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New applications of Corona discharges for photonics characterization of inert or living matter

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Water is everywhere in nature, requiring new imaging techniques for visualization of information storage or transfer in liquids or hydrated solids. Corona discharges created by exciting matter in the UV spectrum is a mean to measure in a reproducible way « bio-compatibility » between a living body and any chemical substance. In medicine, a better match between drugs and receiving bodies is expected. Through its coherence domains, we demonstrate that water is highly sensitive to electromagnetic fields and micro-currents in well-defined frequency ranges. Reproducible exchange of information, through a quartz support, between water and informed ceramics materials will also be presented.
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New applications of Corona discharges
for photonics characterization
of inert or living matter
Georges Vieilledent1, Raymond Herren2, Marc Henry3, Vincent Morard4 & Quynh Nhu Xuan Trinh-
Kramer5
1 Electrophotonique Ingenierie, Gaillac - Brens, France, 81600
2 CNRS, Paris, France, 75000
3 UMR 7140, CNRS/Université de Strasbourg (UdS), Strasbourg, France, 67000
4 Centre de Morphologie Mathématique, Ecole des Mines, Paris, France, 75006
5 Hamamatsu Photonics, Paris, France, 75000
BioEM2014, Cape Town, South Africa, Jun 08 - 13, 2014
Session : PA
Keywords: Clinical (diagnostics), Optical, Work in Progress
Summary
Water is everywhere in nature, requiring new imaging techniques for visualization of information
storage or transfer in liquids or hydrated solids. Corona discharges created by exciting matter in the
UV spectrum is a mean to measure in a reproducible way « bio-compatibility » between a living
body and any chemical substance. In medicine, a better match between drugs and receiving bodies
is expected. Through its coherence domains, we demonstrate that water is highly sensitive to
electromagnetic fields and micro-currents in well-defined frequency ranges. Reproducible
exchange of information, through a quartz support, between water and informed ceramics
materials will also be presented.
1. Introduction
Corona discharges also known as St. Elmo's fires are well documented natural phenomena that
were already known in ancient Greece. It has many commercial and industrial applications in the
field of air’s ionizers, ozone’s production, photocopying, improvement of wetability or in
electrostatic separation of conductive and non-conductive materials. Applications in the field of life
sciences are however quite sparse. Today, there is growing evidence from quantum field theory
that liquid water could have a nanostructure formed of coherence domains that are responsible for
the sensitivity of this otherwise diamagnetic substance to electromagnetic fields having
frequencies in the UV (excitation), infrared (information writing) and radio (information reading)
ranges. As all living organisms are made of about 70 wt% or 99 mol% of water, it is of crucial
importance to develop reliable experimental techniques to visualize and quantify any specific
information stored on these coherence domains present on any kind of liquid or interfacial water.
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2. Methods
The system consists of a generator AEPG © outputting pulse signals with variable amplitude and
frequency. The generator is connected to a transparent conductive electrode on which are placed
the elements to be studied. A Hamamatsu camera, synchronized and coupled to an optical and a
UV filter, captures corona discharges. These images are digitized and stored in 16-bit TIFF format.
Once the recordings made, they are analyzed by open source softwares (ImageJ) or by home-made
softwares developed in our company.
3. Results
a) Phenomena observed in the living
An example of our technique is provided by the observation of a fresh strawberry leaf and another
strawberry leaf impregnated with glufosinate ammonium or DL-phosphinothricin, an active
ingredient in several nonselective systemic herbicides (figure 1 see page 5). After 1 minute, we
were able to observe the destructive effects of the herbicide in the UV.
b) Biocompatibility imaging using 200 Hz UV-excitation
To highlight affinity or repulsion between a given substance and a human subject, we have
developed quartz containers shown in figure 2a (see page 6). The person to be tested has to place
one of his finger in a pit facing three holes filled with substances that should be tested.
Electrophotonic analysis is performed with a home-made software developed specifically by our
company for this kind of application.
Figure 2b (see page 6) shows how to choose between 3 commercial cosmetic creams. In this
example, the strong affinity is materialized by the appearance of a “photonic bridge” with the # 2
spot (center) and not with spots #1 or #3.
Figure 2c (see page 7) concerns a test performed with a patient having type 2 diabetes facing three
different drugs using again UV-excitation at 200 Hz. Here the “photonic bridge” is directed towards
spot #1 and not spots #2 or #3. Medical treatment prescribed to this patient according to this
technique fully confirms the suitability of active substance loaded in spot #1, while using the active
ingredient contained in spot #2 has adverse effects on this patient.
Figure 2d (see page 7) shows the same test performed with a patient without diabetes with the
same 3 different molecules evidencing as expected no special attraction is seen for this subject.
Finally, figure 2e (see page 8) concerns a test performed with 3 corticosteroids for a patient
suffering from psoriasis. In this picture we can see an affinity with spot # 3 (bottom) and observe a
gap or barrier with spot #2 (center) containing a product whose shelf life was expired by several
months.
c) Liquid water imaging using 400 Hz UV-excitation
Figure 3 (see page 9) shows the effect of applying a 8 Hz electromagnetic pulse for 5 min (figure
3b) on demineralized liquid water (figure 3a) after image processing by ImageJ using the same
grayscale (1300-24000) with fire colorization.
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In another experiment we have tested the effect of an informed ceramics obtained by loading a
silico-aluminate material with various micro-organisms. After pouring water in the quartz vessel
(figure 3c), it is simply placed on the informed ceramics for 12 min leading to a drastic image
change following this treatment (figure 3d and 3e).
4. Conclusion
The physical basis of electrophotonic imaging is a charge recombination process between ions and
electrons within a plasma generated after application of a strong electrostatic potential between a
transparent electrode and any sample of condensed matter behaving as a counter-electrode.
This charge recombination process creates streamer images extending radially from the sample-
electrode boundary. It is well known that for a given voltage pulse and pulse repetition rate, the
streamer range is dependent on the electric field bending due to the mismatch of dielectric constants
et dielectric interfaces, the relative thickness of the dielectric components between the sample and
the voltage source, the water vapor content of the atmosphere and the geometric characteristics of
sample’s surface.
More particularly, this range is proportional to the corona onset voltage and thus is an inverse function
of the resistance formed by the high-voltage anode and the sample. For a given resistance, water vapor
reduces streamer range by absorbing photons which otherwise would be available for propagating
positive streamers by photoionization. Water vapor may also reduce streamer breakdown voltage by
influencing the charge sheath that forms above a positive point.
Concerning the corona streamer density and more particularly the absence of streamers within a given
region of the sample-electrode boundary, it may be predominantly due to the release of water present
on or within the sample.
The existence of corona streamers that deviate significantly from a radial trajectory is another
phenomenon that is relates to moisture. Accordingly, streamers that have curved paths usually outline
regions in which streamers are absent, and frequently will curve into these empty regions, electrons
being attracted there by a positive density of charges sustained by water molecules.
Consequently, streamer curvature is not observed when the samples are dry. It follows that most of
the variations in the images of corona of a sample in contact with the anode may be accounted for by
the presence of moisture on or within the sample’s surface. During exposure, moisture is transferred
from the sample to the anode and causes an alteration of the electric charge pattern on the anode,
hence the electric field at the surface of the sample. As a result, large variations in the density of
corona images as well as corona streamer range and trajectories may be brought about.
It is then anticipated that water activity of both atmosphere and investigated samples should be
monitored and controlled for a sound and rational interpretation of corona images. As any piece of
matter contains a variable amount of water, it follows that corona discharge imaging may be very
useful in the detection and quantification of moisture in animate or inanimate specimens through the
orderly modulation of the image due to various levels of moisture.
For inanimate specimens such as aqueous solutions large variations in images have thus been
observed as water activity is dependent on the nature and concentration of dissolved solute species.
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For mineral waters or biological fluids image variations may be attributed to changes in both water
activity but also to the presence of cations and anions that may alter directly the electric charge
pattern on the anode.
For living subjects, both perspiration and water vapor from hydrated membranes and/or proteins are
source of moisture that would influence corona density.
Moreover, water activity match or mismatch between a living subject and any kind of hydrated matter
may be the physical basis for the presence or absence of a photonic bridge on corona images.
Finally, the differences observed in corona images may also reflect a change in quantum coherence
within coherence domains predicted by quantum field theory in liquid as well as interfacial water. For
all these reasons we think that corona discharge imaging will be an invaluable scientific tool in a very
near future for quality management in food industry, cosmetics, pharmaceutics and water quality
assessment.
REFERENCES
[1] Pehek J.O., Kyler H.J. & Faust D.L. «Image Modulation in Corona Discharge Photography»,
Science, 194 (1976) 263-270.
[2] Bono I., del Giudice E., Gamberale L. & Henry M., «Emergence of the Coherent Structure of
Liquid Water », Water, 4 (2012) 510-532.
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FIGURE 1
Fresh strawberry leaf
Leaf impregnated with glufosinate ammonium
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FIGURE 2
Figure 2a
Figure 2b
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Figure 2c - a patient having type 2 diabetes
Figure 2d - a patient without diabetes
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Figure 2e - a patient suffering from psoriasis
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FIGURE 3
3a - demineralized liquid water
3b - demineralized liquid water (8 Hz EM pulse for 5 min)
3c quartz support
3d - demineralized liquid water
3e - demineralized liquid water
on the ceramics for 12 min
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Article
Photographic images obtained by the Kirlian technique are principally a record of corona activity during an exposure interval. Most of the variations in the images of the corona of a living subject who is in contact with the photographic film can be accounted for by the presence of moisture on or within the subject's surface. During exposure, moisture is transferred from the subject to the emulsion surface of the photographic film and causes an alteration of the electric charge pattern on the film, hence the electric field at the surface of the subject. As a result, large variations in the density of corona images, corona streamer trajectories, and image coloration can be brought about. The radial extent of corona images--that is, the range of corona streamers--is an inverse function of the resistance in the circuit formed by the high-voltage supply, the subject, and the film-electrode configuration. This is because the voltage at which corona is initiated is dependent on the rate of rise of the voltage impressed between the subject and the electrode, and the rate of rise is governed by the applied voltage waveform and the voltage drop across the resistance. The range of streamers is proportional to the corona onset voltage. However, we have not seen any influence of large changes in skin resistance on streamer range. Presumably, this is due to the shunting effect of skin capacitance. In general, the photographic response to moisture suggests that corona discharge photography may be useful in the detection and quantification of moisture in animate and inanimate specimens through the orderly modulation of the image due to various levels of moisture.
  • J O Pehek
  • H J Kyler
  • D L Faust
Pehek J.O., Kyler H.J. & Faust D.L. «Image Modulation in Corona Discharge Photography», Science, 194 (1976) 263-270.