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The Howard and Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world, 4th. ed., Vol. 2

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This volume deals with the passerines (6063 spp. in pp. i-lii, 1-752. Joel Cracraft provided and explains the sequence of families. 15 expert colleagues assisted with this volume. The accompanying CD includes an editable spreadsheet version of the two-volume checklist as well as the volume reference list (over 3000 references) and appendices 5 to 9 (1 to 4 being in the book). Five new family-group names are introduced.
https://www.howardandmoore.org/howard-and-moore-database/
... With six currently recognized species in the Sino-Himalayan region, Eurasian Arctic, and the island of Taiwan, the Tarsiger bush robins (Dickinson and Christidis, 2014;del Hoyo and Collar, 2016;Clements et al., 2021;Gill et al., 2021) comprise an ideal group for the study of biogeographical patterns of diversification and speciation. Bush robins are small (12-15 cm in body length), insectivorous and sexually dimorphic songbirds with distinctive male plumage and songs. ...
... Tarsiger cyanurus is usually treated as monotypic (e.g. Wolters, 1975Wolters, -1982Dickinson and Christidis, 2014;del Hoyo and Collar, 2016;Clements et al., 2021;Gill et al., 2021), but the taxon 'albocoeruleus' breeding in mountain ranges in northeast Qinghai, north Gansu, Shanxi and Beijing (Townshend, 2021), described by Meise in 1937 as a subspecies of T. cyanurus but not generally recognized, has recently (Shirihai and Svensson, 2018) been considered valid (Meise, 1937). ...
... A total of 53 blood, muscle, feather or toepad samples were included in the current study, including representatives of all eleven subspecies of the six currently recognized species in the genus Tarsiger (Dickinson and Christidis, 2014;del Hoyo and Collar, 2016;Clements et al., 2021;Gill et al. 2021). Some of the samples were collected specifically for this study but most were acquired from collaborators ( Fig. 1, Table S1), and we included sequences from published studies (Fig. 1, Table S1). ...
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Several cryptic avian species have been validated by recent integrative taxonomic efforts in the Sino-Himalayan mountains, indicating that avian diversity in this global biodiversity hotspot may be underestimated. In the present study, we investigated species limits in the genus Tarsiger, the bush robins, a group of montane forest specialists with high species richness in the Sino-Himalayan region. Based on comprehensive sampling of all 11 subspecies of the six currently recognized species, we applied an integrative taxonomic approach by combining multilocus, acoustic, plumage and morphometric analyses. Our results reveal that the isolated north-central Chinese populations of Tarsiger cyanurus, described as the subspecies albocoeruleus but usually considered invalid, is distinctive in genetics and vocalisation, but only marginally differentiated in morphology. We also found the Taiwan endemic T. indicus formosanus to be distinctive in genetics, song and morphology from T. i. indicus and T. i. yunnanensis of the Sino-Himalayan mountains. Moreover, Bayesian species delimitation using BPP suggests that both albocoeruleus and formosanus merit full species status. We propose their treatment as 'Qilian Bluetail' T. albocoeruleus and 'Taiwan Bush Robin' T. formosanus, respectively.
... For all categories where the boundaries were transgressed, the pressure was well above the zones of uncertainty, with the exception of biodiversity (Table 4). 74 The global food consumption assessment by the EAT-Lancet Commission (Willett et al., 2019; revealed similar trends as found in this thesis, i.e. with the safe operating spaces being exceeded for climate change, phosphorus cycling and biodiversity loss. With regard to global freshwater and cropland use, the pressures were within the boundary. ...
... Finally, to obtain the E/MSY for Swedish food consumption, the PSL for Swedish food consumption per year was divided by one-millionth of the total number of recognised species (mammals [72], birds [73,74], reptiles [75], amphibians [76], plants [77]) included in the analysis. ...
Thesis
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Reducing environmental impacts from the food system will require a shift towards environmentally sustainable eating patterns. To achieve changes in diets that reduce environmental burdens, a climate tax on food has been suggested. This thesis examined different aspects of data on environmental pressures and their use for establishing and evaluating a tax on food, as well as assessing the sustainability of diets. This included establishing climate impact values for foods, for use in a climate tax. Further, this thesis identified aspects needed to determine the environmental sustainability of diets in the Swedish context. The environmental pressures of the current average Swedish diet were calculated and benchmarked against suggested global environmental boundaries. Potential goal conflicts resulting from taxation were identified. A method based on Life Cycle Assessment was developed for establishing consistent and transparent datasets on the climate impact of foods, for use in a climate tax on food. Evaluation of methodological choices for assessing climate impact revealed a common trade-off between using climate impact data that result in a theoretically cost-efficient tax and simplicity in calculations. Comparison of the global EAT-Lancet framework for environmentally sustainable food systems and the national Swedish Environmental Objectives revealed a need for additional aspects to capture regional environmental concerns in Sweden. For this, there is a need for better inventory data, site-dependent impact modelling and improved traceability for imported foods. The environmental pressures of Swedish food consumption were found to exceed global boundaries for greenhouse gas emissions, cropland use and nutrient application by two- to four-fold. For extinction rate of terrestrial species, the boundary was transgressed by six-fold. The only environmental category for which the global boundary was not exceeded was freshwater use, for which the diet performed well below the limit. Climate taxation on all foods on the Swedish market was found to have the potential to reduce food-related environmental pressures by 7-12%, mainly owing to an overall decrease in food consumption. With a decline in beef consumption, pasture use was found to decrease by up to 12%. To avoid potential goal conflicts with maintaining Swedish semi-natural pastures when introducing a climate tax, farmers could be given higher payments for management of these areas.
... GUSTAFSSON & BUSH (2017: 418) cause even more confusion when they even assign Corvus enca pusillus as type host to the lectotype of latifasciatus without any explanation. In the Sula Islands E Sulawesi, the subspecies mangoli of Corvus enca, which only became known in the late 1950s, but not pusillus from the Philippines, lives (Del HOYO & COLLAR 2016, DICKINSON & CHRISTIDIS 2014; and currently online.versions of these checklists). It is provisionally assumed that the Lycocoranirmus material available from Corvus enca celebensis belongs to one and the same species with the still unknown one from Corvus enca mangoli. ...
Article
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1. The genera Corvonirmus Eichler, 1944 (with 11 spp.), Hecatrishula Gustafsson & Bush, 2017 (with 8 spp.), and Lycocoranirmus Mey, 2017 (with 5 spp.), which belong to the Brueelia complex (Philopteridae s. l.), are morpho-structurally characterized mainly by head structures and chaetotaxy. They are defined as a group of related taxa that should be placed in the rank of a subfamily (Corvonirminae subfam. nov.) if the former Brueeliinae sensu EICHLER (1963:177) would get the status of a separate family (Brueeliidae). 2. Within the Corvonirmus group, the former Hecatrishula biguttata species group is assumed to be classified as new genus. Stubbenirmus gen. nov. with S. stubbeae spec. nov. (generotype) ex Podoces hendersoni Hume and S. koslovae (Clay, 1936) ex Podoces biddulphi Hume most likely represent the phylogenetically oldest branch within the Corvonirmus group. This pair (koslovae group) is closely related to S. docilis (Ansari, 1957) ex Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax barbarus Vaurie, but for the time being it represents a separate species group as well as Stubbenirmus biguttatus (Kellogg & Paine, 1914) ex Pyrrhocorax graculus forsythi Stoliczka. Stubbenirmus biguttatus mediates to Hecatrishula, from which Corvonirmus and Lycocoranirmus can be derived. So far it has not been investigated in detail how Olivinirmus Złotorzycka, 1964 is related to the Corvonirmus group and whether it is correct to include the Australian Brueelia of the Cracticidae (supposedly "Nirmus semiannulatus Piaget, 1883" on at least four host species) in the group or not. 3. The taxonomic-systematic block (1. and 2.) is preceded by a scientific-historical discourse on the prehistory of the Stubbenirmus species, in which reasonable doubts about the identity of Hecatrishula multipunctata (Clay, 1936) are presented. 4. The hypothesis that Stubbenirmus biguttatus and S. docilis synhospital would live on both Pyrrhocorax species is rejected. 5. Attention is drawn to the fact that of the four genera of the Corvonirmus group, only species of Corvonirmus and Hecatrishula synhospital (both on host species and on host individual) are regularly found. In a case still to be studied in more detail, Lycocoranirmus and Corvonirmus also appear to live on one host species (Corvus orru), but according to current knowledge they belong to different host subspecies (orru in New Guinea and Moluccas and ceciliae in Australia). 6. Parasitophyletic considerations on the Corvonirmus group indicate that the genera Podoces and Pyrrhocorax are probably at the root of the corvids.
... II: 6 ♂, 1 ♀, 2 larvae legit) and Allocolpocephalum (2 ♀ legit).Of "Nirmus latifasciatus Piaget, 1880)" only the lectotype (♀) is known so far, which has been redescribed byANSARI (1957: 175).CLAY (1940: 432) is credited with the clarification that this individual is very probably from Corvus enca celebensis.Why HOPKINS & CLAY (1952: 57) 13 andANSARI (1957) and PRICE et al. (2003: 156) following them, state that its type host is the nominate form of Corvus enca is unclear.GUSTAFSSON & BUSH (2017: 418) cause even more confusion when they even assign Corvus enca pusillus as type host to the lectotype of latifasciatus without any explanation. In the Sula Islands E Sulawesi, the subspecies mangoli of Corvus enca, which only became known in the late 1950s, but not pusillus from the Philippines, lives(Del HOYO & COLLAR 2016, DICKINSON & CHRISTIDIS 2014; and currently online.versions of these checklists). ...
... . Bird species recorded in the municipality of Cáceres, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Taxonomy and systematics of the species follow the 4 th edition of the Howard and Moore Checklist(Dickinson & Christidis 2014, Dickinson & Remsen-Jr. 2013 ...
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The municipality of Cáceres. Mato Grosso state, Brazil, lies in a contact zone between three semi-arid to arid ecoregions: the Chiquitano Dry Forests, the Cerrado and the Pantanal. In spite of being one of the best sampled non-forest sites for birds in Brazil, with thousands of specimens collected, no paper to date has ever compiled the information available for the region. In this paper, we present a checklist of the avifauna of Cáceres, gathering the historical data available together with our own unpublished observations during a series of expeditions to the region. During our fieldwork we recorded 374 species to the region. The analysis of literature data and museum specimens rises to 446 the number of species ever recorded in the municipality, 362 (81.2%) of which were documented with specimens. This is by far the highest bird species richness recorded for a non-forest site in Brazil.
Article
Continental evolutionary radiations provide opportunities to understand how landscape evolution and biotic factors interact to generate species diversity. Additionally, understanding whether diversification dynamics differ between montane and lowland environments is a long‐standing question with few comparative analyses in the Neotropics. To address these questions, we investigated the biogeographical patterns and the evolutionary processes underlying the diversification of a songbird genus, and compared diversification dynamics of clades occurring in lowland and montane Neotropical habitats. Neotropical montane and lowland forests. Arremon(Aves: Passerellidae). We sequenced genomic data (ultra‐conserved elements, UCEs) of 92 individuals (including historical skin specimens) comprising 47 of 50 currently recognized subspecies in the genus and collected habitat association data to (1) build the most complete phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus to date using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods with a concatenated matrix, and a multi‐species coalescent method based on quartets; and (2) reconstruct the evolution of their ancestral ranges, habitat association and diversification rates. All phylogenetic methods recovered essentially the same topology with strong support values for most interspecific nodes revealing relationships among species. We found evidence for a montane and humid ancestral range in Central America in the late Miocene and a later expansion into the lowlands of Central America, as well as into the lowlands and mountains of South America. Despite some temporal variation in diversification rate, we found overall similar diversification dynamics between montane and lowland clades. Species diversity within the genus is likely underestimated by the current taxonomic arrangement. The colonization of lowlands and dry forests, and expansion across South America, may have provided new geographical and ecological opportunities for speciation resulting in high species diversification. Overall diversification dynamics were comparable between montane and lowland clades, contrasting with previous studies focused on such comparisons for Neotropical birds.
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Knowledge of the higher-level phylogenetic relationships of birds has grown substantially during the past two decades due to the application of genomic data. However, the nomenclature of higher-level taxa has not become more stable, due to the lack of regulation of taxon names above the level of superfamily by the ICZN, and the usage of rank-based nomenclature, which is not tied to clades in a phylogeny. Lack of regulation and the instability of rank-based nomenclature impede effective communication among systematists. Here we review support for higher-level avian clades using a set of 10 phylogenomic data sets, and identify clades that are supported by congruency of at least four of these. We provide formal definitions of the names of these clades based on the rules of the recently published PhyloCode. The names of 25 clades are here defined using minimum-crown-clade (n = 23), minimum-clade (n = 1) and maximum-crown-clade (n = 1) definitions. Five new names are introduced here: Dinocrypturi, Pteroclimesites, Musophagotides, Phaethoquornithes and Pelecanes. We also review diagnostic apomorphies of the relevant clades, and identify known synonyms and homonyms. By establishing a formal link between higher-level taxon names and well-supported phylogenetic hypotheses, our phylogenetic definitions will provide a solid basis for the stabilization of avian higher-level nomenclature.
Article
en The Guineo-Congolian “rain” forest (G-C forest) in West and Central Africa is threatened by deforestation. From 1975 to 2013, the extent of the G-C forest decreased by 37%, from about 131,000 to 83,000 km². Overall, 46% of bird species in the G-C forest (123 of 268) have declining populations, and about 31 species (12%) are categorized as endangered, near threatened, or vulnerable. Impacts of harvesting for “bushmeat” and the cage bird industry are largely unknown, but, of 60 species of birds in the G-C forest known to be hunted or trapped, six are categorized as vulnerable, one as near threatened, and one as endangered. In addition, 35 of the 60 species are estimated to have decreasing populations, 18 species have stable populations, and three are increasing in number. The impacts of clearing or disturbing G-C forest to cultivate cash crops are not fully known, except that avian diversity is markedly reduced in such areas. Traditional “sacred groves,” mostly small patches of forest, are not formally designated as conservation areas, but may serve as protected sites for some species of birds. Temperatures have increased and rainfall has decreased over the last five decades in West Africa. These changes will likely contribute to a further loss of suitable habitat for range-restricted species of birds. In addition, species currently found in lowland and montane habitats may be forced to move to higher elevations. Of 53 species of birds found in lowland habitat, five are endangered, seven are near threatened, 11 are vulnerable, and one is data deficient, suggesting that ~44% of lowland species may have an increased risk of extinction. Countries with G-C forest all have large human populations with high incidences of poverty, resources harvested at unsustainable rates, and increasing rates of deforestation. Networks of large protected areas in West and Central Africa, with much tighter controls over unsustainable harvesting, are urgently needed to ensure conservation of the birds and, more generally, the biodiversity of the G-C forest. RESUMEN es Una reseña del estatus de conservación de las aves del bosque guineo-congolés de África El bosque ‘lluvioso’ guineo-congolés (bosque G-C) en el occidente y centro de África está amenazado por la deforestación. De 1975 a 2013, la extensión del bosque G-C decreció 37%, de cerca de 131,000 a 83,000 km². En general, 46% de las especies de aves en el bosque G-C (123 de 268) tienen poblaciones en declive y cerca de 31 especies (12%) están caracterizadas como en peligro, casi amenazadas o vulnerables. Los impactos de la extracción de ‘carne de monte’ y la industria de aves de jaula son en su mayoría desconocidos, pero, de 60 especies de aves que se cazan o capturan en el bosque G-C, seis están categorizadas como vulnerables, una como casi amenazada y una como en peligro. Adicionalmente, se estima que 35 de las 60 especies tienen poblaciones en declive, 18 tienen poblaciones estables y tres están incrementando sus números. Los impactos del desmonte o perturbación del bosque G-C por cultivos comerciales no es del todo conocido, excepto que la diversidad de aves es marcadamente reducida en dichas áreas. Los ‘huertos sagrados’ tradicionales, en su mayoría pequeños parches de bosque, no están designados como áreas de conservación pero podrían servir como sitios protegidos para algunas especies de aves. En el occidente de África, las temperaturas se han incrementado y la precipitación ha decrecido. Estos cambios muy probablemente contribuirán a una mayor pérdida del hábitat apropiado para especies de aves de hábitats restringidos. Adicionalmente, las especies que actualmente se encuentran en hábitats de tierras bajas y montanos podrían ser forzadas a desplazarse a mayores elevaciones. De 53 especies de aves en hábitats de tierras bajas, cinco están en peligro, siete están casi amenazadas, 11 son vulnerables y una es deficiente en datos, lo que sugiere que ~44% de las especies de tierras bajas podrían tener un mayor riesgo de extinción. Todos los países con bosque G-C tienen grandes poblaciones humanas con altos índices de pobreza, recursos extraídos a tasas no-sostenibles y crecientes tasas de deforestación. Las redes de grandes áreas protegidas en África occidental y central, con controles mucho mayores sobre la extracción no-sostenible, se necesitan urgentemente para asegurar la conservación de las aves y, más ampliamente, la biodiversidad del bosque G-C.
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