Conference PaperPDF Available

A Research Synthesis on the Interface between Lean Construction and Safety Management

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Applying lean construction practices to safety management is a promising research area and has been discussed by multiple authors. Some researchers propose that the reduction of occupational hazards is a naturally occurring effect of the implementation of lean practices. To further understand how lean practices affect project safety performance, an interaction matrix between lean construction and safety management practices was developed by performing a research synthesis and validating the synthesis with structured interviews. The variables analyzed in this interaction matrix were elements of the lean production system such as the last planner system, autonomation, and standardization, and the most common safety management practices such as planning and staffing for safety. The interface between lean construction and safety management was systematically analyzed by assessing the conclusions from previous investigations. The results indicate that there is a significant amount of evidence of synergy between lean production practices and safety management practices. For example, project-specific safety objectives can be incorporated in the lookahead planning process, and autonomation could be directly extended to worker involvement in such a way that workers can stop production whenever they feel in danger, among others. This evidence, along with the results obtained from the analysis of the interaction matrix, can also help to develop and integrate future production and safety management models.
Content may be subject to copyright.
1
A RESEARCH SYNTHESIS ON THE INTERFACE
BETWEEN LEAN CONSTRUCTION AND
SAFETY MANAGEMENT
Eric I. Antillón
1
, Luis F. Alarcón
2
, Matthew R. Hallowell
3
, and Keith R.
Molenaar
4
ABSTRACT
Applying lean construction practices to safety management is a promising research
area and has been discussed by multiple authors. Some researchers propose that the
reduction of occupational hazards is a naturally occurring effect of the
implementation of lean practices. To further understand how lean practices affect
project safety performance, an interaction matrix between lean construction and safety
management practices was developed by performing a research synthesis and
validating the synthesis with structured interviews. The variables analyzed in this
interaction matrix were elements of the lean production system such as the last
planner system, autonomation, and standardization, and the most common safety
management practices such as planning and staffing for safety. The interface between
lean construction and safety management was systematically analyzed by assessing
the conclusions from previous investigations. The results indicate that there is a
significant amount of evidence of synergy between lean production practices and
safety management practices. For example, project-specific safety objectives can be
incorporated in the lookahead planning process, and autonomation could be directly
extended to worker involvement in such a way that workers can stop production
whenever they feel in danger, among others. This evidence, along with the results
obtained from the analysis of the interaction matrix, can also help to develop and
integrate future production and safety management models.
KEY WORDS
Lean Construction, Last Planner, Safety Management, Research Synthesis, Interaction
Matrix
1
Research Assistant, Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado,
428 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0428, Phone +1 303/735-0185, Fax 303/492-7317;
eric.antillon@colorado.edu
2
Professor, Department of Construction, Engineering and Management, Pontificia Universidad
Católica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Macúl, Campus San Joaquín, Edificio San Agustín, 3rd
Floor, 7820436, Santiago, Chile, Phone +56 2/3544345, Fax 2/3544806; lalarcon@ing.puc.cl
3
Assistant Professor, Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado,
428 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0428, Phone +1 303/492-7994, Fax 303/492-7317;
matthew.hallowell@colorado.edu
4
Associate Professor, Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado,
428 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0428, Phone +1 303/735-4276, Fax 303/492-7317;
keith.molenaar@colorado.edu
2
INTRODUCTION
The construction industry has long been reputed for its high accident rates when
compared with other industries. It is one of the most dangerous industries worldwide
consistently accounting for the highest fatality rates. The International Labor
Organization (ILO) has made a conservative estimate claiming that at least 60,000
people are being fatally injured every year on building sites worldwide (ILO 2003).
Furthermore, in 2005 alone, the construction industry shared 1,243 (21.7 %) of the
total 5,734 work-related deaths from injuries in the US, while making up only 8% of
the overall workforce (CPWR 2008). Recent investigations have studied how safety
performance is affected by the implementation of lean practices and have shown that
they both improve the efficiency of production sites and result in favorable safety
outcomes (Thomassen et al. 2003; Saurin et al. 2004; Nahmens and Ikuma 2009;
Leino et al. 2010).
Minimizing waste in a production system is one of the cornerstones of lean
production. Improved safety performance, such as reduced injury and fatality rates, is
an example of waste reduction. Accidents result in reduced efficiency of a process,
resulting in non-value-adding events in a production system. Since lean principles aim
at reducing waste, it would be prudent to assume that the reduction of occupational
hazards is a naturally occurring outcome of the implementation of lean construction
principles.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the relationship between lean construction
strategies and construction safety management practices. The underlying relationship
between the lean practices and safety has yet to be explored. Thus, the topic is still in
its infancy and needs to be addressed because it may help the industry to
simultaneously improve productivity and safety performance.
LEAN CONSTRUCTION
Lean production emerged from the ongoing development of alternatives to mass
production. Its primary foundation, however, has been accredited to the principles of
the Toyota Production System (TPS). The term ‘lean’ itself was so given in part to
counterpose the new production system to ‘mass’ production (Ballard 2000).
Koskela’s ground-breaking report challenged the construction industry to explore and
adopt the new concepts and techniques of this new production philosophy in order to
examine it as an alternative to the traditional production system for construction
(Koskela 1992). Based on the principles of lean production and its implementation in
the construction industry, the last planner system has been established as one of the
most effective lean construction tools (Ballard 2000).
T
HE LAST PLANNER SYSTEM
The Last Planner System (LPS) of production control has been established as an
effective methodology that improves efficiency by stabilizing the workflow in
construction sites. A concise summary and description of the most important elements
of LPS identified in this study is provided in Table 1.
3
Table 1: Elements of the Last Planner System
Element Description Key
Lookahead
Process
The lookahead process is the second level of planning that
expresses what CAN be done after the master plan defines what
SHOULD be done.
T1
Constraint
Analysis
Constraint analysis consists of determining the activities that
must be completed so that each assignment can be executed.
T2
Backlog of
“Ready-Work”
Once all constraints have been removed for each assignment,
the activities are then put into the workable backlog from which
the last planners can establish the weekly plan.
T3
Last Planner
Process
The last planner process establishes weekly commitments to
production (what WILL be done) based on the workable
backlogs produced in the lookahead process.
T4
PPC
Measurement
The Percent Plan Complete (PPC) consists on systematically
comparing the plans committed to the plans executed. This
measures the extent to which the front line supervisor’s
commitment (WILL) was realized and becomes the reliability
performance indicator.
T5
Root Cause
Analysis
The root causes for nonconformance are tracked and analyzed
in order to develop a future plan and prevent it from happening
in the future, so that improvements can be made.
T6
LEAN PRODUCTION
Based on the concepts of lean production several principles, methods, and tools were
developed revolving around the primary goal of eliminating all waste. The main
objective of TPS is to produce the products that the client demands with the best
quality, lowest cost, shortest lead time, best safety and high morale. In order to
accomplish such goals, Just-In-Time (JIT) delivery and Jidoka must be implemented
in the production process. JIT is a set of tools and techniques that allows a company
to produce and deliver products in small quantities, with short lead times, to meet
specific customer needs. JIT allows for “the delivery of the right items at the right
time in the right amount” (Liker 2004, p. 33). Jidoka, the Japanese term for
autonomation is a concept that consists on never letting a defect pass into the next
station within a production process and allowing machines or workers to stop
production whenever something unusual or defective is detected (Liker 2004). A
summary of the most common lean production practices is provided in Table 2.
Table 2: Lean Production Tools
Tool Description Key
Just-In-Time
Just-In-Time (JIT) consists on producing and delivering products
in small quantities, with short lead times, to meet specific
customer needs
T7
Autonomation
Autonomation consists on never letting a defect pass into the
next station allowing machines or workers to stop production
whenever something unusual is detected.
T8
Production
Leveling
Production leveling reduces variability and inconsistency during
production.
T9
Standardization
Standardization involves using stable, repeatable methods
everywhere to maintain the predictability, regular timing, and
regular output of processes.
T10
Continuous
Improvement
Continuous improvement is the process of making continuous
internal, incremental, and iterative improvements to a process.
T11
4
SAFETY MANAGEMENT
In 2008, the US construction industry had a fatality rate of 9.7 per 100,000 workers,
while the all-worker average was 3.6. Falls and electrocutions have been identified as
the leading causes of fatal injuries in the construction industry, whereas being struck
by an object, falls to lower levels, and over exertion in lifting remain the leading
causes of nonfatal injuries (CPWR 2008). The dynamic and unpredictable
construction tasks and environments, combined with the high production pressures
and workload, create a high likelihood of errors, which leads to accidents
(Mitropoulos et al. 2007). Safety performance in the construction industry has
improved in the past two decades, but it has reached a plateau, as recent statistics
suggest (ILO 2003; CPWR 2008).
CII released its report titled Zero Injury Techniques (CII 1993) which presented
the results from a safety study that had identified five strategies as the most successful
accident prevention techniques being used to achieve the “zero accident” objective.
This study was followed by a validation study (Hinze and Wilson 2000) to examine
changes made since its publication. The results of this study identified nine key
practices, or areas, that contribute to improved safety performance. The most
prevalent safety management practices that have been identified to analyzed in this
study. The key safety practices are described in Table 3.
Table 3: Safety Management Practices
Practice Description Key
Management
Commitment
Top managers must be actively involved in worker safety at the project
level to exert a strong influence on establishing the project safety
culture.
S1
Staffing for
Safety
Staffing for safety implies that the right people, methods, and
resources are used to ensure safety on a construction project. The
appropriate staff ensures that safety needs are being satisfied.
S2
Planning for
Safety:
Pre-Project and
Pre-Task
Pre-project planning (longer-term) establishes and communicates
project-specific safety goals, plans, and policies before the
construction phase of the project. Pre-task planning (shorter-term),
such as JHA’s, ensures that tasks are performed with safety integrated
into the daily work routine.
S3
Safety
Education:
Orientation and
Specialized
Training
Knowledge about performing tasks safely is vital to worker safety.
There are a variety of ways that this knowledge can be instilled, but
training is perhaps the most effective means. Training covers a wide
variety of topics, each of which may directly influence safety
performance when performing a given task.
S4
Worker
Involvement
This is essentially based on the view that workers are not just a
valuable resource to be protected but also a resource that can
contribute to achieving the goal of zero accidents.
S5
Evaluation and
Recognition
In order to encourage safety performance, reinforcing such behavior is
a key element. If workers are evaluated and/or recognized for safe
behavior, then workers will seek to repeat that performance.
S6
Subcontractor
Management
If a safety program is to be effective, it must involve the
subcontractors. They should be included in the orientation training, the
drug testing and the safety planning among other activities. All parties
must comply with the same safety guidelines including employees of
the subcontractors.
S7
Accident
Investigation
Accident investigations are important for identifying the root causes of
injuries in order to devise effective preventative measures. Many
companies include near misses also, indicating proactive measures.
S8
5
EMERGING RESEARCH LINKING LEAN AND SAFETY
Nahmens and Ikuma (2009) showed that lean strategies encourage less material in the
work area, an orderly and clean workplace, and systematic workflow. Therefore, it
could be expected that standardizing, systematizing and regularizing production leads
to better safety. Poor safety is considered a form of waste because, from a lean
perspective, incidents that disrupt the flow of work or lead to injuries are waste
(Howell et al. 2002). Furthermore, injuries are costly not only in terms of human
suffering, but also in terms of worker compensation costs, lost time, lost productivity,
and higher employee turnover (Saurin et al. 2004). Safety should not be treated as a
separate subject from production, for it is an integral part of every production process;
safety depends on every action, material, and person used in a work process
(Nahmens and Ikuma 2009). Typical production planning decisions, which determine
what will be done, when, how and by whom, are the basis to establish preventive
measures (Saurin et al. 2004). As Leino et al. (2010) explains, safety shall be treated
as another one of the performance variables targeted by production management
along with cost, time, and quality. From a lean perspective, safety management is
about managing uncertainty given that it enables proactive planning, helping to
reduce workflow variability.
POINT OF DEPARTURE
It is evident that many of the new proposed approaches to construction safety within
the paradigm of lean need to be further assessed and are topics that are still in their
infancy. There is a lack of in-depth conceptual discussions on the interface between
lean construction and safety management. This will provide a basis for the discussion
of the strong correlation, which may or may not exist, between lean practices and
safety performance in construction. A framework that reiterates the interactions
between aspects of lean construction and safety management would enable an in-
depth conceptual discussion on this interface. The results from this can provide
evidence to promote and demonstrate the value of lean construction in construction
safety, yet another aspect of significant importance to construction projects, and can
also help to develop and integrate future production and safety management models.
METHODOLOGY
A research methodology approach known as a research synthesis has been
implemented in this investigation. This approach closely examines previous studies
related to the topic at hand and it has been used to combine qualitative data related to
the interface between lean construction and safety management. This helped to
recognize and understand the interface between lean and safety. Empirical studies
were also inferred as supporting evidence for the interactions identified and how the
implementation of lean results in improved safety performance. This approach was
inspired by two similar studies to the one being undertaken (Martinez et al. 2009;
Sacks et al. 2010). Martinez et al. (2009) integrated the principles of sustainable
construction (green building) and lean construction to develop a “Green-Lean”
conceptual integration, while Sacks et al. (2010) similarly has analyzed the interaction
between lean construction and Building Information Modeling (BIM).
6
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
Previous studies that have considered the interaction between lean construction and
safety were the focus of this study. The advantages of using these data was that it
enabled the possibility of obtaining not just the results from similar studies, but also
the language and words of the authors of these studies, which represents data that has
given a thoughtful input and a great deal of attention to compile. The data was
thoroughly collected in an iterative process to develop a fine framework, more
specifically an interaction matrix that encompasses across all of the possible
interactions between the lean construction tools and the most common safety
management practices (Table 4).
Table 4: Interaction of Lean Construction Tools and Safety Management Practices
Lean Construction Tools
Last Planner System Lean Production Tools
Safety
Management Practices
Lookahead Process
Constraint Analysis
Backlog of Ready-Work
Last Planner Process
PPC Measurement
Root Cause Analysis
JIT
A
utonomation
Production Leveling
Standardization
Continuous Improvement
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11
Management Commitment
S1
1 1 5 14 16 18
Staffing for Safety
S2
2 3 6 11 11
Planning for Safety
S3
2 3 4 6 11 15 16 20
Safety Education
S4
12 17 18
Worker Involvement
S5
7 8 9 13 17 19
Evaluation and Recognition
S6
8 9 20
Subcontractor Management
S7
1 1 5 16
Accident Investigation
S8
10 16
The extent of this study was rather to identify the most important and obvious
interactions, provide the supporting evidence from the research synthesis, and identify
the most significant interactions in the interaction matrix developed. Also, it is
important to note that this study provides the evidence for the potential synergy
between lean construction tools and the most common safety management practices.
The term tools has been implemented and used throughout the research to describe the
lean concepts and practices, given that these are the means to accomplish lean
construction. The interaction matrix initially identified a total set of 88 possible
interactions, from which 41 have supporting evidence, which are the interactions with
an index number noted in the matrix. These interactions with supporting evidence
were identified from 11 previous studies. Note that the research focuses mainly on
evidence available in literature.
DISCUSSION AND RESULTS
Table 4 displays an index number correlated with the interactions found in the
evidence, which identify the explanation of each interaction along with its supporting
7
evidence in a separate table. Due to the space limitations of this paper, the following
will discuss a few of the most salient interactions identified per tool (T1-T11) with the
safety management practices (S1-S8). For a complete discussion of the results of this
investigation, including a validation with an expert panel, and the other supporting
tables, see Antillón (2010). To maintain brevity, the details of the interviews are not
discussed in this paper. In the following text, the publications supporting the
statements made are provided in brackets at the end of the section. The reference
numbers correspond to the reference section at the end of the paper.
L
OOKAHEAD PROCESS - INTERMEDIATE PLANNING (T1)
Several of the strategies implemented by LPS can be easily extended to safety
planning, thus directly affecting the effectiveness of safety programs. One of the main
goals of the lookahead process is to shape the work flow sequence and rate. In terms
of pre-project planning for safety, this allows to establish more reliable project-
specific safety resources for a given time period during a project and thus staff for
safety accordingly. [13] [21]
C
ONSTRAINT ANALYSIS (T2)
Constraint analyses determine what must be done for a given work assignment before
execution. By freeing any constraints identified, this allows to execute the assigned
task. A constraint analysis can systematically include safety constraints, such as job
hazard analyses, directly incorporating pre-task planning for safety as part of the
constraint analysis process. By performing safety constraint analyses similarly as part
of the production planning, risk can also be predicted better, which in turn allows
safety management to allocate, or staff, safety resources accordingly. [13] [20] [21]
B
ACKLOG OF READY-WORK (T3)
A workable backlog consists on having a list of the tasks that have gone through the
constraint analysis and are ready to be performed with the assurance that everything is
indeed workable. This idea can be easily extended to safety planning. A checklist of
soundness requirements that an assignment must go through is usually what
determines whether the assignment can be considered workable or not. Safety could
be included as part of these preconditions. [21] [24]
L
AST PLANNER PROCESS - WEEKLY PLANNING (T4)
At this planning level, the actual workers, such as the foreman and other people
working on site (the last planners), play a significant role in planning. Worker
involvement is directly incorporated at this level to determine what can actually be
done (what will be done) in terms of the previously defined tasks with the workers’
perception of the work reliability. This is often referred to as a bottom-up perceptual
approach which can also be extended to safety by allowing the workers to determine
whether a task is reliable in terms of safety. [13] [21] [24]
PPC
MEASUREMENT (T5)
The Percent Plan Complete (PPC) measurement consists on systematically comparing
the plans committed to the plans executed in a project. The safety planning and
control (SPC) model proposed by Saurin et al. (2004), which integrates safety
management to the production planning and control process extends this concept to
8
safety performance measurement in order to evaluate safety effectiveness. Using a
similar measurement for safety the percentage of safe work packages (PSW) carried
out is measured, which can directly evaluate worker’s safety performance. [21]
R
OOT CAUSE ANALYSIS (T6)
Investigating root causes for accidents or near misses, which may or may not be the
root causes for nonconformance with the assignments, safety management may
proactively devise effective preventive measures. When root cause analyses are
carried out, similarly causes for successful performance and safe work behavior,
rather than just causes for non-conformance might also influence workers perspective
on safety by recognizing “causes for conformance.” [21] [22]
J
UST-IN-TIME (T7)
The delivery of the right safety resources, such as appropriate safety personnel and
personal protective equipment, at the right time, when risk levels are higher for
example, and in the right amount, can directly impact safety planning and staffing for
safety. Tools implementing the JIT concept help to forecast safety risks and therefore
management can allocate safety resources when and where they are needed, leveling
safety risk. Instead of allocating safety management efforts with the traditional “push”
approach, a more effective and less wasteful “pull” approach implementing JIT can
significantly impact planning and staffing for safety. [19] [20]
A
UTONOMATION (T8)
Autonomation in itself applies the same concept that worker involvement strategies
for safety implement, that is, the use of the worker’s perception and input for
evaluating the aspects of safety programs. Therefore, autonomation can directly be
extended to worker involvement in such a way that workers can stop production
whenever they feel in danger. Proper safety training for workers to recognize such
hazards is also essential for autonomation to impact safety management. The
appropriate training for workers to make the right judgment when they feel in danger
would help in maintaining a desired level of risk or risk averseness. [16] [22]
P
RODUCTION LEVELING (T9)
Through proper production leveling the appropriate resources can be matched to
production demands without exceeding the capabilities of the workers. This reduces
the chances of construction accidents while at the same time increasing productivity.
This impacts planning and staffing for safety strategies, and also shows
management’s commitment to try and improve safety performance while at the same
time reducing waste from a lean perspective. [7] [17] [19] [20]
S
TANDARDIZATION (T10)
Standardization implies that procedures may reduce the degrees of freedom of
workers and define a space of safe performance where accidents will not happen. The
fact that upper level management standardizes safety related procedures
communicates the importance of working safely to all workers and improves project
safety culture. Similarly, procedures can emphasize the importance of proper safety
training, the incorporation of safety plans, expected safety outcomes for the workers
and subcontractor procurement based on safety records, among others. Another very
9
important aspect of safety management that can be standardized is accident
investigation, which may also include things such as near misses. [16] [22]
C
ONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT (T11)
Applying such strategy for many of the safety management practices with the goal of
achieving better results every time can significantly improve the effectiveness of
many of these safety efforts. It can be reasoned that in order for continuous
improvement to be implemented within a company in the first place, it must be
expressed from upper management. Associated tools that implement continuous
improvement, in addition to many of the other lean production tools, such as 5S and
visual management, foster a culture of continual improvement, which is essential for
the successful implementation of lean. Visual management can be extended for safety
purposes using things such as safety signs and boards displaying current accident
rates allowing all workers to identify issues, thus providing an opportunity to be
trained, the boundaries for safe performance and compare the expected safety
performance. [6] [18] [22]
CONCLUSION
The results demonstrate that several lean construction tools are related, directly or
indirectly, to some of the most common safety management practices that are
implemented in the industry today. The last planner system shows that, if applied
correctly and implementing all of its elements, the principles of lean construction can
be successfully accomplished. Furthermore, there are opportunities to include safety
management into the system and improve safety performance in the same way that the
last planner system improves production performance. In fact, it almost seems
unreasonable not to integrate or include safety with production planning, given its
importance in today’s industry. Along with cost, time, and quality, safety shall be
treated as another one of the performance variables targeted by production
management. The interaction matrix, along with the explanations of the interactions,
can be used to further investigate this specific issue, or help with the realization of the
potential synergy that is obviously present between lean construction and safety
management.
AWKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors wish to thank the Center for Excellence in Production Management
(GEPUC), from the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile in Santiago, for their
assistance and collaboration during the data gathering phase of this study. A special
thanks to those who participated in the expert panel also, for the research validation
interviews of the study.
10
REFERENCES
[1.] Antillón, E. (2010). “A Research Synthesis on the Interface between Lean
Construction and Safety Management.” Master’s Thesis, University of
Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.
[2.] Ballard, G. (2000). “The Last Planner™ System of Production Control,” PhD
Dissertation, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, U.K.
[3.] CII (1993). “Zero Injury Techniques.” CII Special Publication 32-1,
Construction Industry Institute, Austiun, Texas.
[4.] Cooper, H. (2010). Research Synthesis and Meta-Analysis, a Step-by-Step
Approach. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc.
[5.] CPWR (2008). “The Construction Chart Book: The U.S. Construction
Industry and its Workers.” The Center for Construction Research and
Training. Silver Spring, Maryland.
[6.] EPA (2007). The Lean and Environment Toolkit. The United States
Environmental Protection Agency, <www.epa.gov/lean> (June 23, 2010).
[7.] Hallowell, M. R., Veltri, A. & Johnson, S. (2009). “Safety and Lean.
Professional Safety, November, 22-27.
[8.] Hinze, J. W. and Wilson, G. (2000). “Moving toward a zero injury objective.”
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 126 (5), 399-403.
[9.] Howell, G., & Ballard, G. (1994). “Implementing Lean Construction:
Reducing Inflow Variation.” Proceedings IGLC-2. Santiago, Chile.
[10.] Howell, G., Ballard, G., Abdelhamid, T. S. & Mitropoulos, P. (2002).
“Working Near the Edge: A New Approach to Constrcution Safety.”
Proceedings IGLC-10. Gramado, Brazil.
[11.] ILO. (2003). Safety in numbers – Pointers for a global safety culture work.
Rep. No. 061. International Labour Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. 27
pp.
[12.] Koskela, L. (1992). Application of the New Production Philosophy to
Construction. Technical Report No. 72. Center for Integrated Facility
Engineering. Department of Civil Engineering. Stanford University. 75 pp.
[13.] Leino, A., Elfving, J. & Ballard, G. (2010). “Accident rate down from 57 to 9
in five years.” Proceedings IGLC-18, Haifa, Israel.
[14.] Liker, J. K. (2004). The Toyota Way. New York: McGraw-Hill
[15.] Martinez, P., Gonzalez, V. & Da Fonseca, E. (2009). “Green-Lean conceptual
integration in the project design, planning and construction.” Revista
Ingenieria de Construcción, 24 (1), 5-32.
[16.] Mitropoulos, P., Abdelhamid, T. S., & Howell, G. A. (2005). “Systems Model
of Construction Accident Causation.” Journal of Construction Engineering
and Management, 131 (7), 816-825.
[17.] Mitropoulos, P., Cupido, G., & Namboodiri, M. (2007). “Safety as an
Emergent Property of the Production System: How Lean Practices Reduce
the Likelihood of Accidents.” Proceedings IGLC-15, East Lansing,
Michigan, USA.
[18.] Nahmens, I. & Ikuma, L. H. (2009). “An Empirical Examination of the
Relationship between Lean Construction and Safety in the Industrialized
Housing Industry.” Lean Construction Journal, 2009 Issue, 1-12.
11
[19.] Rozenfeld, O., Sacks, R., Rosenfeld, Y. & Baum, H. (2010). “Construction
Job Safety Analysis.” Safety Science, 48 (2010), 491-498.
[20.] Sacks, R., Koskela, L., Bhargav, D. & Owen, R. (2010). “Interaction of Lean
and Building Information Modeling in Construction.” Journal of
Construction Engineering and Management, 136 (9), 968-980.
[21.] Saurin, T. A., Formoso, C. T. & Guimaraes, L. B. (2004). “Safety and
production: an integrated planning and control model.” Construction
Management and Economics, 22 (2), 159-169.
[22.] Saurin, T.A., Formoso, C.T., & Cambraia, F.B. (2006). "Towards a Common
Language Between Lean Production and Safety." Proceedings IGLC-14,
Santiago, Chile.
[23.] Saurin, T.A., Formoso, C.T., & Cambraia, F.B. (2007). "An analysis of
construction safety best practices from a cognitive systems engineering
perspective." Safety Science, 46 (2008), 1169-1183.
[24.] Thomassen M. A., Sander D., Barnes K. A. & Nielsen A. (2003). “Experience
and Results from Implementing Lean Construction in a Large Danish
Contracting Firm.” Proceedings IGLC-11, pp.644-655, July 22-24,
Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.
... These lean principles (LPs) assist the participants to manage the companies in flexible way to meet projects' objectives. Furthermore, Womack and Jones (1997) and Antillon et al. (2011) simplified LP into five groups. And these LP are to be followed sequentially throughout the process (Chikhalikar and Sharma, 2015). ...
... The lean techniques (LTs) are the backbone of LC and have advanced since the start of its application in the construction industry. Antillon et al. (2011) defines LT as "procedures, frameworks, concepts, systems, approaches, and items that when applied, assist organizations execute lean through the workplace." There are various LTs encountered in the construction industry, namely 5S, just-in-time, visual management, total quality management, activities and kaizen (continuous improvement) (Antillon et al., 2011). ...
... Antillon et al. (2011) defines LT as "procedures, frameworks, concepts, systems, approaches, and items that when applied, assist organizations execute lean through the workplace." There are various LTs encountered in the construction industry, namely 5S, just-in-time, visual management, total quality management, activities and kaizen (continuous improvement) (Antillon et al., 2011). Studies to date have testified that the foremost adapted techniques to be executed in construction are total quality management, the 5S process, increased visualisation, just-in-time, value stream mapping, kanban system, prefabrication, waste elimination, standardisation, five why's, last planner system, continuous improvement, first-run studies (plan, do, check, act), error proofing (Poka-yoke), Ishikawa diagram, failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (Salem et al., 2005). ...
... These lean principles (LPs) assist the participants to manage the companies in flexible way to meet projects' objectives. Furthermore, Womack and Jones (1997) and Antillon et al. (2011) simplified LP into five groups. And these LP are to be followed sequentially throughout the process (Chikhalikar and Sharma, 2015). ...
... The lean techniques (LTs) are the backbone of LC and have advanced since the start of its application in the construction industry. Antillon et al. (2011) defines LT as "procedures, frameworks, concepts, systems, approaches, and items that when applied, assist organizations execute lean through the workplace." There are various LTs encountered in the construction industry, namely 5S, just-in-time, visual management, total quality management, activities and kaizen (continuous improvement) (Antillon et al., 2011). ...
... Antillon et al. (2011) defines LT as "procedures, frameworks, concepts, systems, approaches, and items that when applied, assist organizations execute lean through the workplace." There are various LTs encountered in the construction industry, namely 5S, just-in-time, visual management, total quality management, activities and kaizen (continuous improvement) (Antillon et al., 2011). Studies to date have testified that the foremost adapted techniques to be executed in construction are total quality management, the 5S process, increased visualisation, just-in-time, value stream mapping, kanban system, prefabrication, waste elimination, standardisation, five why's, last planner system, continuous improvement, first-run studies (plan, do, check, act), error proofing (Poka-yoke), Ishikawa diagram, failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (Salem et al., 2005). ...
Article
The South African construction industry has grown in leaps and bounds over the years despite the numerous challenges experienced. However, the perennial issues plaguing the industry still persist and efforts are being made to mitigate their occurrence. Lean construction as a strategic project management tool for construction activities and processes provides some latitude for the abatement of some of the issues facing the construction industry. This study seeks to empirically explore the propelling measures for the adoption of lean construction in the construction industry. With the aid of questionnaires, data was retrieved from the target population of the study which are construction professionals. Retrieved data was analysed with the appropriate method of data analysis. The outcome of the study coupled with the recommendations given provides a guide for the seamless espousal of lean construction in the South African construction industry.
... Measuring safety performance allows the organizations to take important decisions and appropriate actions towards their adopted safety management system. Measurements are very important as it determines the effectiveness of the safety management system on the overall safety performance, which can be either accident prevention strategies and/or safety practices and activities [19]. However, is safety performance measurable? ...
... Lagging indicator is safety performance measurement based on failures in the past. So, it is a retroactive measurement which only record incidents in the past [19]. Lagging indicator measure the incident after it occurs, that is why it was described as measuring the absence of safety rather than the presence of safety [5,19]. ...
... So, it is a retroactive measurement which only record incidents in the past [19]. Lagging indicator measure the incident after it occurs, that is why it was described as measuring the absence of safety rather than the presence of safety [5,19]. According to [20] the lagging indicators are widely use as easy to collect and understood, comparable with each other, and useful in the identification of a trend.) ...
Article
Full-text available
Construction industry is considered to be one of the most hazardous industries in the world. The reason could be attributed to its hazardous nature as it is an accident-prone industry. Thus, a need for better understanding of safety management system is essential for improving safety performance in this sector. This paper discusses briefly the elements of safety management by presenting different systems (such as Oregon OSHA Occupational Health and Safety Administration, and OTAR Overseas Territories Aviation Circle) and elaborating their elements. It also discusses two types of measuring safety performance the first is the lagging indicators and the second is the leading indicator. In addition, a field study was conducted to explore contractors’ perception on safety management. A questionnaire was distributed to construction firms. 200 responses were collected and analyzed. All of the results showed positive answers which indicate that safety in performance in Egypt is slightly above average as all means were close to average.
... As a result, various strategies and techniques are proposed (Gambatese, Pestana and Lee, 2017). Among those, going Lean is of critical importance (Antillón, et al., 2011). The impact of Lean practices in promoting occupational health and safety has already been implied in various studies (Schafer, et al., 2008;Nahmens and Ikuma, 2009;Howell, Ballard and Demirkesen, 2017;Moaveni, Banihashemi and Mojtahedi, 2019;Demirkesen, 2020). ...
... Even though previous studies proposed valid and appropriate implications, there is a missing link that mediates the relationship between Lean implementation and occupational health and safety. A major portion of studies mentioned that safety-related problems result in waste from the Lean perspective (Antillón, et al., 2011;Moaveni, Banihashemi and Mojtahedi, 2019). However, this is not the only synergy between Lean construction and safety. ...
Article
Full-text available
The construction industry is hazardous, which requires careful consideration of occupational health and safety measures. Among various strategies that are proposed to enhance construction safety, Lean construction practices were widely implied and proved to be effective. However, the link between Lean implementation and construction safety has not been completely studied yet in previous research in terms of psychological safety context. This study implies that psychological safety is of utmost importance in terms of explaining the association between Lean and safety. Lean implementation elements such as respect for people, trust, leadership, and continuous improvement positively affect employees’ psychological safety. In this context, semi-structured interviews and a survey were conducted with employees working in U.S. construction companies. The interviews provided that the majority of the construction employees do not feel psychologically safe at their workplaces either in traditional or Lean construction projects due to a number of reasons such as heavy workload, and deadline pressures. However, it was found that construction workers feel safer psychologically in Lean construction projects compared to traditional projects. According to the interview results and literature review, a conceptual model was proposed. Therefore, this study can contribute to the research area of psychological safety in the construction industry.
... Tools of Lean Construction are split by specific essential elements to achieve this objective, some of them are 5S (Sort, Straighten, Standardize, Shine and Sustain) and Firs Run Studies (Plan, Do, Check and Act) (Salem et al., 2004). Forbes and Ahmed proposed that the application of the 5S technique is totally recommended in activities that do not generate any value to the process (Forbes and Ahmed, 2011), it has had as a direct consequence the improvement of the indicators of accident rate in the system that advocates safe practices and in the construction process (Antillón, 2010). There are also key concepts of Lean Construction in a construction process, these can be broken down both in a design, pre-construction or construction stage; among there are Just in Time (JIT), Total Quality Management (TQM) and Last Planner System (LPS) (Marhani et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Goal: Present a toolbox applied to improve the processes related to social housing construction projects using Lean Construction. Design / Methodology / Approach: The research presents six phases; (1) literature review, (2) analyze record information and data on social projects, (3) design Lean Construction toolboxcustomized to social housing projects, (4) estimate indicators post application, (5) assessment building process (6) analyze economic outcomes due to toolbox application. Results: Results showed that it is possible to apply lean construction tools to social projects in the poorest areas of urban districts in Latin America, the efficiency building an emergency house increase to 50% implementing LC tools. In an average of 20 projects a year, where around 150 to 200 houses are built, the reduction of time to build the same number of houses is around 20%. Limitations of the investigation: The proposed toolbox was studied on housing projects deal by an NGO with operations in Coastal Lima - Peru, it was considered its sources and limitation to operate, and those own from communities located in the Lima slums. Practical implications: The proposal toolbox can be used as a guide for the construction of housing social projects. Originality / Value: The paper demonstrates its originality and relevance by presenting Lean Construction practices adapted to apply in social projects; reducing resources and wastes used and improving project productivity.
... In addition, the LPS recommends: (1) producing collaborative planning including the participation of support areas, like safety and health, (2) identifying and enforcing the adequate anticipation of the constraints, among others (Brioso 2011). Additionally, a case study shows that several tools from LC are related to some of the more common practices implemented even now in the Safety Management System (Antillon et al. 2011). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
At the beginning of 2020, a virus discovered in the province of Wuhan in China identified as SARS-COV-2, denominated COVID-19, began to spread globally, being identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a pandemic on March 13 since the epidemic has spread to several countries in all the continents and affects a large number of people (WHO 2020). In Peru the entry of COVID-19 caused the Peruvian government to take different options to control its spread such as mandatory quarantines and lockdowns. In front of this scenario, the Architecture Engineering and Construction (AEC) sector had to reinvent itself since it is a sector where work depends on a significant amount of personnel (IPE 2020). Furthermore, the level of industrialization in Peru is significantly lower compared with industrialized countries, generating that the consumption of labor is greater as well as the cost of the project, searching for new solutions to improve productivity. Moreover, considering the new sanitary measures for COVID-19 including new health protocols, controls, and improvement of working sanitary standards. Therefore, the main purpose of the present paper is to present a planning proposal for a system that integrates the Lean tools and the COVID-19 protocol for armed concrete buildings in Peru and present the preliminary results of its modification on the production system, design of work schedules, planning meetings, among other aspects of the construction system.
... Chronologically in the following year, papers by Alarcón et al. (2011), Antillón et al. (2011) and Leino & Elfving (2011) elected the positive impacts of Lean Construction to Health & Safety as a testimony of the former wide-ranging effects. On the other hand Salvatierra-Garrido & Pasquire (2011) and Vieira & Cachadinha (2011) contributed to both Lean and Green disciplines with evidences on their conceptual interactions. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes a performance evaluation model of sustainability for construction sites. This model was developed bringing together the Lean Construction, Green Building and the Well-being concepts addressed through the triple bottom line concept of sustainability. Following the Design Science approach, the model was applied in three construction sites at the city of Fortaleza, northeast of Brazil. Results are presented to validate the performance evaluation model proposed. It can be observed that the model can handle a range of variables both in terms of possible management actions and in terms of their sustainability outcomes. Different from others performance evaluation models, this artefact takes in consideration actions that are theoretically deemed to promote sustainability (according to particular construction phases) and managerial actions that are actually implemented. Finally, graphical displays help to guide how sustainability might improve over time, either evaluating individual sites against their previous records or benchmarking different building projects among different construction companies. Keywords: Sustainability; Lean; Green; Well-being; Performance evaluation
Book
This book discusses human factors research directed towards realizing and assessing sustainability in the built environment. It reports on advanced engineering methods for sustainable infrastructure design, as well as on assessments of the efficient methods and the social, environmental, and economic impact of various designs and projects. The book covers a range of topics, including the use of recycled materials in architecture, ergonomics in buildings and public design, sustainable design for smart cities, design for the aging population, industrial design, human scale in architecture, and many more. Based on the AHFE 2018 International Conference on Human Factors, Sustainable Urban Planning and Infrastructure, held on July 21–25, 2018, in Orlando, Florida, USA, it offers various perspectives on sustainability and ergonomics. As such, it is a valuable reference resource for designers, urban engineers, architects, infrastructure professionals, public infrastructure owners, policy makers, government engineers and planners, as well as operations managers and academics active in urban and infrastructure research.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Construction management is enriched in many ways by direct and indirect support of lean construction concept. The objectives of this study are to assess the current level of awareness about lean construction practice, to identify the potential benefits and challenges to implement lean construction in the Bangladeshi construction industry and to prioritize them. Design/methodology/approach A comprehensive literature review has been done to design a questionnaire for the survey. The final questionnaire has been designed with 27 lean tools, 41 challenges, and seven benefits of implementing lean principles in the construction industry. A total of 164 valid responses have been collected from Bangladeshi construction practitioners involved in different types of construction organizations. The result has been analyzed by Relative Important Index (RII). Findings The findings revealed 41 challenges to implement lean construction with seven benefits in the Bangladeshi construction industry. The result shows that an appreciable number of respondent familiar with the techniques of lean construction but they don't practice. The findings have also pointed out that the lean construction approach adds a positive impact especially on quality, safety, cost, productivity, and environmental level. The top-ranked challenges to implementing lean construction are: lack of awareness and skill, poor management, traditional culture and attitude of employees, inadequate resources and equipment and nonuse of modern techniques and technologies. Originality/value This study reveals real scenario of lean construction in Bangladesh. It contributes to the body of knowledge, as it uncovers for the first time the awareness level, benefits and challenges to implement lean construction with reference to the social, economic and cultural context of Bangladesh. Exploring the findings, the study could help the stakeholders, construction firms, academician, researchers and government to focus their effort and resources on the significantly appropriate issues. Again, the study may be beneficial to developing countries especially in South Asia which share the same socio-economic status with Bangladesh.
Article
Full-text available
Medium-term planning (MTP) is one of the hierarchical levels of the Last Planner System of production control, and constitutes an essential step to assure that plans defined at the long-term planning level will materialise at the operational level in construction projects. This paper describes a systematic literature review, whose objective is to identify the main practices associated with MTP, the main failures related to its implementation, and existing gaps on this topic. The results point to a plethora of practices associated with MTP, which can be considered in future studies, and also be incorporated in the production planning and control process used by construction companies. However, in general terms, the results of this study show that MTP practices are not being properly implemented. Additionally, the study identified gaps in the literature regarding the impact of MTP on project performance and the use of building information modeling (BIM) to support MTP functions. Hence, this topic merits additional research to improve the efficacy of MTP in construction projects, considering that it represents an essential step to remove project constraints and, consequently, to achieve a continuous flow of activities during the life of a project.
Article
Full-text available
MT Højgaard – the largest contracting firm in Denmark – has in a number of years worked seriously with implementing Lean Construction. Lean methods have been used on more than 30 completed or ongoing construction projects. This paper takes stock of the experience and results obtained in the implementation process by presenting the main findings in our 2002 annual report on lean construction. The outline is as follows. First, an overview of the implementation of Lean Construction in MT Højgaard is given. This implementation consists of well-known lean methods such as "last planner" and "look ahead", but more idiosyncratic methods are also presented in this section. For instance, the introduction of a new role on the building site (the "process manager") and an IT-tool supporting lean-planning (called "PlanLog"). The number of lean projects performed in MT Højgaard provides an excellent opportunity for presenting aggregate data. Thus, second, the paper examines on a project level how the application of lean methods affects benchmarks such as profit (level and predictability), safety, client satisfaction and administrative costs. These preliminary data suggests that all parties can benefit from using LC. Among others, profit is increased for the main contractor as well as for the subcontractors and the workforce on the building site experiences an improvement in the working environment. The final section briefly explores some perspectives for the use of lean in MT Højgaard. In particular the possibility of using lean ideas in the design phase is raised.
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses lean production objectives and design principles that can be shared by production management and safety management. It focuses on strategies to deal with variability, emphasizing two typical lean production concepts - autonomation and visual management - which can be used in safety management to detect variability. Moreover, considering the cognitive systems engineering perspective on safety as a basis, this paper discusses four guidelines for developing and monitoring procedures in the lean production approach: (a) take into account workersmental and physical capabilities; (b) stress workers involvement in procedures development and monitoring; (c) investigate reasons for successful performance rather than just causes of non-compliance with procedures; and (d) adopt a broader view on the meaning of deviations from procedures, which should not necessarily be seen as negative. It is proposed that similar analysis to the one carried out in this paper be undertaken to other lean production elements (e.g. how lean practices such as kaizen, supply chain management and total productive maintenance may benefit safety?). An inverse analysis is also necessary, since some elements that are usually included in safety management systems can be integrated to lean production practices.
Article
Full-text available
The current approach to safety focuses on prescribing and enforcing "defenses;" that is, physical and procedural barriers that reduce the workers' exposure to hazards. Under this perspective, accidents occur because the prescribed defenses are violated due to lack of safety knowledge and/or commitment. This perspective has a limited view of accident causality, as it ignores the work system factors and their interactions that generate the hazardous situations and shape the work behaviors. Understanding and addressing these causal factors that lead to accidents is necessary to develop effective accident prevention strategies. This paper presents a new accident causation model of the factors affecting the likelihood of accidents during a construction activity. The model takes a systems view of accidents - it focuses on how the characteristics of the production system generate hazardous situations and shape the work behaviors, and analyzes the conditions that trigger the release of the hazards. The model is based on descriptive rather than prescriptive models of work behaviors - it takes into account the actual production behaviors, as opposed to the normative behaviors and procedures that workers "should" follow. The model identifies the critical role of task unpredictability in generating unexpected hazardous situations, and acknowledges the inevitability of exposures and errors. The model identifies the need for two accident prevention strategies: (1) reliable production planning to reduce task unpredictability, and (2) error management to increase the workers' ability to avoid, trap, and mitigate errors. The new causation model contributes to safety research by increasing understanding of the production system factors that affect the frequency of accident. The practical benefit of the model is that it provides practitioners with strategies to reduce the likelihood of accidents.
Article
Lean construction and building information modeling ͑BIM͒ are quite different initiatives, but both are having profound impacts on the construction industry. A rigorous analysis of the myriad specific interactions between them indicates that a synergy exists which, if properly understood in theoretical terms, can be exploited to improve construction processes beyond the degree to which it might be improved by application of either of these paradigms independently. Using a matrix that juxtaposes BIM functionalities with prescrip-tive lean construction principles, 56 interactions have been identified, all but four of which represent constructive interaction. Although evidence for the majority of these has been found, the matrix is not considered complete but rather a framework for research to explore the degree of validity of the interactions. Construction executives, managers, designers, and developers of information technology systems for construction can also benefit from the framework as an aid to recognizing the potential synergies when planning their lean and BIM adoption strategies.
Article
The current approach to accident prevention does not account for the effect of work practices on the likelihood of accidents. This paper addresses the question "How do the production practices, and particularly lean practices, affect the likelihood of accidents in construction operations?" First we propose that the production system affects the likelihood of accidents in two ways: (1) by generating (or preventing) situations with increased task demands (increased potential of accident), and (2) by affecting the workers' ability to cope with these situations (capabilities) and avoid errors. Then, we review the production system factors (technical and social) that influence the likelihood of accidents. The effect of production practices was examined through an exploratory field study of framing operations. The case study compared the production practices of a High Performance crew (in terms of productivity and safety) with the practices of an average performance crew. The evidence indicates that a focus on reducing uncertainty, errors and rework (practices consistent with lean production practices) and matching skills to task demands increased productivity while reducing the likelihood of accidents.
Article
Current competitiveness scenario in which engineering companies act, demands new production approaches, where the environmental variables play a key role. In such a way, the sustainability concept should begin to be managed by all the agents involved: engineers, architects, owners, among others. Sustainability concept, being of general character, has remained in a conceptual context, becoming difficult the development of tools that facilitate its consideration through the entire project life cycle. This study had as purpose to integrate the philosophies of Sustainable Construction, or Green Building, and Lean Construction, the latter employee as the necessary complement to give an analysis baseline focused on the production management. The design, planning and construction stages were defined as the enclosed life cycle, being determined integration vectors by means of the morphological analysis and cross-impact matrix. The vectors with direct relationship for the implementation of the Green-Lean integration were determined. As implementation tool of the Green-Lean integration, Constructability was used which allowed sequencing the construction processes. This conceptual exercise was only applied at design level. As a result, at conceptual level was stated that the tools applied in the project management (Lean Construction and Constructability), give a sound support for the implementation, and future application, of Sustainability criteria in the processes and stages involving the whole project life cycle.