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Da Integração à Governação Europeia: Portugal, Europeização e o Carácter Multi-Sistémico da UE

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Resumo A incerteza conceptual continua a marcar o modelo da União Europeia, provavelmente porque representa uma forma não-conven-cional de soberania. Este artigo revisita os prin-cipais argumentos sobre as dinâmicas da UE, ao mesmo tempo que tenta configurar alguns dos novos desenvolvimentos teóricos. Estes incluem os debates em torno da noção de "esta-do regulador", "governação multi-sistémica" e as teorias do poder na União Europeia. O ponto principal sugere que novas práticas de poder indirecto na forma de (re)regulação são visíveis no edifício comunitário, práticas essas distintas do enunciado clássico de Hobbes. O artigo conclui referindo que Portugal, um mem-bro da UE desde 1986, representa uma ilus-tração interessante da rota europeia pós-hobbe-siana. Abstract From Integration to European Governance: Portugal, Europeanization and the Multi--Systemic Character of the EU The European Union is still a contested entity, probably because it is not a conventional form of sovereignty. This article reviews the main theoretical arguments usually presented on the dynamics of the EU, while at the same time attempts to assess some of the most recent theoretical debates. These include new hypotheses built around the idea of "regulatory state", "multilevel governance" and the theories of power as they related to European integration. The main point of this article suggests that distinct practices of indirect power in the form of (re)regulation are emergent in the European polity, far from the sovereign concerns which had animated Hobbes. Portugal, which became a member state in 1986, represents an interesting illustration of the post-Hobbesian path.

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Este ensaio pretende apresentar uma visão global das principais teorias da integração europeia, procurando discutir o potencial explicativo de cada uma delas para um melhor entendimento da União Europeia. A relevância do papel do Estado é, pois, central à discussão, desde as teses clássicas, marcadas pelas correntes federalistas, funcionalistas e intergovernamentalistas, até às mais recentes, como é o caso do construtivismo, enquanto modelo explicativo dos processos de mudança política e social europeus. O texto faz ainda uma breve reflexão sobre os contributos teóricos da integração, incluindo uma incursão nos domínios da segurança e da defesa.
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