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Preliminary Survey of Bionectriaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes) from Jigongshan, China

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Abstract

Species of the Bionectriaceae and Nectriaceae are reported for the first time from Jigongshan, Henan Province in the central area of China. Among them, three new species, Cosmospora henanensis, Hydropisphaera jigongshanica and Lanatonectria oblongispora, are described. Three species in Albonectria and Cosmospora are reported for the first time from China.

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... They are characterized by small-sized perithecia with glabrous surface or with few to numerous hairs arising from the wall surface, having adjacent perithecial wall cells joined by fine pores, consisting of parallel hyphal elements in papilla, and connected with several anamorphic genera (Rossman et al., 1999). Fifty-six species of the genus are currently accepted, and 15 have been reported from China (Rossman et al., 1999; Fröhlich and Hyde, 2000; Samuels and Nirenberg, 2000; Zhuang and Zhang, 2002; Hosoya and Tubaki, 2004; Nong and Zhuang, 2005). On collecting trips to Huisun Forestry Farm in Nantou County of Taiwan and Tianmushan in Hangzhou City of Zhejiang in 2005, two interesting nectriaceous fungi with hairy and cupulate perithecia when dry were encountered . ...
... The results indicate that the two new species of Cosmospora are close-related and that Cosmospora as currently defined is not monophyletic. This work is a continuation of our taxonomic studies on nectriaceous fungi from China (Zhuang, 2000; Zhuang and Zhang, 2002; Zhang and Zhuang, 2003a,b; Nong and Zhuang, 2005; Luo and Zhuang, 2007; Zhuang et al., 2007). ...
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Two new species, Cosmospora gigas and C. cupularis, and their anamorphs are described and illustrated. Their morphological affinities to related taxa are discussed. Phylogenetic relationships of the two new species with some fungi of the Nectriaceae are revealed based on analyses of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 28S rDNA partial sequences. The results indicate their taxonomic position in Cosmospora, a genus that as currently defined, is not monophyletic.
... Rossman et al. (1999) included 49 species in Cosmospora. Cosmospora henanensis Nong & Zhuang (anamorph: Acremonium-like) (Nong and Zhuang 2005) and C. matuoi Hosoya & Tubaki (Fusarium matuoi Hosoya & Tubaki) (Hosoya and Tubaki 2004), both from Asia, have been added. Classically, anamorph and teleomorph taxonomies have been independent of each other, despite the fact that, especially in the Nectriaceae, the ascomycetes are pleomorphic, including one or more anamorph genera in the life cycle of a single ascomycete species. ...
... c Ascospores. Cosmospora henanensis has been known only from the type specimen, collected in China (Nong and Zhuang 2005). Twelve species of Cosmospora with Acremonium-like anamorphs are known (Samuels et al. 1991; Rossman et al. 1999 ...
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Seven species of the genus Cosmospora collected in Japan are reported in this article. Among them, Cosmospora japonica is described as a new species. Cosmospora henanensis, C. rishbethii, and C. triqua, all of which are known only from their type localities, are added to the Japanese mycobiota. The other species, C. chaetopsinaecatenulatae, C. diminuta, and C. peponum, are new records for Japan. Additional distribution records are given for Cosmospora species hitherto known in Japan.
... Bionectria species are often saprobic or fungicolous. Ten species have been reported from China (Zhang & Zhuang 2003, Nong & Zhuang 2005, Zhuang & Zhang 2006, Zhuang et al. 2007): B. apocyni, B. byssicola, B. gibberosa Schroers, B. mellea (Teng & S.H. Ou) W.Y. Zhuang & X.M. Zhang, B. oblongispora, B. ochroleuca, B. pseudostriata, B. samuelsii, B. sesquicillii, and B. tornata (Höhn.) Schroers. ...
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Based on morphological characters and sequence analysis of the nrDNA ITS region, Bionectria wenpingii sp. nov. is described and illustrated. Distinctions between the new species and its closely related taxa are discussed. Two species of Bionectria are reported for the first time from China.
... Three new species are discovered and 5 new Chinese records are reported. This study is the continuation of our work on nectriaceous fungi from central regions of China (Nong and Zhuang, 2005). ...
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Recent collections of the Bionectriaceae and Nectriaceae from Hubei Province were examined. Twenty-six species of 11 genera were identified. Among them 3 new species, i.e., Ijuhya hubeiensis with anamorph unknown, Leuconectria grandis with Gliocephalotrichum cylindrosporum anamorph, and Neonectria hubeiensis with Cylindrocarpon cf. orthosporum anamorph, are described; and 5 new records for China were found in the genera Bionectria, Ijuhya and Neonectria. Distinctions between the new species and their closely related fungi are discussed.
... Jones, Hydropisphaera Dumort, Ijuhya Starbäck, Kallichroma Kohlm. & Volkm.-Kohlm., Nectriopsis Maire, Ochronectria Rossman & Samuels, Protocreopsis Y. Doi, Roumegueriella Speg., Selinia P. Karst., and Stilbocrea Pat., have been reported up to the present (Wang et al. 1999;Fröhlich and Hyde 2000;Lu et al. 2000;Zhuang 2000;Zhuang and Zhang 2002;Zhang and Zhuang 2003a, b, c;Taylor and Hyde 2003;Nong and Zhuang 2005;Luo and Zhuang 2007;Zhuang et al. 2007 In our recent examinations of the bionectriaceous collections from Beijing, Guangdong, Hubei, Fujian, and Yunnan provinces, 3 new species, Bionectria intermedia, Hydropisphaera yunnanensis, and Nectriopsis apiosporae, are described; and 4 new Chinese records belonging to Bionectria and Hydropisphaera are reported. ...
Article
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Collections of bionectriaceous fungi from different areas of China were examined, in which 3 new species were encountered. Bionectria intermedia is characterized by smooth perithecia, 2-layered perithecial wall, cylindrical to clavate asci with an apical ring, ascospore striations composed of separate warts, and dimorphic conidiophores. Hydropisphaera yunnanensis has hairy ascomata which are cupulate when dry, clavate asci with a simple apex, and spinulose and very narrow ascospores fusiform and constricted at septum. Nectriopsis apiosporae possesses laterally pinched perithecia when dry, 1-layered perithecial wall, rough perithecial surface, clavate asci with a simple apex, spinulose ascospores with 3 septa, and on Apiospora sp. Four species, Bionectria epichloë, B. kowhaii, B. subquaternata and Hydropisphaera suffulta, are reported as new to China. Keywords Bionectria - Clonostachys - Hydropisphaera -Morphology- Nectriopsis -Taxonomy
... Cosmospora consors however differs obviously in its perithecia laterally collapsing when dry, hairs present on perithecial surface, and connection with a Volutella anamorph (Samuels 1977). In view of their unique morphological traits and phylogenetic position among genera of Nectriaceae, especially their distinctions from Cosmospora, a new genus therefore is proposed.Rossman et al. 1999, Nirenberg and Samuels 2000, Zhuang and Zhang 2002, Hosoya and Tubaki 2004, Nong and Zhuang 2005, Hirooka et al. 2008, Rossman et al. 2008 ). Nevertheless they correlate with several anamorphic genera and appear to be heterogeneous (Rossman et al. 1999, Zhang and Zhuang 2006). ...
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Genus Chaetopsinectria is established to accommodate four species, previously assigned to Cosmospora, that possess Chaetopsina anamorphs, small and red perithecia not collapsing when dry, a typical Cosmospora perithecial wall structure, clavate asci, smooth or striate ascospores, sienna colonies on PDA, and on decaying debris or woody substrates. The segregation of the new genus from Cosmospora is well supported by sequence analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS and 28S partial) with maximum parsimony and Bayesian methods. The molecular data indicate that the new genus is distantly related to Cosmospora coccinea Rabenh., the type species of Cosmospora sensu stricto, and its related fungi. Four new combinations, Chaetopsinectria chaetopsinae, C. chaetopsinae-catenulatae, C. chaetopsinae-penicillatae and C. chaetopsinae-polyblastiae, are proposed.
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Thirteen ascomycetes are reported from Argentina from fallen woody parts of three palms in two national parks. Berkleasmium corticola, B. sinense, Brachysporiella gayana, Dictyosporium cocophylum, D. zeylanicum, Endocalyx melanoxanthus var. melanoxanthus, Ernakulamia cochinensis, Musicillium theobromae, Sporidesmium macrurum, and Stachylidium bicolor are new records for Argentina. Melanochaeta hemipsila is reported for the first time as a teleomorph in this country.
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Four new species belonging to Bionectria, Calonectria, Haematonectria and Neonectria on plant substrates collected from nature reserves in southern and central China are described. Bionectria truncata has smooth perithecia of a flattened to shallow discoid apex, clavate asci with an apical ring, and ellipsoid, smooth to spinulose ascospores. Calonectria dicephalospora is characterized by pyriform perithecia with a warted surface, clavate asci with a simple apex and long, narrow stalk, and fusoid ascospores with a cap-like appendage at each end. Haematonectria lushanensis possesses warted perithecia which are laterally collapsing when dry, cylindrical asci with a simple apex, and ellipsoid, spinulose ascospores. Neonectria dinghushanica is distinguishable by subglobose perithecia with a warted surface, clavate asci, and striate ascospores. Morphological features of these new species are described comprehensively and compared with their related fungi. Neonectria castaneicola is recorded as new to China.
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The new pyrrolidinones, rigidiusculamides A-D (1-4), have been isolated from the crude extract of the ascomycete fungus Albonectria rigidiuscula. The structures of these compounds were elucidated primarily by NMR experiments. The absolute configuration of the 3,4-diol moieties in 1 and 4 was assigned using Snatzke's method. Compounds 1 and 2 showed modest cytotoxicity against the human tumor cell lines HeLa and MCF-7.
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A new species of Hydropisphaera possessing discoid perithecia and fusoid, uniseptate ascospores is reported from tropical Guangdong, China.
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Species of the genus Bionectria (Hypocreales, Bionectriaceae) with anamorphs in Clonostachys are reviewed. Bionectria is distinct from other genera of the Bionectriaceae in overall shape and septation of the ascospores, ascus morphology, ecology, and, in particular, characters of the anamorph. Several other characters of the ascomata may differ from those seen in other genera of the Bionectriaceae as well but none of these is consistently formed in all Bionectria species. The understanding of this genus necessitates emphasis on character patterns rather than single features, because certain characters may overlap with those of other nectrioid taxa. Bionectria forms a monophyletic clade based on analyses of the partial large subunit of the ribosomal DNA (LSU rDNA). The genus includes destructive mycoparasites, some of which are used as biocontrol agents of fungal plant pathogens, as well as species with other substrate associations. The teleomorphs of Bionectria are classified in the six newly distinguished subgenera Bionectria, Zebrinella, Astromata, Myronectria, Epiphloea, and Uniparietina, based on stroma morphology, stroma-perithecium wall interface structure, perithecial wall anatomy, habit of the perithecia on the natural substratum, and ascospore ornamentation and septation. Some but not all of the morphologically delimited subgenera are paraphyletic based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA (ITS rDNA) and a portion of the β-tubulin gene (tub2). The anamorphs of Bionectria are classified in Clonostachys. After reinterpretation of some characters, heightened emphasis on overall character patterns, consideration of transition series within particular character states, and consideration of the appearance of colonies both on the natural substratum and in pure culture, Clonostachys is broadly delimited to include anamorphs formerly classified in Verticilliwn, Gliocladium, Acrostalagmus, Sesquicillium, Spicaria, Dendrodochium, Clonostachyopsis, Verticilliodochium, Gliocladochium, and Myrothecium. All taxa of Bionectria are united by phenotypic characters of the anamorph such as penicillate conidiophores, conidia held in imbricate columns, and predominantly more or less curved conidia with mostly laterally displaced hila. These characters are rare or not formed in other genera of the Bionectriaceae. Conidiomata, intercalary phialides, conidiophore dimorphism, and conidial mass colour are variable within Bionectria, although to a certain extent they may reflect subgeneric affinities. In Bionectria / Clonostachys 44 holomorphic or anamorphic species are distinguished based on morphological discontinuities. Based on inferences from ITS rDNA and tub2 sequences, most of the species form monophyletic units. In few cases paraphyletic clades are accepted as species. In two species, C. rosea and C. solani, infraspecific forms are proposed to segregate strains with either white to pale orange or green conidial masses. The following taxa are accepted, newly combined (bold letters, comb. nov.), or newly described (bold letters: subgen. nov., sp. nov., or stat. nov): Subgenus BIONECTRIA: B. apocyni/C. macrospora comb. nov. - B. aureofulvella sp. nov./C. aureofulvella stat. nov. - B. byssicola/C. byssicola stat. nov. - B. capitata sp. nov./C. capitata stat. nov. -B. compactiuscula sp. nov./C. compactiuscula - B. kowhaii comb. nov./C. kowhaii stat. nov. - B. oblongispora sp. nov./C. oblongispora stat. nov. - B. ochroleuca/C. rosea -C. rosea f. catenulata stat. nov. - B. zelandiaenovae sp. nov./C. zelandiaenovae stat. nov. - B. pseudochroleuca sp. nov./C. pseudochroleuca stat. nov. - B. pseudostriata sp. nov./C. pseudostriata stat. nov. - B. ralfsii comb. nov./C. ralfsii stat. nov. -B. samuelsii sp. nov./C. samuelsii stat. nov. - B. solani comb. nov./C. solani comb. nov. - C. solani f. nigrovirens stat. nov. - B. sporodochialis sp. nov./C. sporodochialis stat. nov. - B. tonduzii/C. ?macrospora - B. verrucispora sp. nov./C. verrucispora stat. nov. - C. agrawalii comb. nov. - C. divergens sp. nov. - C. rhizophaga sp. nov. -C. rogersoniana sp. nov. - Subgenus ZEBRINELLA subgen. nov.: B. grammicospora comb. nov./C. grammicospora stat. nov. - B. grammicosporopsis comb. nov./C. grammicosporopsis stat. nov. - B. levigata sp. nov./C. levigata stat. nov. - B. lucifer comb. nov./C. lucifer stat. nov. - B. subquaternata comb. nov./C. subquaternata stat. nov. -C. chlorina sp. nov. - C. intermedia sp. nov. - Subgenus ASTROMATA subgen. nov.: B. epichloë comb. nov./C. epichloë stat. nov. - B. parva sp. nov./?C. miodochialis - C. miodochialis sp. nov. - Subgenus MYRONECTRIA subgen. nov.: B. pityrodes comb. nov./C. pityrodes stat. nov. - Subgenus EPIPHLOEA subgen. nov.: B. gibberosa sp. nov./C. cf. setosa - B. impariphialis comb. nov./C. impariphialis comb. nov. - B. lasiacidis comb. nov./C. lasiacidis stat. nov. - B. parviphialis comb. nov./C. pseudosetosa comb. nov. - B. rossmaniae sp. nov./C. rossmaniae stat. nov. - B. sesquicillii comb. nov./C. sesquicillii stat. nov. - B. setosa sp. nov./C. setosa comb. nov. - B. tornata comb. nov./C. asymmetrica comb. nov. - C. candelabrum comb. nov. - C. phyllophila sp. nov. - Subgenus UNIPARIETINA subgen. nov.: B. aurantia - B. coronata comb. nov./C. buxi comb. nov.
Article
The Hypocreales with over one thousand described species have been the repository for all light- to bright-colored, soft-textured, perithecial ascomycetes with a Nectria-type centrum. Rogerson (1970) published a key to the genera in the Hypocreales and accepted over 115 genera with 26 generic synonyms in the order. Since then, 58 genera have been added. For this study all available type specimens of the type species of genera classified in the Hypocreales were examined. Fifty six genera, including six newly described genera with 43 generic synonyms, are accepted in three families, Bionectriaceae fam, nov., Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae, of the order. Although now considered either part of or closely related to the Hypocreales, neither the Niessliaceae nor the Clavicipitaceae are treated comprehensively in this study. Fourteen genera with two generic synonyms are included in the Niessliaceae and six genera with one generic synonym are placed in the Clavicipitaceae. The remaining 84 genera are excluded from the Hypocreales and redisposed in their appropriate family and order. Genera excluded from the Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae, and Nectriaceae are described and illustrated based on their type species. For 16 genera previously placed in the Hypocreales the type specimen was either not located or not sufficient to make a modern taxonomic evaluation of the type species. For each genus the type species and species not recently treated are fully described and documented. A key to species is presented unless a recent key to species in that genus is available. In the Bionectriaceae a new genus, Ochronectria, is introduced for Nectria calami. Nectriella minuta, N. rubricapitula, N. utahensis, Pronectria echinulata, P. pertusariicola, and Protocreopsis viridis are described as new species. The following new specific combinations are proposed: Dimerosporiella cephalosporii, D. gnarapiensis, D. leucorrhodina, D. oidioides, D. pipericola, and D. sensitiva; Hydropisphaera arenula, H. arenuloides, H. boothii, H. cyatheae, H. dolichospora, H. erubescens, H. gigantea, H. haematites, H. hypoxantha, H. leucotricha, H. macrarenula, H. multiloculata, H. multiseptata, H. nymaniana, H. pachyderma, and H. suffulta; Ijuhya peristomialis, I. chilensis, I. aquifolii, I. bambusina, I. corynespora, I. dentifera, I. dictyospora, I. leucocarpa, I. paraparilis, and I. parilis; Lasionectria sylvana and L. vulpina; Nectriella curtisii, N. dakotensis, and N. galii; Nectriopsis sasae and N. queletii; Ochronectria calami; Peethambara spirostriata and for its anamorph Didymostilbe echinofibrosa, Protocreopsis foliicola, P. freycinetiae, P. javanica, P. pertusa, P. pertusoides, and P. phormiicola; Stilbocrea gracilipes and S. impressa. Two new names, Nectriella crouanii for Nectria aurea P. & H. Crouan, and N. halonata for Charonectria umbelliferarum, are proposed. In the Nectriaceae five new genera are introduced: Albonectria for species related with Nectria rigidiuscula, Haematonectria for the Nectria haematococca complex, Lanatonectria for the Nectria flavolanata-group, Rubrinectria for a species previously known as Nectria olivacea, and Viridispora for teleomorphs of Penicillifer. Cosmospora dingleyae and C. obscura are described as new species. The following new specific combinations are proposed: Albonectria rigidiuscula, A. albosuccinea, and A. verrucosa; Corallomycetella repens and C. jatrophae; Cosmospora aurantiicola, C. biasolettiana, C. camelliae, C. chaetopsinae, C. chaetopsinae-catenulatae, C. chaetopsinae-penicillatae, C. chaetopsinae-polyblastiae, C. chlorina, C. consors, C. digitalicola, C. diminuta, C. diploa, C. episphaeria, C. flammea, C. flavoviridis, C. ganymede, C. geastroides, C. glabra, C. joca, C. jucundula, C. kurdica, C. lasiodiplodiae, C. leptosphaeriae, C. macrochaetopsinae, C. magnusiana, C. meliopsicola, C. metepisphaeria, C. nothepisphaeria, C. papilionacearum, C. peponum, C. pseudepisphaeria, C. pseudoflavoviridis, C. purtonii, C. rickii, C. rishbethii, C. rubrisetosa, C. sansevieriae, C. stilbellae, C. stilbosporae, C. thujana, C. triqua, C. tungurahuana, C. vilior, C. viliuscula, C. wegeliana, and C. xanthostroma; Haematonectria haematococca, H. illudens, H. ipomoeae, H. monilifera, and H. termitum; Lanatonectria flocculenta with anamorph Actinostilbe macalpinei, L. flavolanata, L. mammiformis with anamorph Actinostilbe mammiformis, and L. raripila; Neonectria coccinea and N. galligena; Rubrinectria olivacea; Viridispora penicilliferi, V. alata, V. diparietispora, and V. fragariae; Xenonectriella leptaleae, X. ornamentata, and X. streimannii. In the checklist, some genera are excluded from the families treated here and placed among 19 families in 12 orders of ascomycetes and one basidiomycetous genus. Two genera are uniloculate, discomycetous loculoascomycetes; some have true apothecia and belong in the Helotiales and Pezizales, or are lichenized Lecanorales. Many of these taxa are placed in the Diaporthales and Xylariales (Hyponectriaceae and Thyridiaceae). Genera having immersed ascomata are often difficult to place; they include Charonectria and Hyponectria, now placed in the Hyponectriaceae, Xylariales; and Cryptoleptosphaeria, Cryptonectriella and Schizoparme, now placed in the Diaporthales. Several genera are placed in the Niessliaceae and Clavicipitaceae of the Hypocreales. In this section a new species, Charonectria amabilis, is described, and the new combinations Thyridium ohiense, Charonectria sceptri, Cryptoleptosphaeria gracilis, Cryptonectriella geoglossi, and Thelocarpon citrum, are proposed.
Article
A new species, Nectriopsis hainanensis of the Bionectriaceae, an unnamed species of Lanatonectria and a new Chinese record, both of the Nectriaceae, are described and illustrated.
Article
Specimens of the Bionectriaceae and Nectriaceae from tropical China on deposit in the Mycological Herbarium, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences were re-examined. Fifteen species were identified. Among them, Cosmospora damingshanica and Nectriopsis hongkongensis are described as new species. The new combinations Bionectria mellea, Cosmospora effusa, and Cosmospora nummulariae are proposed.
Article
Twenty species of the Bionectriaceae and Nectriaceae from temperate China are listed. Nectriopsis uredinophila and Gibberella bambusae are new combinations. Three species of Cosmospora are recorded for the first time from China. Three species are excluded from the families; among these species, Lasiosphaeria chrysentera is also new to China.
  • W Y Zhuang
m, on a beaked pyrenomycete on rotten wood, 15 XI 2003, W.Y. Zhuang, C.Y. Liu & Y. Nong 5188, HMAS 86474; ibid., alt. 700 m, on a beaked pyrenomycete, 15 XI 2003, W.Y. Zhuang, C.Y. Liu & Y. Nong 5191, HMAS 86475.
  • W Y Zhuang
m, on bark, 14 XI 2003, W.Y. Zhuang, C.Y. Liu & Y. Nong 5151, HMAS 86483. Hydropisphaera erubescens (Desm.) Rossman & Samuels, Stud. Mycol. 42: 30, 1999.
Notes: The fungus has small and superficial perithecia. Ascomata are cupulate when dry and do not change colour in KOH and lactic acid
  • Ann Sphaeria Erubescens Desm
  • Soc
  • Nat
  • Bot
≡ Sphaeria erubescens Desm., Ann. Soc. Nat., Bot., Sér. 3, 6: 72, 1846. Material examined: CHINA, Henan, Jigongshan, alt. 400 m, on twig, 14 XI 2003, W.Y. Zhuang, C.Y. Liu & Y. Nong 5141, HMAS 91779. Notes: The fungus has small and superficial perithecia. Ascomata are cupulate when dry and do not change colour in KOH and lactic acid. The collection is almost the same as H. erubescens recorded by Rossman (1983)
The phragmosporous species of Nectria and related genera
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Samuels, G.J., Yoshimichi, D. and Rogerson, C.T. (1990). Hypocreales. Memoirs of New York Botanical Garden 59: 6-108.
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Teng, S.C. (1935). Supplementary notes on Ascomycetes from China. Sinensia 6: 185-217.
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Zhang, X.M. and Zhuang, W.Y. (2003a). New Chinese records of the Bionectriaceae and Nectriaceae. Mycosystema 22: 525-530.