., studies); their personal training is also coming to the forefront. Keywords: individual/team athletes, commitment, competition level, ballgames
Article
The purpose of this investigation was to determine how athletes are generally motivated as well as during practice and competitions. Two types of motivation can be identified: failure avoidance and the pursuit of success. Athletes (hockey, athletics and rugby) took part in the investigation. The results of the investigation revealed that: Failure avoidance is significantly more prominent than the pursuit of success when it comes to sport in general and during training sessions. As far as competition is concerned, the pursuit of success as a motivational approach was significantly higher than the avoidance of failure. The avoidance of failure as a motivational approach was significantly higher for males compared to female athletes. Grade 10 athletes displayed significantly less failure avoidance than Grade 12 athletes. Athletes who participated in team sport showed a significantly higher level of failure avoidance as a motivational approach compared to individual athletes.
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BACKGROUND: Achieving excellence in track and field athletes requires specific mental skills. The aim of the present study was to compare the mental skills between elite sprint and endurance athletes. METHODS: Forty elite athletes (age 20.55 ± 2.22 years, body mass 74.8 ±7.9 kg, height1.70 ± 0.1 m) participated in the present study. The athletes were classified into two groups according to their genetic polymorphism to physical activity: Endurance group (allele I, n = 20) and Power group (allele D, n = 20). The mental skills were assessed by means of Ottawa Mental Skill Assessment Tool-3 inventory (OMSAT-3: based in foundation mental skills, psychosomatic skills, and cognitive skills subscales) before the competition period. Furthermore, genetic data were also collected. Sprint and endurance runners were participating in Tunisian National championship. RESULTS: The results showed a significant difference between elite sprint and endurance runners in the foundation mental and psychosomatic skills subscales (all, p<0.05). Typically, the present study revealed that goal setting, commitment, stress reactions, fear control, imagery, competition planning and mental practice were significantly higher among the elite sprint runners compared to the endurance runners (all, p<0.05). Findings from this study could confirm the widely acclaimed research assumption that mental skills, such as goal setting, commitment and mental practice, are the predictor variables of power performances, while endurance performances are associated with different mental skills components. CONCLUSION: Finally, the results may inform applied practitioners regarding the differences in mental skill demands between power and endurance athletes and the genetic predisposition of practitioners.
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The present study examined the effects of a mental skills training package on gymnasium triathlon performance. Five participants took part in a single-subject multiple baseline across individuals design, which was used to evaluate an intervention package including goal setting, relaxation, imagery, and self-talk. The results of the study indicated the mental skills package to be effective in enhancing triathlon performance for all five participants. Additionally, all participants increased their usage of mental skills from baseline to intervention phases. Follow-up social validation checks indicated all participants to have perceived the intervention to be successful and enjoyable, and all were satisfied with delivery and content of the package. In conclusion, the findings provide further evidence to suggest mental skills training packages to be effective for endurance performance.
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The Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ) was developed as a multidimensional, sport-specific measure of individual differences in sport achievement orientation. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a stable, three-factor structure across three separate samples of university and high school students. The three separate but related subscales of competitiveness, win, and goal orientation demonstrate high internal consistency and stability over time. The SOQ competitiveness score differentiates students in competitive activities from those in noncompetitive activities, providing evidence for construct validity. The overall factor stability, reliability and validity evidence suggests that the SOQ can be a valuable measure for the investigation of competitiveness and achievement behavior in sport and exercise settings.
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The relationships between self esteem, self evaluative information use, and athletic performance were examined among 103 intercollegiate athletes. As predicted, personal standards were rated as the most useful form of information with downward social comparisons and feared selves information as the least useful. Athletes high in self esteem used more personal standards and ideal selves information and fewer feared selves. Higher self esteem was associated with better athletic performance. Controlling for self esteem, hours practiced, and social desirability, better athletic performance was associated with using upward, lateral, and downward social comparisons. Athletes using negative performance information from the past performed more poorly.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of two mental skills on the performance of ice hockey goaltenders during league games. The mental skills utilized were relaxation, in the form of centering, and self-talk. The participants were five male junior A hockey goaltenders. A single-subject multiple baseline across individuals design was employed to evaluate the use of the mental skills. The results demonstrated that the mental skills training was effective in producing improvements in the save percentage of the goaltenders. The social validation results indicated that the participants enjoyed using the mental skills and were satisfied with the results obtained. Furthermore, the coaches were very satisfied with the results and felt that the mental skills training was an important ingredient for improving performance, in particular performance consistency.
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The study used semi-structured interviews to explore the views of three high performance kickboxers regarding the contribution of psychology to the development and maintenance of expert performance within kickboxing. The results provide a useful insight into the experiences of high performance kickboxers, identifying those mental skills and psychological attributes that are perceived to contribute to success. Participants identified seven mental skills that they believed to be linked to success in kickboxing; 1) effective use of self-talk, 2) relaxation, 3) heightened concentration, 4) self-regulation of arousal, 5) goal setting, 6) coping with being hit, and 7) imagery. Three psychological characteristics were identified by all participants as contributing to success, 1) high self-efficacy, 2) highly motivated and 3) mental toughness. Although not specifically identified by participants, it is suggested that a fourth psychological characteristic was also apparent. Participants demonstrated varying degrees of emotional intelligence thorough their ability to monitor and manipulate their emotional states prior to and during competition. Martial artists used a number of long and short-term psychological strategies in preparing for competition. Furthermore, whilst mental skills were not systematically practiced, all participants endeavored to integrate some form of mental training within physical training. It is recommended that sport psychologists help martial artists develop and refine individualized mental training routines, assisting with the formal integration of psychological training into physical training. Martial artists spend the majority of their time practicing as opposed to competing. As such, the integration of mental skills training within physical training may help ensure quality practice, and facilitate the effective transfer of mental skills into competition.
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Assessed the psychometric properties of the Ottawa Mental Skills Assessment Tool (OMSAT-3), an instrument developed to measure a broad range of mental skills (Salmela, 1992). The OMSAT-3 was administered to 335 athletes (aged 9–42 yrs) from 35 different sports. An initial first-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed that the model displayed an inadequate fit, which led to the postulation of a more robust version, the OMSAT-3*. A CFA on this latter version, which included 48 items and 12 mental skill scales grouped under three broader conceptual components—foundation, psychosomatic, and cognitive skills—indicated that the proposed model fit well the data. A second-order CFA assessing the validity of the three broader conceptual components also yielded adequate indices of fit. It was found that the OMSAT-3* significantly discriminated between competitive and elite level athletes and its scales yielded acceptable internal consistency and temporal stability. Implications for consultants, coaches, and researchers are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Discusses the development of the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28 (ACSI; R. E. Smith et al, 1995), by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis of the original ACSI (87-item) administered to 637 athletes led to a 42-item version based on 8-factor structure. In Study 2, CFA of the 42-item ACSI was conducted using separate male and female subsamples and a final 28-item version of ACSI was developed. The factorial validity of this was established as 7 of its subscales conformed to the underlying factor structure for both male and female athletes. Correlation of ACSI-28 with measures of coping skills and self-efficacy further confirmed its convergent and discriminant validity. Research studies relating ACSI-28 to performance measures indicate predictive accuracy of ACSI in identifying overachievers, and suggest physical and psychological skills to be independent in predicting performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Relationships between self-report trait emotional intelligence and psychological skills were investigated. Male athletes (54) completed the Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS; Schutte et al., 1998) and the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS; Thomas, Murphy, & Hardy, 1999). Canonical correlation results suggested psychological skills used in both competition and in practice relate to perceptions of emotional intelligence (Practice: Canonical R = .69, p R = .67, p Keywords: AFFECT; COGNITIVE STATES; EMOTIONS; MENTAL SKILLS TRAINING; PREPARATION Document Type: Research Article DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2009.37.2.195 Publication date: March 1, 2009 More about this publication? The Journal's core purpose is scientific communication in the disciplines of Social Psychology, Developmental and Personality Psychology Editorial Board Information for Authors Submit a Paper Subscribe to this Title Terms & Conditions Contact the Publisher Search Manuscript Guidelines ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites $(document).ready(function() { var shortdescription = $(".originaldescription").text().replace(/\\&/g, '&').replace(/\\, '<').replace(/\\>/g, '>').replace(/\\t/g, ' ').replace(/\\n/g, ''); if (shortdescription.length > 350){ shortdescription = "" + shortdescription.substring(0,250) + "... more"; } $(".descriptionitem").prepend(shortdescription); $(".shortdescription a").click(function() { $(".shortdescription").hide(); $(".originaldescription").slideDown(); return false; }); }); Related content In this: publication By this: publisher In this Subject: Psychology/Psychiatry , Psychology , Social Science (General) By this author: Lane, Andrew M. ; Thelwell, Richard C. ; Lowther, James ; Devonport, Tracey J. GA_googleFillSlot("Horizontal_banner_bottom");
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The associations of personality and self-report emotional intelligence (EI) with attitudes to exercise and self-reported exercise behaviour were investigated in a sample of 497 Canadian undergraduates. A positive attitude to exercise was negatively associated with Neuroticism and uncorrelated with other personality traits and EI. Exercise behaviour was positively associated with Extraversion and EI and negatively associated with Neuroticism. Structural equation modelling indicated that EI mediated the relationship between personality and exercise behaviour. The interpretation of this result in terms of EI having some properties of a coping style is discussed.
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Two investigations were conducted to test the hypotheses that (a) elite Chinese athletes participating in the sports of track and field, fencing, and gymnastics exhibit differential psychological profiles; and (b) elite Chinese athletes participating in track and field exhibit superior psychological skill profiles when compared with collegiate level Chinese track and field athletes. Subjects were 83 elite Chinese athletes competing for the People's Republic of China in three individual sports, and 94 collegiate Chinese athletes competing in track and field. Psychological skills were assessed with the Psychological Skills Inventory for Sports (PSIS R-5). MANOVA and follow-up univariate analyses revealed significant relationships between psychological skills and the factors of sport played, gender, and level of play. Elite Chinese male track and field athletes and female gymnasts exhibited motivational scores that were significantly lower than other sport/gender categories of athletes. Similarly, elite male Chinese track and field athletes displayed team emphasis scores that are lower than those displayed by elite female track and field performers, female fencers, and male gymnasts. Elite Chinese track and field athletes (regardless of gender) exhibited higher anxiety control and confidence scores than collegiate level athletes.
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Both sport and academic work play large roles in school life, yet there is little comparative evidence on the nature or generality of achievement motivation across these domains. In this study, beliefs about the causes of success in school and sport of 207 high school students were found to be related in a logical fashion to their personal goals. The ego-involved goal of superiority was associated with the belief that success requires high ability, whereas task orientation (the goal of gaining knowledge) was associated with beliefs that success requires interest, effort, and collaboration with peers. These goal-belief dimensions, or theories about success, cut across sport and schoolwork. However, little cross-domain generality was found for perceptions of ability and intrinsic satisfaction. Intrinsic satisfaction in sport primarily related to perceived ability in that setting. Task orientation, not perceived ability, was the major predictor of satisfaction in schoolwork.
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Over the past five years, sport psychology researchers and practitioners have become increasingly vocal in their suggestions that emotional intelligence (EI) may be an important construct in the sport domain. Initial research in sport has been valuable for gaining preliminary insights, but use of disparate theoretical frameworks and assessment techniques confuses rather than clarifies potential links between EI and sport. Specifically, the use of different definitions, conceptualizations, and assessment inventories may yield different EI profiles of the same individual or team. This disparity has important implications for applied sport psychology, where there is a call for the use of theoretical paradigms, objective and subjective assessments, and empirical research to inform practice. The purposes of this paper, therefore, are to: (a) review EI models and assessment inventories; (b) review research on EI in business, health, and sport; and (c) identify directions for future research and professional practice in sport psychology.
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Presents a conceptual model which deals with the critical issues that need to be considered in developing effective competitive mental preparation strategies for athletes. It emphasizes the importance of (1) a complete understanding of the specific needs of the athlete, (2) detailed knowledge of the particular demands of the sport, (3) integration of this information to identify the most critical psychological factors that will affect performance, and (4) development of the most effective competitive mental preparation strategies for the specific athlete. The model is illustrated with the detailed description of how it may be applied to endurance sports like running and swimming, high-risk sports like motorized racing, and team sports such as football and basketball. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Assessed psychological skills relevant to exceptional athletic performance, using questionnaire data collected from 713 male and female athletes from 23 sports. The athlete sample comprised 126 elite competitors, 141 preelite athletes, and 446 nonelite collegiate athletes (mean ages 24.1, 18.6, and 19.8 yrs, respectively). 16 sport psychologists also completed the questionnaire as they thought the ideal athlete might. Analyses revealed significant differences among the athlete subsamples: concentration, anxiety management, self-confidence, mental preparation, and motivation were seen to have potential importance in skill-level differentiation. The ideal profile constructed by the sport psychologists generally paralleled the skill differences encountered, although the elite athletes did not report selected amplitudes in the profile. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Objectives. To investigate equivocal findings within the literature addressing the relationship between competitive anxiety responses and psychological skills. Intensity (i.e. level) and direction (i.e. interpretation of intensity as facilitative or debilitative) dimensions of competitive state anxiety and self-confidence were examined in performers with different levels of psychological skills usage.Design. Cross-sectional design assessing psychological constructs during competition. The independent variable was psychological skill usage (“high” and “low” groups) and dependent variables were competitive anxiety responses.Method. Non-elite competitive swimmers (N=114) completed a modified version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) which examined both intensity and direction dimensions prior to racing. Following the event these participants completed the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS) which measures psychological skills usage. Based on the TOPS scores the swimmers were dichotomised using post-hoc median-split into high and low usage groups for certain psychological skills.Results. MANOVAs revealed significant differences in the CSAI-2 scores between the high and low usage groups for the skills of relaxation, self-talk and imagery. ANOVAs indicated significant differences on all CSAI-2 subscales for relaxation groups, and differences on cognitive intensity, somatic direction and self-confidence for self-talk groups, and self-confidence for the imagery groups.Conclusions. Non-elite swimmers, in contrast with previous research examining elite swimmers (Hanton, S. & Jones, G. (1999a). The acquisition and development of cognitive skills and strategies: I. Making the butterflies fly in formation. The Sport Psychologist, 13, 1–21), primarily use relaxation strategies to reduce and interpret their anxiety intensity levels as facilitative, relying minimally on other psychological skills.
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During the past three decades, behavioral practitioners have been applying techniques to improve the performance of athletes. To what extent are interventions, designed to improve the directly and reliably measured performance of athletes in competitions, based on experimental demonstrations of efficacy? That is the question addressed by this review. All issues of three behavioral journals and seven sport psychology journals, from 1972 through 2002, were examined for articles that addressed the above question. Fifteen articles were found that met the inclusion criteria, yielding an average of only one published study every 2 years. This article reviews those articles, discusses reasons for the dearth of research in this area, and makes recommendations for much needed future research.
An exploratory investigation of optimism ,pessimism and sport orientation
  • R Daniel
  • Czech Kevin
  • A Burke
  • Joyner Burry
  • H Chavlesy
Daniel,R.,Czech Kevin,l.,Burke,A,Burry,Joyner.,& Chavlesy,H.(2002).An exploratory investigation of optimism,pessimism and sport orientation. International sports Journal.6,2,Academic Research Libaray.
Mental toughness and hardiness at different level of rugby league
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Golby,J.,& Sheared,M. (2004).Mental toughness and hardiness at different level of rugby league.Journal personality and individual differences.37,933-944.
Interpretation of competitive anxiety symptoms in elite and non elite sports performance. Personality and Individual difference
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Jones, G., & Hanton, S. (1996). Interpretation of competitive anxiety symptoms in elite and non elite sports performance. Personality and Individual difference. 17, 657-663.
Emotional intelligence and psychological skills use among athletes .Social behavior and personality: an international Journal
  • A Lane
  • R Thelwell
  • J Lowther
  • T J Davenport
lane,A.Thelwell,R.lowther,J. & Davenport,T.J.(2009).Emotional intelligence and psychological skills use among athletes.Social behavior and personality: an international Journal. volume37, number 2, p.p195_201 (7).
A discrepancy in analyses of the MSCEIT-resolving the mystery and understanding its implication: A reply to gignac
  • J Mayer
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  • G Sitarenios
Mayer,J., Salovey,P.,Panter,P., Caruso,D., & Sitarenios.,G. (2005). A discrepancy in analyses of the MSCEIT-resolving the mystery and understanding its implication: A reply to gignac.Emotion, 5(2):236-237.DOI:10.1037/1528.5.2.236.
Emotional intelligence in sport: conceptual, methodological, and applied issuse
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  • S Zizzi
Mayer, B.B., & Zizzi, s. (2007). Emotional intelligence in sport: conceptual, methodological, and applied issuse
Achievement goals in sport: the development and validation of the perception of success Questionnaire journal of sports science
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  • G Balague
Roberts, G. G; Tresure, D. C., & Balague, G. (1998). Achievement goals in sport: the development and validation of the perception of success Questionnaire journal of sports science. 16,337-347.
Foundation of sport and exercise psychology Campaigns
  • R Weinberg
  • D Gould
Weinberg,R.,& Gould, D. (1995).Foundation of sport and exercise psychology Campaigns, IL: human Kinetics Publishers.