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Antrodia camphorata (“niu-chang-chih”), new combination of a medicinal fungus in Taiwan

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Abstract

A new combination, Antrodia camphorata (M. Zang & C.H. Su) Sheng H. Wu, Ryvarden & T.T. Chang, is proposed for Ganoderma comphoratum M. Zang & C.H. Su, a name originally based on a polypore with contami-nating Ganoderma spores. Antrodia cinnamomea T.T. Chang & W.N. Chou is reduced to a taxonomic synonym of A. camphorata. The species is famous and highly valued in Taiwan as a medicine, and is restricted to a Taiwanese endemic tree species, Cinnamomum kanehirai. Many polypores are used for medicinal purposes in Tai-wan. One of the most valued is Antrodia camphorata, es-pecially since it is said to have several medicinal uses including a curative effect on cancer. The species is known only from Taiwan and is restricted to Cinnamomum kanehirai Hay (Lauraceae), also endemic to Taiwan. The species is known in Taiwan as “niu-chang-chih”; “niu-chang” is the Chinese common name for C. kanehirai and “chih” means Ganoderma-like fungus. Many Taiwanese also call it “niu-chang-ku”; “ku” in Chinese means mush-room. It is also known simply as “chang-chih” or “chang-ku.” In Taiwan, the wood of C. kanehirai has traditionally been regarded as high quality for manufacturing furniture. Nowadays this endemic tree species is becoming rare and has now been protected by the government. Consequently, it is also becoming difficult to find “niu-chang-chih” in the forest. “Niu-chang-chih” is very expensive in Taiwan. In recent years, basidiomes of good quality have sold for about US $ 15,000 per kg., a result of host specificity and rarity in nature, and the failure of artificial cultivation. This species was first published by Zang and Su (1990). Dr. Su, a resident chemist, knew “niu-chang-chih” very well from his chemical studies of various medicinal fungi. However, he could not find any available name in the lit-erature for this striking species. Thus, he sent a specimen of “niu-chang-chih” to Prof. Zang, a specialist in Chinese higher fungi. Later they jointly published the species as Ganoderma comphoratum M. Zang & C.H. Su. The ge-neric name, however, was based on a mistake as the type (HKAS 22294, examined by us) was contaminated by spores of a Ganoderma species. After publication, Dr. Su told one of us (S.H. Wu) that the type specimen had been put in a bag together with a specimen of Ganoderma, the source of the foreign spores. In the original description, the host was also incorrectly given as Cinnamomum comphora (L.) Presl. (correct spelling: C. camphora), which explains the spelling of the specific epithet of the fungus. Chang and Chou (1995) later described the species as Antrodia cinnamomea T.T. Chang & W.N. Chou (type = TFRI 119, examined by us). The specific epithet alludes to the host tree. They properly placed their species in Antrodia because of its dimitic hyphal system with clamped generative hyphae and brown rot causing ability. After studying the types of both Ganoderma comphoratum and Antrodia cinnamomea, these fungi were found to be conspecific. Therefore a new combination is necessary, while A. cinnamomea is reduced to a taxonomic synonym.
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Wu et al  Antrodia camphorata in TaiwanBot. Bull. Acad. Sin. (1997) 38: 273275
Antrodia camphorata (niu-chang-chih), new combination of a
medicinal fungus in Taiwan
Sheng-Hua Wu1, Leif Ryvarden2 and Tun-Tschu Chang3
1Division of Botany, National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China
2Department of Botany, Institute of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1045, N-0316 Oslo, Norway
3Division of Forest Protection, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, 53 Nan-hai Road, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of
China
(Received February 5, 1997; Accepted May 2, 1997)
Abstract. A new combination, Antrodia camphorata (M. Zang & C.H. Su) Sheng H. Wu, Ryvarden & T.T. Chang,
is proposed for Ganoderma comphoratum M. Zang & C.H. Su, a name originally based on a polypore with contami-
nating Ganoderma spores. Antrodia cinnamomea T.T. Chang & W.N. Chou is reduced to a taxonomic synonym of A.
camphorata. The species is famous and highly valued in Taiwan as a medicine, and is restricted to a Taiwanese
endemic tree species, Cinnamomum kanehirai.
Keywords: Antrodia camphorata; A. cinnamomea; Ganoderma comphoratum; Polypore; Taiwan.
4Corresponding author. Fax: +886-4-325-8684; E-mail:
shwu@nmns1.nmns.edu.tw
Many polypores are used for medicinal purposes in Tai-
wan. One of the most valued is Antrodia camphorata, es-
pecially since it is said to have several medicinal uses
including a curative effect on cancer. The species is known
only from Taiwan and is restricted to Cinnamomum
kanehirai Hay (Lauraceae), also endemic to Taiwan. The
species is known in Taiwan as niu-chang-chih; niu-
chang is the Chinese common name for C. kanehirai and
chih means Ganoderma-like fungus. Many Taiwanese
also call it niu-chang-ku; ku in Chinese means mush-
room. It is also known simply as chang-chih or chang-
ku. In Taiwan, the wood of C. kanehirai has traditionally
been regarded as high quality for manufacturing furniture.
Nowadays this endemic tree species is becoming rare and
has now been protected by the government. Consequently,
it is also becoming difficult to find niu-chang-chih in
the forest. Niu-chang-chih is very expensive in Taiwan.
In recent years, basidiomes of good quality have sold for
about US $ 15,000 per kg., a result of host specificity and
rarity in nature, and the failure of artificial cultivation.
This species was first published by Zang and Su (1990).
Dr. Su, a resident chemist, knew niu-chang-chih very
well from his chemical studies of various medicinal fungi.
However, he could not find any available name in the lit-
erature for this striking species. Thus, he sent a specimen
of niu-chang-chih to Prof. Zang, a specialist in Chinese
higher fungi. Later they jointly published the species as
Ganoderma comphoratum M. Zang & C.H. Su. The ge-
neric name, however, was based on a mistake as the type
(HKAS 22294, examined by us) was contaminated by
spores of a Ganoderma species. After publication, Dr. Su
told one of us (S.H. Wu) that the type specimen had been
put in a bag together with a specimen of Ganoderma, the
source of the foreign spores. In the original description,
the host was also incorrectly given as Cinnamomum
comphora (L.) Presl. (correct spelling: C. camphora),
which explains the spelling of the specific epithet of the
fungus.
Chang and Chou (1995) later described the species as
Antrodia cinnamomea T.T. Chang & W.N. Chou (type =
TFRI 119, examined by us). The specific epithet alludes
to the host tree. They properly placed their species in
Antrodia because of its dimitic hyphal system with
clamped generative hyphae and brown rot causing ability.
After studying the types of both Ganoderma
comphoratum and Antrodia cinnamomea, these fungi were
found to be conspecific. Therefore a new combination is
necessary, while A. cinnamomea is reduced to a taxonomic
synonym.
Antrodia camphorata (M. Zang & C.H. Su) Sheng H.
Wu, Ryvarden & T.T. Chang, comb. nov. (Figure 1)
Basionym: Ganoderma comphoratum M. Zang & C.H.
Su, Acta Bot. Yunnanica 12: 395. 1990. Syn. nov.:
Antrodia cinnamomea T.T. Chang & W.N. Chou, Mycol.
Res. 99: 756. 1995.
Acknowledgments. The authors are indebted to Prof. Mu Zang
for the loan of the holotype of Ganoderma comphoratum for
this study.
¥¼©R¦W-1 2001/3/21, PM 03:05273
Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, Vol. 38, 1997
274
Figure 1. Antrodia camphorata (holotype). A, Contextual generative hyphae; B, Contextual skeletal hyphae; C, Cystidioles; D,
Basidia; E, Basidiospores. Scale bars = 10 µm.
Literature Cited
Chang, T.T. and W.N. Chou. 1995. Antrodia cinnamomea sp.
nov. on Cinnamomum kanehirai in Taiwan. Mycol. Res. 99:
756758.
Zang, M. and C.H. Su. 1990. Ganoderma comphoratum, a new
taxon in genus Ganoderma from Taiwan, China. Acta Bot.
Yunnanica 12: 395396.
¥¼©R¦W-1 2001/3/21, PM 03:05274
275
Wu et al  Antrodia camphorata in Taiwan
A. cinnamomea Ganoderma comphoratum
¥¼©R¦W-1 2001/3/21, PM 03:05275
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... The anti-inflammatory potential was determined by inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production in neutrophils and microglial cells, respectively. Among them, AntM (17), MeAL (28), and, MeAK (26/27) displayed the potent anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-induced microglia cells as indicated by reduced levels of NO production in the culture media of activated inflammatory cells with IC 50 values ranging from 1.7 to 16.5 mM and were more potent than a non-specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor. Also, these three compounds showed potent anti-oxidant activity in cell culture system with IC 50 values around 2.0e8.8 ...
... Although, the selected antcins were detected in both species, two more peaks were appeared only in A. salmonea at a retention time of 60e62 min. The 1 HNMR, and 13 CNMR analysis revealed that the two peaks were AntM (17) and MeAK (26/27) and suggested that AntM (17) and MeAK (26/27) might be important constituents for distinguishing A. cinnamomea and A. salmonea fruiting bodies. ...
... A. cinnamomea (Syn. Antrodia camphorata or Taiwanofungus camphoratus), is an unique medicinal mushroom of Taiwan and locally known as Niu-Chang-Chih, Chang-Chih, Niu-Chng-Ku, or Chang-Ku [17]. A. cinnamomea (Polyporaceae) is an endemic and expensive edible mushroom growing restrictedly on the inner cavity of its host species Bull Camphor tree, Cinnamomum kanehirae Hayata (Lauraceae) (Fig. 1A). ...
... The anti-inflammatory potential was determined by inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production in neutrophils and microglial cells, respectively. Among them, AntM (17), MeAL (28), and, MeAK (26/27) displayed the potent anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-induced microglia cells as indicated by reduced levels of NO production in the culture media of activated inflammatory cells with IC 50 values ranging from 1.7 to 16.5 mM and were more potent than a non-specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor. Also, these three compounds showed potent anti-oxidant activity in cell culture system with IC 50 values around 2.0e8.8 ...
... Although, the selected antcins were detected in both species, two more peaks were appeared only in A. salmonea at a retention time of 60e62 min. The 1 HNMR, and 13 CNMR analysis revealed that the two peaks were AntM (17) and MeAK (26/27) and suggested that AntM (17) and MeAK (26/27) might be important constituents for distinguishing A. cinnamomea and A. salmonea fruiting bodies. ...
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... Antrodia camphorata, a unique basidiomycete, is indigenous species of Taiwan. It has been used as a traditional medicine for treat diverse discomforts such as abdominal pain, hangover, and diarrhea (Wu et al. 1997). The fruiting body of A. camphorata is rich in bioactive metabolites, but the fruiting body can only grow on the rare Cinnamomum kanehirae Hayata at an extremely slow rate. ...
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Antroquinonol (AQ) has several remarkable bioactivities in acute myeloid leukaemia and pancreatic cancer, but difficulties in the mass production of AQ hamper its applications. Currently, molecular biotechnology methods, such as gene overexpression, have been widely used to increase the production of metabolites. However, AQ biosynthetic genes and enzymes are poorly understood. In this study, an integrated study coupling RNA-Seq and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) were used to identify AQ synthesis-related genes and enzymes in Antrodia camphorata during coenzyme Q0-induced fermentation (FM). The upregulated genes related to acetyl-CoA synthesis indicated that acetyl-CoA enters the mevalonate pathway to form the farnesyl tail precursor of AQ. The metE gene for an enzyme with methyl transfer activity provided sufficient methyl groups for AQ structure formation. The CoQ2 and ubiA genes encode p-hydroxybenzoate polyprenyl transferase, linking coenzyme Q0 and the polyisoprene side chain to form coenzyme Q3. NADH is transformed into NAD+ and releases two electrons, which may be beneficial for the conversion of coenzyme Q3 to AQ. Understanding the biosynthetic genes and enzymes of AQ is important for improving its production by genetic means in the future.
... Antrodia camphorata, a mushroom unique to Taiwan, grows as a parasite on the inner cavity of the endemic tree Cinnamomum kanehirae Hayata (Lauraceae) (Chang and Chou, 1995). Regarded as "a gift from heaven" for the Taiwanese, this mushroom has been consumed as a traditional medicine for a wide range of health-related conditions (Wu & Ryvarden, 1997). Various pharmacological benefits of A. camphorata include its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective activities (Geethangili & Tzeng, 2011;Yue et al., 2012). ...
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Background In situ extractive fermentation (ISEF) is an important technique to improve metabolite productivity. The different extractants can induce the synthesis of different bioactive metabolites of Antrodia camphorata during ISEF. However, a lack of research on the molecular genetics of A. camphorata during ISEF currently hinders such studies on metabolite biosynthetic mechanisms. Results To clarify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during ISEF, the gene transcriptional expression features of A. camphorata S‐29 were analysed. The addition of n‐tetradecane as an extractant during ISEF showed more pronounced upregulation of ubiquinone and other terpenoid‐quinone biosynthesis pathway genes (CoQ2, wrbA, and ARO8). When oleic acid was used as an extractant, terpenoid backbone biosynthesis and ubiquinone and other terpenoid‐quinone biosynthesis pathways were significantly enriched, and genes (IDI, E2.3.3.10, HMGCR, atoB, and CoQ2) related to these two pathways were also significantly upregulated. The CoQ2 genes encode puru‐hydroxybenzoate:polyprenyltransferase, playing an important role in antroquinonol (AQ) synthesis. The IDI, E2.3.3.10, HMGCR, and atoB genes of the terpenoid backbone biosynthesis pathway might play an important role in the synthesis of the triquine‐type sesquiterpene antrodin C (AC). Conclusion This investigation advances our understanding of how two different extractants of n‐tetradecane and oleic acid affect the biosynthesis of metabolites in A. camphorata. It is beneficial to provide potential strategies for improving AC and AQ production by genetic means in the future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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