The effects of hyperglycaemia on thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor
Department of Experimental Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Thrombosis and Haemostasis (Impact Factor: 4.98). 10/2009; 102(3):460-8. DOI: 10.1160/TH09-01-0016
Epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, and hypofibrinolysis may contribute to this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hyperglycaemia on thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI). Hyperglycaemia was mimicked in vitro by incubation of TAFI with glyceraldehyde and in vivo by hyperglycaemic clamping of healthy volunteers. The effects of long-term hyperglycaemia in vivo on TAFI were investigated by comparing TAFI from poorly regulated and tightly regulated patients with type 2 diabetes. In vitro glycated TAFI showed an altered migration pattern on SDS-PAGE due to aggregation. Glycated TAFI showed decreased activity after activation by thrombin-thrombomodulin in a glyceraldehyde-dose-dependent manner and a reduced anti-fibrinolytic potential. In vivo, no differences in TAFI parameters were found after hyperglycaemic clamping of healthy volunteers and between tightly and poorly regulated patients with type 2 diabetes. Moreover, TAFI purified from poorly regulated and tightly regulated patients with type 2 diabetes migrated similarly on SDS-PAGE, indicating little or no glycation of the protein. Despite the deleterious effects of glycation of TAFI in vitro on its function, TAFI was neither affected by hyperglycaemic clamping, nor by long-term hyperglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. This is in contrast to fibrinolytic factors as plasminogen-activator inhibitor I and tissue-type plasminogen activator, which are affected. We therefore hypothesise that a normally functioning TAFI under hyperglycaemic conditions may tip the haemostatic balance towards hypofibrinolysis, which may contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases in type 2 diabetic patients.
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ABSTRACT: Fibrin clot formation is a key event in the development of thrombotic disease and is the final step in a multifactor coagulation cascade. Fibrinogen is a large glycoprotein that forms the basis of a fibrin clot. Each fibrinogen molecule is comprised of two sets of Aα, Bβ, and γ polypeptide chains that form a protein containing two distal D regions connected to a central E region by a coiled-coil segment. Fibrin is produced upon cleavage of the fibrinopeptides by thrombin, which can then form double-stranded half staggered oligomers that lengthen into protofibrils. The protofibrils then aggregate and branch, yielding a three-dimensional clot network. Factor XIII, a transglutaminase, cross-links the fibrin stabilizing the clot protecting it from mechanical stress and proteolytic attack. The mechanical properties of the fibrin clot are essential for its function as it must prevent bleeding but still allow the penetration of cells. This viscoelastic property is generated at the level of each individual fiber up to the complete clot. Fibrinolysis is the mechanism of clot removal, and involves a cascade of interacting zymogens and enzymes that act in concert with clot formation to maintain blood flow. Clots vary significantly in structure between individuals due to both genetic and environmental factors and this has an effect on clot stability and susceptibility to lysis. There is increasing evidence that clot structure is a determinant for the development of disease and this review will discuss the determinants for clot structure and the association with thrombosis and vascular disease.
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ABSTRACT: We aimed to determine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) antigen levels in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to evaluate the possible association of plasma TAFI with glucose intolerance and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. This cross-sectional study was performed in 111 women with previous GDM and 60 controls. Glucose intolerance was evaluated. Homeostasis model assessment score was calculated. Circulating lipids, interleukin-6, matrix metalloproteinase-1, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and TAFI antigen levels were assayed. Carotid intima media thickness (IMT) was measured. Women with previous GDM had increased levels of atherosclerosis markers and carotid IMT. On the other hand, plasma TAFI antigen levels were similar (P = .395). Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor was not associated with the indices of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, markers of atherosclerosis, and carotid IMT. Our data demonstrated that plasma TAFI was not altered in women with previous GDM. TAFI was not associated with glucose intolerance and subclinical atherosclerosis.
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ABSTRACT: Both Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease have been associated with enhanced coagulation and suppressed fibrinolysis. To investigate a possible relationship between selected hemostatic variables and abnormal glucose regulation (AGR) in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) without known diabetes and to study changes in selected hemostatic variables from baseline to follow-up in STEMI patients with or without AGR. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activity, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) antigen, prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F(1+2)) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were measured in fasting blood samples from 199 STEMI patients 16.5 h (median time) after admission and 3 months later. All patients were classified into normal glucose regulation (NGR) or AGR based on an oral glucose tolerance test at follow-up, according to the WHO criteria. High PAI-1 activity (≥ 75th percentile) measured in-hospital was associated with AGR (n = 49) with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.1, 4.4). In addition, high levels of t-PA antigen (≥ 75th percentile) were associated with AGR (adjusted odds ratio, 3.5; 95% confidence inteval, 1.5, 8.2), but only in men. Changes in the levels of F(1+2) were significantly more pronounced in patients with AGR compared with NGR (adjusted P = 0.04). Elevated levels of PAI-1 activity and t-PA antigen measured in-hospital in STEMI patients were associated with AGR classified at 3-month follow-up. Additionally, changes in the levels of F(1+2) were more pronounced in patients with AGR compared with NGR. The data suggest an enhanced prothrombotic state after an acute STEMI in patients with AGR without known diabetes.
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