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Microbiological investigation of maggot meal, stored for use as livestock feed component

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Abstract

The fresh and 9-month stored samples of freshly harvested dried, milled housefly larvae (maggots of Musca domestica) were investigated for the presence of microbes for the determination of its suitability for inclusion in livestock diet. The predominant bacteria species isolated in the samples include Bacillus cereus, Corynebacterium pyogenes, Micrococcus tetragenus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptoccus faecalis. The fungi isolated include Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliformis and a yeast (Saccharomyces cereus). The mean plate counts of bacteria were 2.56x10 3 and 1.1x10 3 cfu g -1 in the fresh and stored samples respectively, those of fungi were 0.21x10 3 and 3x10 3 cfu g -1 for the fresh and stored samples respectively. From the proximate analysis, the percentage moisture, fibre and ash contents of the stored maggot meal were higher (23, 7.5 and 12.5%, respectively) than for the fresh meal. Since the moisture in the stored maggot meal (23%) was higher than the peak figure of 12% stipulated by FAO for stored food product, it was concluded that the stored maggot meal was prone to deterioration by the population of fungi and bacteria in the improperly stored sample.

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... There are opportunities for smallscale insect farmers to process intermediate products such as dried powders which can be delivered to food and feed factories as raw material for manufacturing of valueadded industrial products. Nonetheless, deterioration of the harvested insects commences immediately, and may progress rapidly through processing, handling, and storage (Awoniyi et al., 2004;Mpuchane et al., 2000;Vandeweyer et al., 2018) culminating in loss of palatability, nutritional value, and safety. An earlier shelf-life estimation study based on moisture sorption properties concluded that dried pulverised black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) could be preserved for 7 months at 25 °C if dried to ~5 g/100 g moisture content and packaged in enclosures that are relatively impermeable to air and water vapor (Kamau et al., 2018). ...
... These were found in all packages. Other authors also isolated these and other moulds including Fusarium species in stored mopane worm (Simpanya et al., 2000) and house-fly maggot meal (Awoniyi et al., 2004). Some species of Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium are mycotoxigenic; the toxigenic potential in stored insect products should be explored further. ...
Article
Edible insects are receiving attention as a protein source in the food and feed sector. However, successful commercialisation requires mass production matched with appropriate processing and storage techniques. The quality of dried and pulverised black soldier fly larvae stored in woven polypropylene (PP) sacks, polyethylene (PE) bags and plastic containers with screw lid (PL) in ambient and refrigerated environments was monitored over six months. Chemical indicators (oxidation, fatty acid profile), microbiological parameters (total viable counts, yeast and moulds, Enterobacteriaceae, presumptive coliforms, Salmonella) and colour change were examined. Temperature and relative humidity of the storage environments were monitored. In the ambient environment (temperature: 23.6±2.7 °C; relative humidity: 57.6±7.0%), chemical deterioration progressed 1.5 and 1.2 times faster in PP and PE, respectively, compared to PL. Refrigeration (temperature: 5.4±1.1 °C; relative humidity: 97±5.7%) exacerbated spoilage in the PP due to permeation of moisture through the woven strands, but slowed chemical deterioration by factors of 3.3 (PL) and 2.8 (PE). Likewise, based on the average counts of Enterobacteriaceae and yeast and moulds, microbiological deterioration progressed 2.1 and 1.4 times faster in the PP and PE, respectively, while refrigeration retarded build-up of microbial loads by factors of 1.3-9.6. The presence of Salmonella spp. in the experimental product indicates that due attention must be given to adequacy of processing and handling procedures for dried black soldier fly meal.
... In South Korea, Hwangbo et al. (2009) explored the contribution of maggots to the meat quality and growth performance of broiler chickens and found that feeding diets containing 10-15 percent maggots can improve the carcass quality and growth performance of broiler chickens. In Nigeria, Awonyi, Adetuyi and Akinyosoye (2004) evaluated the replacement of fishmeal with maggot meal and found that diets in which 25 percent of fishmeal was replaced with maggot meal were most efficient in terms of average weekly weight gain and protein efficiency rate. At nine weeks, the live, dressed and eviscerated weights of the chickens, as well as the relative length, breadth and weights of the pectoral and gastrocnemius muscles, were not significantly affected by replacement with maggot meal. ...
... Insect animal feed developed from manure and related organic waste streams raises bacteriological, mycological and toxicological concerns. Although some of these have been mentioned in the literature (Téguia, Mpoame and Okourou, 2002;Awoniyi, Adetuyi and Akinyosoye, 2004), they still have not been adequately researched (see section 5.2). The question is whether and to what extent insects sequester pathogenic organisms and toxic substances from manure and organic waste products. ...
Book
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This book draws on a wide range of scientific research on the contribution that insects make to ecosystems, diets, food security and livelihoods in both developed and developing countries.
... It also worth noting that several attempts have been made in this region to reduce feed cost while improving productivity of high-meat yielding exotic poultry like broiler chickens. These include the use of agro-industrial by-products (Aletor, 1986), maggot meal ( Awoniyi et al., 2004), leafy vegetable protein concentrates (Agbede and Aletor, 2003) and herbaceous human haematinics ( Adedapo et al., 2002; Nworgu et al., 2007). ...
Article
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A study was conducted to assess the effect of dietary garlic (Allium sativum) supplementation on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens using a total of 300 day old Shaver Starbo chicks allotted at 10 birds per replicate and 6 replicates per treatment over a period of 7 weeks. The basal starter and finisher diets contained 228.61 and 201.42 g/kg CP, respectively. The control diet was the basal diet without garlic supplementation. Diets 2 and 3 contained supplementary raw garlic powder at 500 and 5,000 mg/kg diet respectively, while diets 4 and 5 contained supplementary boiled garlic powder at 500 and 5,000 mg/kg diet respectively. 4 female birds per replicate were slaughtered at the end of the trial to evaluate carcass and muscle characteristics, garlic aroma and palatability scores of the meat and oxidative stability of refrigerated meat at 4°C for 6 days were determined. The average weight gain, average feed intake and feed conversion ratio of the birds were not significantly (P > 0.05) influenced by dietary treatments. Broiler chickens fed garlic supplemented diets had marginally higher weight gain than those fed the control diet and was higher at high level of garlic supplementation (39.18 ± ± ± ± 0.94, 40.42 ± ± ± ± 0.45, 42.39 ± ± ± ± 1.57, 39.72 ± ± ± ± 2.97 and 41.42 ± ± ± ± 2.60 g/bird/day for Diets 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively; P > 0.05). The carcass and organ characteristics of the chickens were not significantly affected (P>0.05) by dietary garlic supplementation but abdominal fat contents were numerically lowered due to supplementary garlic. Moisture contents of broiler chickens were not significantly (P > 0.05) influenced. Garlic aroma (P < 0.001) and palatability (P > 0.05) scores increased with increasing level of dietary garlic supplementation. Thigh muscle had the highest score for garlic aroma (2.60 ± 1.30), followed by drumstick (2.57 ± 1.14) and lowest for breast muscle (2.50 ± 1.17) (P > 0.05). Oxidation susceptibility of meat, measured as concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), decreased with increasing level of supplementary garlic fed to the chickens (P < 0.01). Muscle MDA concentration was in order of thigh > drumstick > breast (P < 0.001). It was concluded that supplementation of chicken diets with garlic marginally improved weight gain and it was better at high level of supplementation (5,000 mg/kg diet). Boiled compared with raw garlic powder produced no beneficial effect. Dietary garlic supplementation improved meat quality by increasing meat palatability score and reducing the extent of oxidation of meat during refrigerated storage.
... It was recommended to dry the meal to 4-5% moisture to minimize bacterial activity. After processing, protection from moisture absorption can be achieved by water proof bagging (with cellophane or nylon) and heat-sealing (Awoniyi et al., 2004). Generally, care must be taken to assure that adequate heating takes place during the drying process so that any pathogenic organism that were present are destroyed (Rocas, 1983). ...
Article
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With a growing world population and increasingly demanding consumers, the production of sufficient protein from livestock, poultry, and fish represents a serious challenge for the future especially, in the developing countries. Maggot, the larvae of the domestic fly (Musca domestica) has ability to grow on a large range of substrates and this can make them useful to turn wastes into a valuable biomass rich in protein and fat. Studies have shown that maggot meal has a great benefit as a potential protein source in poultry nutrition and its use as fish and crustaceans feed in pond farming has been studied extensively since the late 2000s. Therefore, mass production of maggot meal must be encouraged as this will offer solution to the high cost of protein feed in fish and livestock production.
... Insects can be used to harvest nutrients from these wastes (Dolk et al. 1998). There are several organisms suitable for nutrient harvest from waste, with most research having been conducted on insects belonging to the order of Diptera (Calvert et al. 1969;Newton et al. 1977Newton et al. , 2005Inaoka et al. 1999;Fasakin et al. 2003;Awoniyi et al. 2004aAwoniyi et al. , 2004bSheppard et al. 2007;. In comparison with other Dipteran species, Musca domestica (common housefly) has been the most widely studied as a potential feed source but with the emphasis on aquaculture production (Calvert et al. 1969;Inaoka et al. 1999;Fasakin et al. 2003;Newton et al. 2005;. ...
Article
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The nutritional composition of common housefly (Musca domestica) larvae and pupae meal is reported in terms of proximate analysis, amino acid profile, fatty acid composition, apparent metabolisable energy and total tract digestibility (TTD) of nutrients. Proximate analysis and TTD of meal showed larvae and pupae meal to contain, on a DM basis, a gross energy value of 20.10 MJ/kg and 20.42 MJ/kg, respectively, and an apparent metabolisable energy value of 14.23 MJ/kg and 15.15 MJ/kg, respectively. Crude protein content was 60.38% and 76.23%, with TTDs of 69% and 79%, respectively, with similarly high values reported for individual amino acids. Amino acid analysis revealed a favourable amino acid composition with high lysine concentrations but marginally low methionine concentrations. Arginine : lysine ratios of larvae and pupae meal were 0.67 and 0.91, respectively, and isoleucine : leucine ratios were 0.68 and 0.64, respectively. Crude fat contents were 14.08% and 14.39%, with TTDs of 94% and 98%, respectively, and crude fibre contents were 8.59% and 15.71%, with TTDs of 62% and 58%. Housefly larvae meal had crude protein TTD of 69%, whereas that of pupae meal was 79%. Both larvae and pupae meal had high amino acid TTDs. The TTD values of the crude fat and crude fibre were determined at 94% and 62%, respectively, for the housefly larvae, and at 98% and 58%, respectively, for the housefly pupae. M. domestica larvae meal can therefore be regarded as a good-quality protein source suitable for animal feeding.
... Insects can be used to harvest nutrients from these wastes (Dolk et al. 1998). There are several organisms suitable for nutrient harvest from waste, with most research having been conducted on insects belonging to the order of Diptera (Calvert et al. 1969;Newton et al. 1977Newton et al. , 2005Inaoka et al. 1999;Fasakin et al. 2003;Awoniyi et al. 2004aAwoniyi et al. , 2004bSheppard et al. 2007;. In comparison with other Dipteran species, Musca domestica (common housefly) has been the most widely studied as a potential feed source but with the emphasis on aquaculture production (Calvert et al. 1969;Inaoka et al. 1999;Fasakin et al. 2003;Newton et al. 2005;. ...
Article
Full-text available
The nutritional composition of common housefly (Musca domestica) larvae and pupae meal is reported in terms of proximate analysis, amino acid profile, fatty acid composition, apparent metabolisable energy and total tract digestibility (TTD) of nutrients. Proximate analysis and TTD of meal showed larvae and pupae meal to contain, on a DM basis, a gross energy value of 20.10 MJ/kg and 20.42 MJ/kg, respectively, and an apparent metabolisable energy value of 14.23 MJ/kg and 15.15 MJ/kg, respectively. Crude protein content was 60.38% and 76.23%, with TTDs of 69% and 79%, respectively, with similarly high values reported for individual amino acids. Amino acid analysis revealed a favourable amino acid composition with high lysine concentrations but marginally low methionine concentrations. Arginine : lysine ratios of larvae and pupae meal were 0.67 and 0.91, respectively, and isoleucine : leucine ratios were 0.68 and 0.64, respectively. Crude fat contents were 14.08% and 14.39%, with TTDs of 94% and 98%, respectively, and crude fibre contents were 8.59% and 15.71%, with TTDs of 62% and 58%. Housefly larvae meal had crude protein TTD of 69%, whereas that of pupae meal was 79%. Both larvae and pupae meal had high amino acid TTDs. The TTD values of the crude fat and crude fibre were determined at 94% and 62%, respectively, for the housefly larvae, and at 98% and 58%, respectively, for the housefly pupae. M. domestica larvae meal can therefore be regarded as a good-quality protein source suitable for animal feeding.
... It was recommended to dry the meal to 4-5% moisture to minimize bacterial activity. After processing, moisture absorption could be prevented by waterproof bagging (with cellophane or nylon) and heat-sealing (Awoniyi et al., 2004). Adequate heating should take place during the drying process to assure destruction of any pathogenic organism present in the larvae (Rocas, 1983). ...
Article
Full-text available
A 60-70% increase in consumption of animal products is expected by 2050. This increase in the consumption will demand enormous resources, the feed being the most challenging because of the limited availability of natural resources, ongoing climatic changes and food-feed-fuel competition. The costs of conventional feed resources such as soymeal and fishmeal are very high and moreover their availability in the future will be limited. Insect rearing could be a part of the solutions. Although some studies have been conducted on evaluation of insects, insect larvae or insect meals as an ingredient in the diets of some animal species, this field is in infancy. Here we collate, synthesize and discuss the available information on five major insect species studied with respect to evaluation of their products as animal feed. The nutritional quality of black soldier fly larvae, the house fly maggots, mealworm, locusts-grasshoppers-crickets, and silkworm meal and their use as a replacement of soymeal and fishmeal in the diets of poultry, pigs, fish species and ruminants are discussed. The crude protein contents of these alternate resources are high: 42 to 63% and so are the lipid contents (up to 36% oil), which could possibly be extracted and used for various applications including biodiesel production. Unsaturated fatty acid concentrations are high in housefly maggot meal, mealworm and house cricket (60-70%), while their concentrations in black soldier fly larvae are lowest (19-37%). The studies have confirmed that palatability of these alternate feeds to animals is good and they can replace 25 to 100% of soymeal or fishmeal depending on the animal species. Except silkworm meal other insect meals are deficient in methionine and lysine and their supplementation in the diet can enhance both the performance of the animals and the soymeal and fishmeal replacement rates. Most insect meals are deficient in Ca and its supplementation in the diet is also required, especially for growing animals and laying hens. The levels of Ca and fatty acids in insect meals can be enhanced by manipulation of the substrate on which insects are reared. The paper also presents future areas of research. The information synthesized is expected to open new avenues for a large scale use of insect products as animal feed.
... Fresh maggots and maggot meals contain various pathogenic microorganisms, as observed in Nigeria by Banjo et al. (2005) and Awoniyi (2007), respectively. Storage may increase the amount of pathogenic fungi and bacteria in maggot meals, especially if the moisture content is too high (Awoniyi et al., 2004). In his review, Awoniyi (2007) concluded that the inclusion of maggot meal in the poultry diet is microbiologically safe for the animal and the consumer, based on the facts that the same bacteria were isolated from chicken fed with various proportions of maggot meal and that the bacteria encountered in maggot meals are not really different from those encountered by animals and humans during their daily exploits. ...
Article
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In West Africa, as in many parts of the world, livestock and fish farm-ing suffer from the increasing cost of feed, especially protein ingredi-ents, which are hardly available for village poultry farming and small-scale fish farming. Insects, which are a natural food source of poultry and fish and are rich in protein and other valuable nutrients, can be used to improve animal diets, a practice which is now strongly promot-ed by the FAO as a tool for poverty alleviation. This paper reviews prac-tices and research on the use of insects as animal feed in West Africa and the perspectives to further develop the techniques, in particular for smallholder farmers and fish farmers. The most promising insects are flies, especially the house fly (Musca domestica) (Diptera Muscidae) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) (Diptera Stratiomyiidae), which can be mass reared on-farm for domestic use, in small produc-tion units at the community or industrial level. Flies have the advantage over most other insects of developing on freely available waste material and could even contribute to rural sanitation. Termites are traditionally used by smallholder farmers to feed village poultry. While their mass production is problematic, methods to enhance populations on-farm and facilitate collection can be developed. In any case, new methods will need to demonstrate their economic profitability, social acceptability and environmental sustainability.
... The safety of insects for food and feed has recently been reviewed (Belluco et al., 2013;Van der Spiegel et al., 2013) but little data is available to support risk analysis, particularly for the use of insects as feed, where only a small number of safety related studies have been undertaken (e.g. Awoniyi et al., 2004). Only isolated information in relation to the chemical risks of insects has been published (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
There is an urgent need to increase the supply of sustainable protein for use in animal feed and the use of insect protein provides a potential alternative to protein crops and fishmeal. For example, fly larvae are highly compatible with use in animal feed containing much digestible protein with levels of key amino acids that are comparable with those found in high value alternatives such as soybean. However, the safety of protein from insects and subsequently the meat and fish from animals fed on such a diet requires further assessment. Here we present safety data from the larvae of the four fly species that have perhaps the greatest economic relevance in relation to their use as animal feed being: house fly (Musca domestica), blue bottle (Calliphora vomitoria), blow fly (Chrysomya spp.) and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens). Diverse rearing methods were used to produce larvae fed on a range of waste substrates and in four geographically dispersed locations being; UK, China, Mali and Ghana. Chemical safety data were collected by a fully accredited laboratory in the UK. The levels of the main subclasses of chemical contaminants considered for animal feed were determined, being; veterinary medicines, pesticides, heavy metals, dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and mycotoxins. The larvae analysed generally possessed levels of chemical contaminants which were below recommended maximum concentrations suggested by bodies such as the European Commission, the World Health Organisation and Codex. However, the toxic heavy metal cadmium was found to be of concern in three of the M. domestica samples analysed.
... However, crude protein and crude fat are the main nutrients in dried insect meal. Therefore, similarly to other meals of animal origin, oxidation processes and microbial deterioration during storage (Awoniyi et al., 2004) determine the shelf life quality, and should be taken into consideration. ...
Conference Paper
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The consumption of poultry meat and eggs is expected to increase considerably in the nearest future, which increases the demand for poultry feed ingredients to support a sustainable intensive production. Moreover, the constant improvement of the genetic potential of poultry has resulted in an increased density of the diets, which limits the inclusion of low quality feed compounds. Therefore, the feed industry needs new sources of highly digestible protein with a desirable amino acid composition to substitute other valuable limited protein sources of animal origin such as fishmeal. The phylum of insects includes the largest species variety in the world and suitable species providing high protein and high sulphur containing amino acid concentrations have been identified which can be successfully exploited as feed items for poultry. The aim of this paper is to review the state of the art on the use of insect protein in poultry nutrition and the possibilities of insect mass production for the feed industry. Although, legislative barriers for the inclusion of insect meals still exist, there is no doubt that insects have an enormous potential as feed item for poultry.
... However, when separating the rearing of the adult fly from that of the larvae these concerns may be solved. Awoniyi et al. (2004) investigated in Nigeria fresh and 9-month stored samples of freshly harvested dried, milled housefly larvae for the presence of microbes for the determination of its suitability for inclusion in livestock diet. In their studies the moisture in the stored maggot meal (23%) was higher than the peak figure of 12% stipulated by FAO for stored food product, and therefore the stored maggot meal was prone to deterioration by fungi and bacteria. ...
Article
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Een haalbaarheidsstudie naar insecten als duurzame eiwitrijke diervoedergrondstof in varkens- en pluimveevoeders is uitgevoerd in opdracht van het Ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie. De haalbaarheidsstudie omvatte een desk-studie en een workshop met stakeholders uit de verschillende schakels van de ‘insectenketen’. De doelstelling van de studie was om in samenwerking met stakeholders uit de ‘insectenketen’ en wetenschappers te onderzoeken of en hoe insecten op grote schaal ingezet kunnen worden als alternatieve eiwitbron in voer voor varkens en pluimvee.
... Toutefois les insectes nourris à partir de déchets organiques soulèvent des préoccupations bactériologiques, mycologiques, parasitologiques et toxicologiques importantes. Bien que ces questions aient été mentionnées dans les études de Téguia et al. (2002) et Awoniyi et al. (2004), elles n'ont toujours pas fait l'objet d'études approfondies. ...
... Toutefois les insectes nourris à partir de déchets organiques soulèvent des préoccupations bactériologiques, mycologiques, parasitologiques et toxicologiques importantes. Bien que ces questions aient été mentionnées dans les études de Téguia et al. (2002) et Awoniyi et al. (2004), elles n'ont toujours pas fait l'objet d'études approfondies. ...
Article
In a context of dwindling lands and resources, associated with a strong dependence on protein for feed and food, new methods of production and/or new food must be developed without affecting the quality of food, natural habitat and biodiversity of animal and vegetable species. As such, insects appear more and more as a solution of the future. To date, the consumption of insects is indicated by the term “entomophagy”, from the Ancient Greek “entomos” meaning insect and “phagos” meaning food. In such a context, a global evaluation of entomophagy seems essential before allowing the introduction of this practice in animal and human feed. Firstly, through this review, elements concerning the potentialities of insect valorization and their nutritional qualities will be brought. Secondly, the environmental impact of such a practice as well as the biological, chemical, physical or sanitary risks and even the potential presence of allergens and antinutritional factors will be approached. Thirdly, a review of the current European regulations will be proposed. Finally, reflections will be brought on the economic perspectives of entomophagy.
... However, crude protein and crude fat are the main nutrients in dried insect meal. 103 Therefore, similarly to other meals of animal origin, oxidation processes and microbial 104 deterioration during storage (Awoniyi et al., 2004) determine the shelf life quality and should 105 be taken into consideration. 106 Chitin in its pure form is the most widely occurring polysaccharide in nature and is found 107 in the cuticle of crustaceans and insects, in many other invertebrates, in nematode eggs, and as 108 a structural cell wall component of fungi. ...
Article
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The consumption of poultry meat and eggs is expected to increase considerably in the nearest future, which creates the demand for new poultry feed ingredients in order to support sustainable intensive production. Moreover, the constant improvement of the genetic potential of poultry has resulted in an increased nutrient density in poultry feeds, which limits the possibility to include low quality feed ingredients. Therefore, the feed industry needs new sources of highly digestible protein with a desirable amino acid composition to substitute other valuable but limited protein sources of animal origin, such as fishmeal. With estimated 1.5 to 3 million species, the class of insects harbours the largest species variety in the world including species providing a high protein and sulphur amino acids content, which can be successfully exploited as feed for poultry. The aim of this paper is to review the present state of knowledge concerning the use of insect protein in poultry nutrition and the possibilities of mass production of insects for the feed industry. There is no doubt that insects have an enormous potential as a source of nutrients (protein) and active substances (polyunsaturated fatty acids, antimicrobial peptides) for poultry. It can be concluded, basing on many experimental results, that meals from insects being members of the orders Diptera (black soldier fly, housefly), Coleoptera (mealworms) and Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locust, crickets and katylids), may be successfully used as feed material in poultry diets. However, legislation barriers in European Union, as well as relatively high costs and limited quantity of produced insects are restrictions in the large-scale use of insect meals in poultry nutrition.
... Insect animal feed developed from manure and related organic waste streams raises bacteriological, mycological and toxicological concerns. Although some of these have been mentioned in the literature (Téguia, Mpoame and Okourou, 2002;Awoniyi, Adetuyi and Akinyosoye, 2004), they still have not been adequately researched (see section 5.2). The question is whether and to what extent insects sequester pathogenic organisms and toxic substances from manure and organic waste products. ...
... In Nigeria, Awoniyi, Adetuyi, and Akinyosoye (2004) reported the microbiological quality of maggot meal stored in nylon bags at ambient conditions for 9 months. The bacterial count increased three-fold whereas fungal count increased 18fold due to rehydration from 7.4% to 23.1% moisture content. ...
Article
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In many African cultures, insects are part of the diet of humans and domesticated animals. Compared to conventional food and feed sources, insects have been associated with a low ecological foot print because fewer natural resources are required for their production. To this end, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations recognized the role that edible insects can play in improving global food and nutrition security; processing technologies, as well as packaging and storage techniques that improve shelf-life were identified as being crucial. However, knowledge of these aspects in light of nutritional value, safety, and functionality is fragmentary and needs to be consolidated. This review attempts to contribute to this effort by evaluating the available evidence on postharvest processes for edible insects in Africa, with the aim of identifying areas that need research impetus. It further draws attention to potential postharvest technology options for overcoming hurdles associated with utilization of insects for food and feed. A greater research thrust is needed in processing and this can build on traditional knowledge. The focus should be to establish optimal techniques that improve presentation, quality and safety of products, and open possibilities to diversify use of edible insects for other benefits.
... House fly maggots have also been proposed as poultry feed in both Western (155) and tropical countries (13,66,140). They can convert poultry manure and at the same time produce pupae as a high-protein (61%) feed with a well-balanced composition of the amino acids arginine, lysine, and methionine (47). ...
Article
Spiders (Araneae) make up a remarkably diverse lineage of predators that have successfully colonized most terrestrial ecosystems. All spiders produce silk, and many species use it to build capture webs with an extraordinary diversity of forms. Spider diversity is distributed in a highly uneven fashion across lineages. This strong imbalance in species richness has led to several causal hypotheses, such as codiversification with insects, key innovations in silk structure and web architecture, and loss of foraging webs. Recent advances in spider phylogenetics have allowed testing some of these hypotheses, but results are often contradictory, highlighting the need to consider additional drivers of spider diversification. The spatial and historical patterns of diversity and diversification remain contentious. Comparative analyses of spider diversification will advance only if we continue to make progress with studies of species diversity, distribution, and phenotypic traits, together with finer-scale phylogenies and genomic data. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 66 is January 11, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... There is a paucity of data on microbiological hazards specifically related to mass production of the key commercial insect species bred for feed in a controlled environment (Awoniyi et al., 2004) and most studies focus primarily on insects produced for human consumption (Klunder et al., 2012). A key commercial insect species currently mass produced in the EU for animal feeds is the terrestrial BSF. ...
Article
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Sustainable ingredients for animal feed are becoming scarcer. Insects have emerged as a promising protein and lipid ingredient for fish feed, and black soldier fly (BSF; Hermetia illucens) larvae in particular have great potential to efficiently convert organic matter into high value protein and fat. Seaweeds are a sustainable source of organic matter and complex carbohydrates, but can also provide marine long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for fly larvae, and therefore could offer a commercially attractive alternative to traditional aquafeeds. However, pathogenic bacteria and faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) readily attach to seaweeds, therefore before this novel BSF larvae feed ingredient is advocated, microbiological risk assessments are warranted to ensure animal and public health protection from farm-to-fork. In this study, screening of raw materials and finished products during formulation of experimental insect meal fish feed was undertaken to evaluate the potential for the introduction of selected bacterial pathogens and FIOs via seaweed substrate to BSF larvae, and subsequent survival during multiple manufacturing processing stages. Processed seaweed powder was found to be a microbiologically safe feed substrate for BSF larvae. Low levels of FIOs were associated with larvae at the point of harvest, although larvae meal and extracted lipids were free of FIOs immediately after processing. During handling, distribution and storage the larvae meal and other externally sourced raw feed ingredients for larvae rearing and feed pellet formation became contaminated with FIOs and Listeria spp. FIOs were also present, albeit at very low levels, in the finished feed pellets. Processing treatments provided effective decontamination, and FIO and pathogen concentrations in finished products never exceeded microbiological quality standards for insect processed animal proteins. Microbiological contamination of raw materials and finished products during packaging and distribution, or originating from production environments, were identified as critical control points, requiring assessment to ensure good hygiene practices.
... Ларве се развијају у измету и органској материји која се распада, те управо због тога постоји забринутост о могућем преношењу патогена. Awonyi et al. [207] су у једном истраживању у Нигерији утврдили да је складиштено брашно ларви подложно нападу бактерија и/или гљива уколико је садржај влаге превисок, те аутори препоручују сушење до нивоа од 4-5% садржаја влаге и заштиту водоотпорним паковањем. ...
... Biomass could be recycled during the production of insects, which makes the protein sustainable. Moreover, pupae of Chironomidae and Muscidae are used as fishing baits and feeds (Awoniyi et al. 2004). Yellow mealworms have been widely used as the fodder for amphibious pets like lizards and salamanders (Liu et al. 2010;Zhou et al. 2002). ...
Article
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The practice of eating insects has been documented for a long time. With obvious economic and environmental advantages, edible insects are in the spotlight recently due to their enormous potential in multiple industries. A number of research has been conducted to maximize their value, but concerns have been raised for the food security. In this review, we compared the characteristics of edible insects with other traditional protein sources. The progress of modern entomophagy was introduced. The benefits and risks of eating insects were summarized. Additionally, the shortcoming of current production were discussed. Feasible ways and strategies were proposed to promote the consumption of edible insects. Graphical abstract
... • Dry-frying Ruspolia differens stored in opaque vacuum packages or transparent plastic containers at ambient temperature lead to 12-22 weeks shelf life with retained acceptability and low bacterial counts (Ssepuuya et al. 2016). • Storage of Musca domestica meal dried, ground, and stored in nylon bags for 9 months at ambient temperature resulted in threefold increase of bacterial counts, 18-fold increase of fungal counts and growth of pathogenic and toxinogenic microorganisms (Awoniyi et al. 2004). • Acheta domesticus and Hermetia illucens were boiled, sun-dried, ground and stored in different plastic containers (of which polypropylene was less efficient to maintain low bacterial counts than polyethylene) and over a 6-month period with regular testing each 45 days it was seen that Hermetia illucens degradation occurred in in a sigmoidal pattern (days 45-90 and 135-180), while drastic changes in Acheta domesticus were detected between days 0 and 45 (Wankiju 2018). ...
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Each foodstuff hosts a specific micro- and mycobiome during its passage from primary production to the final product to be consumed, and edible insects are no exceptions to the rule. Being so, however, this microbiological profile varies with the species and the environment it is placed in. Taxonomically, the species’ micro/mycobiome contains several species presumably present in all insects, some species which appear to be shared by most if not all insect species belonging to the same order, the same family, and the same genus. The specific array of bacteria and fungi is determined by this taxonomical setup, the species’ instar, and the environment, the latter including the place of origin (wild range resp. farm), and the microbiological features affecting the animal resp. the product during processing and storage. Insect consumption and activities linked to it is backed by a solid tradition seeking to minimize consumer risks. However, changes in this habit, e.g. farming, packaging, transport, and “novel” storage conditions, may pose risks not contemplated by tradition. In this way, it is recommended to re-evaluate these traditions scientifically and adapt traditions to these novel situations.
... The growth performance in terms of feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency or protein efficiency ratio was not significantly different between dietary treatments. Awoniyi et al. (2004) assessed the substitution of fishmeal with maggot meal and observed that diets in which 25 % of fishmeal was replaced with maggot meal were most efficient in terms of average weekly weight gain and protein efficiency rate. There are ongoing initiatives driven by donor bodies, international development organisations and private corporations globally on the use of insect as feed. ...
... Maggot is a natural food containing probiotic microbes and natural enzymes contained in its digestion so as to facilitate the metabolic process of Striped catfish seeds. According to Awoniyi et al. [35] found the bacteria Bacillus sp. in the maggot digestive tract. Bacillus sp. ...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the type of maggot media that can produce the highest survival, growth, feed efficiency and lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) to Striped catfish fingerling. This research was conducted during July 2020 – January 2021 at the Laboratory of Building 4, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran. The research method was carried out experimentally using the Completely Randomized Design (CRD) method and four treatments. The treatment given is a combination of commercial feed and maggot with different media consisting of A (50% commercial feed + maggot with 50% mixed media), B (50% commercial feed + maggot with 50% fruit media), C (50% commercial feed + maggot with 50% layer media) and D (50% commercial feed + maggot with 50% bran media). The parameters observed were survival, daily weight growth rate, length, feed efficiency, food conversion ratio and water quality. . Giving a combination of 50% commercial feed and cultured maggot with mixed media of 50% gave the best daily growth rate, length growth and feed efficiency results, namely 1.23%, 0.99% and 62.79% and the lowest feed conversion ratio value. that is 1.67.
... Bacillus sp. in the intestine produces antibiotics to fight pathogenic microbes. Bacillus sp. is able to secrete enzymes that can simplify complex molecules into simple molecules so that fish more easily absorb nutrients in the feed given [17]. ...
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The purpose of this research was to determine the appropriate combination of commercial feed and maggot to produce optimum growth, feed efficiency and food conversion ratio for catfish. This research used experimental method with Completely Randomized Design (CRD) consisting of four treatments and four replications. The study was conducted in the Ciparanje Land Fisheries Area, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University. The research was carried out between January - July 2019. The treatments are combination of commercial feed and maggots consisting of A (control, 100% commercial feed), B (75% commercial feed + 25% maggot), C (50% commercial feed + 50% maggot) and D (25% commercial feed + 75% maggot). The parameters observed were survival rate, daily growth rate, length ratio, feed efficiency, food conversion ratio and water quality. The combination of commercial feed and maggots affected the daily growth rate, length ratio, feed efficiency and food conversion ratio of catfish. The survival rate of each treatment was 88.75, 92.50%. Treatment C showed the value of highest daily growth rate, length ratio, feed efficiency namely 1.86%, 1.40%, 65.09% respectively and the lowest feed conversion ratio 1.54%.
Article
The traditional consumption of edible insects is common in one third of the world's population, mostly in Latin America, Africa and Asia. There are over one thousand identified species of insects eaten in some stage of their life cycle; and they play important roles in ensuring food security. The most common way to collect insects are from the wild, which is seasonal with limited availability and has an increasing demand resulting in a disruption to the ecosystem. There is a growing interest shown in rearing insects for commercial purposes, and an industrial scale production will be required to ensure steady supplies. Industrial production will need to take into account the living environment of insects, the nutritional composition of their feed and the overall efficiency of the production system. We provide a short overview on the consumption of and rearing insects in Africa, Asia and Europe. For Africa, a snapshot is given for Nigeria, Ghana, Central African Republic, Kenya and Uganda, while the following countries are reported for Asia: China, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Thailand and Vietnam. In addition, a list of insect species with the highest potential for food and feed in the European Union is provided with some reference to The Netherlands and Finland. The review concludes that there is need to better understand the rearing and farming procedures that will yield high quality edible insects in Africa, Asia and Europe.
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With a growing world population and increasingly demanding consumers, the production of sufficient protein from livestock, poultry, and fish represents a serious challenge for the future. Approximately 1,900 insect species are eaten worldwide, mainly in developing countries. They constitute quality food and feed, have high feed conversion ratios, and emit low levels of greenhouse gases. Some insect species can be grown on organic side streams, reducing environmental contamination and transforming waste into high-protein feed that can replace increasingly more expensive compound feed ingredients, such as fish meal. This requires the development of costeffective, automated mass-rearing facilities that provide a reliable, stable, and safe product. In the tropics, sustainable harvesting needs to be assured and rearing practices promoted, and in general, the food resource needs to be revalorized. In the Western world, consumer acceptability will relate to pricing, perceived environmental benefits, and the development of tasty insect-derived protein products. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology Volume 58 is December 03, 2013. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
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The Pandemic leads to different changes in the daily life such as eating, smoking behavior. The study mainly focused to comparatively analyze the change of eating and smoking behavior during lockdown among the people of Gujranwala, Mumbai and New York and also highlight what significant changes come in life due to pandemic. The study is cross national study and quantitative in nature. The survey method was used for data collection. The data was collected through Google survey from. The population of this study was people who belong to Gujranwala, Mumbai and New York and sample sized of 450 people were selected by using convenience sampling technique. The study results showed that participants of these three cities recorded changes in their eating and smoking behavior during pandemic. Most of the respondent’s weight were observed increased. They started eating extra food against their normal routine. The study results also noted that people have also changed their smoking behavior. They increased the frequency of smoking per day in confinement. The study also found that people spent more time with their family after the pandemic, because government of these three countries imposed a lockdown. The study concluded that Covid-19 effect on smoking and eating behavior negatively.
Article
Novel food sources have enormous potential as nutritional supplements. For instance, edible insects are considered as an alternative food source due to their higher protein content; moreover, they are economically efficient reproducers and have high in nutritional value. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of the freeze-dried powder of Locusta migratoria (fdLM), known to contain rich proteins as well as fatty acids. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the subacute toxicity of fdLM in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The SD rats were divided into four groups based on the dosage of fdLM administered: dosage of 0 (vehicle control), 750, 1,500, and 3,000 mg/kg/day were administered for 28 days. Toxicological assessments including observations on food consumption, body and organ weights, clinical signs, mortality, ophthalmologic tests, urinalyses, hematologic tests, clinical chemistry tests, gross findings, and histopathology tests were performed. Clinical signs, urinalyses, hematology, serum biochemistry tests, and organ weight examinations revealed no fdLM-related toxicity. The no-observed-adverse-effect level for fdLM was higher than 3,000 mg/kg/day in rats of both sexes; therefore, fdLM, in conclusion, can be considered safe as an edible alternative human and animal food source material.
Article
The present opinion has the format of a risk profile and presents potential biological and chemical hazards as well as allergenicity and environmental hazards associated with farmed insects used as food and feed taking into account of the entire chain, from farming to the final product. The opinion also addresses the occurrence of these hazards in non-processed insects, grown on different substrate categories, in comparison to the occurrence of these hazards in other non-processed sources of protein of animal origin. When currently allowed feed materials are used as substrate to feed insects, the possible occurrence of microbiological hazards is expected to be comparable to their occurrence in other non-processed sources of protein of animal origin. The possible occurrence of prions in non-processed insects will depend on whether the substrate includes protein of human or ruminant origin. Data on transfer of chemical contaminants from different substrates to the insects are very limited. Substrates like kitchen waste, human and animal manure are also considered and hazards from insects fed on these substrates need to be specifically assessed. It is concluded that for both biological and chemical hazards, the specific production methods, the substrate used, the stage of harvest, the insect species and developmental stage, as well as the methods for further processing will all have an impact on the occurrence and levels of biological and chemical contaminants in food and feed products derived from insects. Hazards related to the environment are expected to be comparable to other animal production systems. The opinion also identifies the uncertainties (lack of knowledge) related to possible hazards when insects are used as food and feed and notes that there are no systematically collected data on animal and human consumption of insects. Studies on the occurrence of microbial pathogens of vertebrates as well as published data on hazardous chemicals in reared insects are scarce. Further data generation on these issues are highly recommended.
Article
This opinion paper focuses on the AgriProtein experience of the mass rearing of insects for feed with specific reference to the development of a mass rearing facility aimed at the use of organic waste for the rearing of larvae destined for the animal feed industry. The paper discusses the market related issues of producing such a product as well as consumer acceptance, finances, scale and the future prospects for such mass rearing systems. Proving the business necessitates proving the market and product; this paper summarises poultry studies done with the protein source MagMeal™, and shows that the larvae and pre-pupae of dipteran species are a viable protein source and that the use of such protein has no negative effect and often a positive effect on production parameters or carcass characteristics of broiler chickens and that no anti-nutritional or toxic effects were noted for any of the larvae and pre-pupae meals tested.
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Authors' Contributions RU designed, planned and executed experimental work. NA, NC and NAK collected nad processed samples, and helped in lab work. AS analyzed the data. SK wrote the article. AH helped in preparation of manuscript. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with silkworm meal on production performance, hematology and carcass traits in broilers at finisher phase. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were uttered with the step-wise i.e. 0% (D1), 25% (D2), 50% (D3), 75% (D4) and 100% (D5) replacement of soybean meal with silkworm meal in commercial broiler rations. A total of 150 day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly distributed into fifteen replicate groups (n=10), and consequently reared on five experimental diets according to a completely randomized design. Feed intake was higher in D4 group in comparison with other groups (P < 0.05). Live body weight was higher in D4 group than D2, D3 and D5 groups (P < 0.05). FCR and dressing percentage were similar among the all groups (P > 0.05). Albumin was higher in D1 group in comparison with other groups (P < 0.05), however, other blood parameters and carcass characteristics indicated no significant differences (P > 0.05). Cost per kg of feed gradually decline with increasing dietary level of SCM inclusion levels (P < 0.05), indicating higher economic benefit. However, the gross return per bird and profit per kg meat were higher for diet D4 (P < 0.05). It was revealed that replacement of soyabean meal with silkworm meal did not affect broiler performance and carcass quality; therefore silkworm meal may effectively be used as a low-cost protein constituent in the broiler finisher ration.
Article
Edible insects have noteworthy potential as an alternative food material because of their economical efficiency and nutritional value. This study was conducted to evaluate toxicological effects on in vitro and in vivo experiments for Allomyrina dichotoma (. A. dichotoma), whose larvae are known for containing biologically valuable functions. The present study included testings for genotoxicity and 28-day repeated oral toxicity. The genotoxic potential was evaluated by a standard battery test. To evaluate the repeated dose toxicity, the freeze-dried powder of A. dichotoma larvae was orally administered to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at dose levels of 0, 250, 850 and 2500. mg/kg body weight per day for 28. days. The powder exhibited no mutagenic or clastogenic effects based on the results of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests. Also, there were no treatment-related changes or findings on the repeated oral toxicity in rats after 28. days oral administration. In conclusion, the results of these experiments suggest that the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) of the freeze-dried powder from A. dichotoma larvae was determined to be 2500. mg/kg/day or more in both sexes of SD rats. © 2015 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society.
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Recently, insects have received increased attention as an important source of sustainable raw materials for animal feed, especially in fish, poultry, and swine. In particular, the most promising species are represented by the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, HI), the yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor, TM), and the common house fly (Musca domestica, MD). Although rapid development is expected, insects remain underutilized in the animal feed industry mainly due to technical, financial, and regulatory barriers. In addition, few works have analyzed consumer and stakeholder points of view towards the use of insects as animal feed. In this article, we summarize the main findings of this body of research and provide a discussion of consumer studies regarding the consumption of animals fed with insects. Our review suggests that consumer acceptance will not be a barrier towards the development of this novel protein industry. Furthermore, we conclude that it will be of interest to understand whether the use of this more sustainable feed source might increase consumer willingness to pay for animal products fed with insects and whether the overall acceptability, from a sensory point of view, will be perceived better than conventional products. Finally, the main challenges of the feed farming industry are addressed.
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As the world population increases, and the already stressed land gets additionally burdened, the axe will eventually fall on the quality as well as quantity of food being produced. With increased numbers of mouths to feed, there is need to search for viable options. Insects can form one such excellent source of nutrition, which is superior to many existing sources. Not only insects are historically and culturally a major part of human diets, they are also nutritionally richer, easier to rear, and better for the environment. They are the easiest source of food for us in the future, a realization that is increasingly becoming imminent. This chapter is a step in the direction of creating awareness of how entomophagy is essential and needs to be encouraged.
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This qualitative research focuses on risk management in the supply chain of industrial entomology companies that are mass-rearing insects for human food or for feed for farmed animals. This research presents answers to such questions as what are the risks related especially to the entomology industry, what are the reasons behind the risks, and finally how the risks can be mitigated. The industry has started to bloom only recently in the 2010s, meaning that the industry is still lacking knowledge based on historical data and scientific coverage of the field. This research is one of the first in the world that identifies the supply chain risks associated especially with large-scale insect farming for human food and animal feed and determines how the risk profile is formed. The novel nature of the industry reflects to many parts of supply chain risk management. By the time of writing this research the established networks and operators, together with standards and regulations are still in the making. Even the biggest companies in the market are still only planning their large farming facilities. Risks like fluctuations in feed raw material prices are in common with traditional farming, but the main risks that insect farms are facing are related to the health of the animals. The knowledge of pathogens and parasites of insects is very limited. As the nature of the health risks is unknown, the mitigation must be based on precautions and preventive actions. What is alarming for the companies operating in the field is that even a well-managed risk control cannot give a high level of security simply because of the lack of knowledge. The industry will continue growing globally. When the industry gets an established foothold and the production and supply chain functions get standardized the risk management can reach an acceptable level.
Article
The effects of replacing 0, 33.3, 66.7 or 100% of dietary fish meal (9%) with housefly maggots (Musca domestica. Linn) was investigated using broilers from day old to 5 weeks of age. Increasing the dietary level of maggots reduced feed intake and weight gain while increasing the feed: gain ratio (P>0.05), There was however no significant effect of dietary maggots on mortality rate (P>0.05). Replacement of dietary fish meal with maggots caused significant reduction in nitrogen retention (P<0.05) but an increase in fat retention (P>0.05). There was no significant effect of replacing dietary fish meal with maggots on the metabolizable energy value of the diets (P>0.05). It is concluded that maggots could replace only 33% of dietary fish meal (9%) without compromising performance and nutrient retention in broiler chicks. The cost of harvesting and processing maggots is about 15% of equivalent weight of fish meal, making even partial replacement of fishmeal with maggots economical.
Article
In a 21-day feeding trial, 260 day-old broiler chicks were used to study the effects of sub-lethal levels (0.00, 0.01, 0.10 and 1.00 ppm) of aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 on growth, feed consumption, nitrogen retention, organ weights, total serum protein (TSP), serum uric acid (SUA), serum glutamic oxaloacetic and pyruvic transaminases (SGOT and SGPT, respectively) and serum xanthine dehydrogenase (SXDH). Aflatoxins up to 1.00 ppm, irrespective of dietary type, had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on growth, feed consumption but caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in conversion and a significant (P < 0.05) fall in nitrogen retention. Various levels of afla-toxin significantly (P < 0.05) increased the TSP, SUA and SGOT values and the type and not the level significantly increased the SGPT values. There was no significant (P > 0.05) effect due to type or level of dietary AF on the SXDH values.
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