Nanocellulose materials underwent rapid development in recent years as promising biomedical materials due to their excellent physical and biological properties specially biocompatibility, biodegradability and low cytotoxicity. Recently, a significant amount of research has been directed towards fabricating advanced cellulose nanoﬁbers with diﬀerent morphologies and functional properties. These nanocellulose ﬁbers are widely applied in medical implants, tissue engineering, drug delivery, wound healing, cardiovascular, and other medical applications. This review provides a reflection of the recent advancements in designing and fabricating advanced nanocellulose-based biomaterials (cellulose nanocrystals, bacterial nanocellulose and cellulose nanofibrils) that are promising for biomedical applications, and discuss materials requirement in each application, along with the challenges the materials might face. Finally, we give an overview on the future directions of the nanocellulose-based materials in biomedical field.