β6 Integrin Subunit Deficiency Alleviates Lung Injury in a Mouse Model of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

University of Gothenburg, Department of Pediatrics, the Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, SWE-416 85 Gothenburg, Sweden.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 3.99). 09/2009; 43(1):88-98. DOI: 10.1165/rcmb.2008-0480OC
Source: PubMed


Pulmonary inflammation is associated with the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants. We have previously shown that perinatal pulmonary expression of human IL-1beta is sufficient to cause a lung disease similar to bronchopulmonary dysplasia, characterized by inflammation, impaired alveolarization, poor postnatal growth, and increased mortality in infant mice. The alphavbeta6 integrin plays a critical role in regulating inflammation in the adult lung. To study the role of the beta6 integrin subunit in neonatal inflammatory lung disease, we compared the pulmonary development in IL-1beta-expressing infant mice with wild-type or null beta6 integrin loci. Absence of the beta6 integrin subunit decreased the mortality and improved the postnatal growth of IL-1beta-expressing pups. The disrupted alveolar development of IL-1beta-expressing mice was improved by beta6 integrin deficiency. IL-1beta-expressing beta6(-/-) pups had shorter alveolar chord length and thinner alveolar walls than IL-1beta-expressing beta6(+/+) pups. In addition, the absence of the beta6 integrin subunit reduced IL-1beta-induced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration into the alveolar spaces. beta6 integrin subunit deficiency suppressed inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia in the airways and alleviated airway remodeling in IL-1beta-expressing mice. The expression of the chemoattractant proteins, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, macrophage-inflammatory protein-2, calgranulin A, and calgranulin B, of osteopontin, and of the chitinase-like lectins, Ym1 and Ym2, was lower in IL-1beta-expressing beta6(-/-) than in IL-1beta-expressing beta6(+/+) mice. We conclude that absence of the beta6 integrin subunit protects the infant murine lung against IL-1beta-induced inflammation and injury.

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    • "TGT GCT TTC CCG GAA CC. For primer sequences for ␤-actin, calgranulin A (S100A8), calgranulin B (S100A9), chitinase 3-like 3 (Ym1), chitinase 3-like 4 (Ym2), keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC/CXCL1), monocyte chemoattractant protein 3 (MCP-3/CCL7), pendrin (also known as solute carrier family 26 member 4, Slc26a4), serum amyloid A3 (SAA3), or (tetO) 7-CMV-hIL-1␤, see Hogmalm et al. 2010 (23), and for VEGF-A, VEGFR-1, and -2 see Hogmalm et al. 2012 (22). The results were normalized to ␤-actin mRNA levels. "
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    ABSTRACT: Perinatal inflammation and the inflammatory cytokine IL-1 can modify lung morphogenesis. To examine the effects of antenatal expression of IL-1β in the distal airway epithelium on fetal lung morphogenesis, we studied lung development and surfactant expression in fetal mice expressing human IL-1β under the control of the surfactant protein (SP)-C promoter. IL-1β-expressing pups suffered respiratory failure and died shortly after birth. IL-1β caused fetal lung inflammation and enhanced the expression of keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC/CXCL1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 3 (MCP-3/CCL7), the calgranulins S100A8 and S100A9, the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A3 (SAA3), the chitinase-like proteins Ym1 and Ym2, and pendrin. IL-1β decreased the percentage of the total distal lung area made up of air saccules and the number of air saccules in the lungs of fetal mice. IL-1β inhibited the expression of VEGF-A and of its receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2. The percentage of the cellular area of the distal lung made up of capillaries was decreased in IL-1β-expressing fetal mice. IL-1β suppressed the production of SP-B and pro-SP-C, and decreased the amount of phosphatidylcholine and the percentage of palmitic acid in the phosphatidylcholine fraction of lung phospholipids, indicating that IL-1β prevented the differentiation of type II epithelial cells. The production of Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) in the nonciliated bronchiolar (Clara) cells was likewise suppressed by IL-1β. In conclusion, expression of IL-1β in the epithelium of the distal airways disrupted the development of the airspaces and capillaries in the fetal lung and caused fatal respiratory failure at birth.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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    • "Further, transgenic mice with a targeted deletion of the β6-integrin developed exaggerated lung inflammation [26] that was prevented by restoring β6 expression. Interestingly, bleomycin treatment leads to lung fibrosis due to increased activation of TGFβ1 [27]. In vivo, the αvβ6 integrin is an activator of TGFβ1, which stimulates fibroblast proliferation and collagen production and has been implicated in fibrosis [28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Chronic alcohol abuse causes oxidative stress and impairs alveolar epithelial barrier integrity, thereby rendering the lung susceptible to acute edematous injury. Experimentally, alcohol-induced oxidative stress increases the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) in the lung; however, we do not know the precise contribution of various alveolar cells in this process. In the present study, we focused on cell-cell interactions between alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells and the potential mechanisms by which TGFβ1 may become activated in the alveolar space of the alcoholic lung. Methods Primary alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells were isolated from control- and alcohol-fed Sprague–Dawley rats. Expression of TGFβ1 and the epithelial integrin αvβ6 were examined by real time PCR and either immunocytochemistry or flow cytometry. Alveolar epithelial cells were cultured on transwell supports in the presence of macrophage cell lysate from control- or alcohol-fed rats or in the presence of viable macrophages ± alcohol. Epithelial barrier function was assessed by transepithelial resistance (TER) and paracellular flux of Texas Red dextran. Results TGFβ1 expression was increased in alveolar macrophages from alcohol-fed rats, and TGFβ1 protein was predominantly membrane-bound. Importantly, alveolar macrophage cellular lysate from alcohol-fed rats decreased TER and increased paracellular dextran flux in primary alveolar epithelial cell monolayers as compared to the lysates from control-fed rats. Alcohol-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction was prevented by anti-TGFβ1 antibody treatment, indicating the presence of bioactive TGFβ1 in the macrophage lysate. In addition, co-culturing macrophages and epithelial cells in the presence of alcohol decreased epithelial barrier function, which also was prevented by anti-TGFβ1 and anti-αvβ6 treatment. In parallel, chronic alcohol ingestion in vivo, or direct treatment with active TGFβ1 in vitro, increased the expression of αvβ6 integrin, which is known to activate TGFβ1, in alveolar epithelial cells. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that interactions between alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages contribute to the alcohol-mediated disruption of epithelial barrier function via the expression and activation of TGFβ1 at points of cell-cell contact.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Respiratory research
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    • "Itgb6 mouse knock-out mutants exhibit severe pneumonia and an increase in granulocyte recruitment to the lung [38]. The protease-activated receptor 1-mediated enhancement of Itgb6-dependent TGF-beta activation has been proposed to represent one mechanism by which activation of the coagulation cascade contributes to the development of acute lung injury [39]. The Ifih1 gene is also known as MDA5 (Melanoma Differentiation-Associated protein 5). "
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    ABSTRACT: There is strong but mostly circumstantial evidence that genetic factors modulate the severity of influenza infection in humans. Using genetically diverse but fully inbred strains of mice it has been shown that host sequence variants have a strong influence on the severity of influenza A disease progression. In particular, C57BL/6J, the most widely used mouse strain in biomedical research, is comparatively resistant. In contrast, DBA/2J is highly susceptible. To map regions of the genome responsible for differences in influenza susceptibility, we infected a family of 53 BXD-type lines derived from a cross between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J strains with influenza A virus (PR8, H1N1). We monitored body weight, survival, and mean time to death for 13 days after infection. Qivr5 (quantitative trait for influenza virus resistance on chromosome 5) was the largest and most significant QTL for weight loss. The effect of Qivr5 was detectable on day 2 post infection, but was most pronounced on days 5 and 6. Survival rate mapped to Qivr5, but additionally revealed a second significant locus on chromosome 19 (Qivr19). Analysis of mean time to death affirmed both Qivr5 and Qivr19. In addition, we observed several regions of the genome with suggestive linkage. There are potentially complex combinatorial interactions of the parental alleles among loci. Analysis of multiple gene expression data sets and sequence variants in these strains highlights about 30 strong candidate genes across all loci that may control influenza A susceptibility and resistance. We have mapped influenza susceptibility loci to chromosomes 2, 5, 16, 17, and 19. Body weight and survival loci have a time-dependent profile that presumably reflects the temporal dynamic of the response to infection. We highlight candidate genes in the respective intervals and review their possible biological function during infection.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · BMC Genomics
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