Segal, N. A. et al. Effect of thigh strength on incident radiographic and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in a longitudinal cohort. Arthritis Rheum. 61, 1210-1217

University of Iowa, Iowa City. USA.
Arthritis & Rheumatology (Impact Factor: 7.76). 09/2009; 61(9):1210-7. DOI: 10.1002/art.24541
Source: PubMed


To assess whether knee extensor strength or hamstring:quadriceps (H:Q) ratio predicts risk for incident radiographic tibiofemoral and incident symptomatic whole knee osteoarthritis (OA) in adults ages 50-79 years.
We followed 1,617 participants (2,519 knees) who, at the baseline visit of the Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) Study, did not have radiographic tibiofemoral OA and 2,078 participants (3,392 knees) who did not have symptomatic whole knee OA (i.e., did not have the combination of radiographic OA and frequent knee symptoms). Isokinetic strength was measured at baseline, and participants were followed for development of incident radiographic tibiofemoral OA, or incident symptomatic whole knee OA at 30 months. Generalized estimating equations accounted for 2 knees per subject, and multivariable models adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), hip bone mineral density, knee surgery or pain, and physical activity score.
In the studies of incident radiographic and incident symptomatic knee OA, mean +/- SD ages were 62.4 +/- 8.0 years and 62.3 +/- 8.0 years, respectively, and mean +/- SD BMI scores were 30.6 +/- 5.8 kg/m(2) and 30.2 +/- 5.5 kg/m(2), respectively. Knee extensor strength and H:Q ratio at baseline significantly differed between men and women. Neither knee extensor strength nor the H:Q ratio was predictive of incident radiographic tibiofemoral OA. Compared with the lowest tertile, the highest tertile of knee extensor strength protected against development of incident symptomatic whole knee OA in both sexes (adjusted odds ratio 0.5-0.6). H:Q ratio was not predictive of incident symptomatic whole knee OA in either sex.
Thigh muscle strength does not appear to predict incident radiographic OA, but does seem to predict incident symptomatic knee OA.

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    • "OA of the knee is a major public health concern worldwide13, 34), and one of the foremost causes of chronic disability in older adults3, 13). Preventive care is dependent on the identification of risk factors for the development of knee OA13). The symptoms are often associated with significant functional impairment, as well as signs and symptoms of inflammation including pain, stiffness and loss of mobility35). "
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    ABSTRACT: [Purpose] To assess the effect of hamstring and quadriceps strengthening exercises on pain intensity, gait velocity, maximum isometric strength, and activities of daily living of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 20 patients with knee OA, 50 to 65 years of age (57.65 ± 4.78 years), received hot packs, strengthening exercises for the quadriceps and the hamstring muscles and stretching exercises for hamstring muscles. Outcome measures included: the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index questionnaire (WOMAC) scores for assessing health status and health outcomes of knee OA; self-reported pain intensity scores, measured using a visual analogue scale; the 50 ft walk test (a measure of gait velocity and function); and handheld dynamometry (a tool used to measure maximum isometric strength of knee extension and flexion). [Results] There was a significant difference between pre- and post-intervention measures of pain intensity, 50 ft walk times, hamstring strength, and quadriceps strength. Significant differences in WOMAC measures were also observed in the subscales of pain, stiffness and physical function, as well as WOMAC total scores. [Conclusion] Strengthening the hamstring muscles in addition to strengthening the quadriceps muscles proved to be beneficial for perceived knee pain, range of motion, and decreasing the limitation of functional performance of patients with knee OA.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Physical Therapy Science
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    • "Associations between knee extensor strength and the incidence of developing symptomatic and radiographic signs of knee OA at 30 months of follow-up [20]. Those men (n = 101) and women (n = 217) in the MOST study who exhibited both signs of knee OA are indicated in black bars and those who did not (men: 1,535; women: 2,223) are shown in grey bars. "
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    ABSTRACT: The occurrence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) increases with age and is more common in women compared with men, especially after the age of 50 years. Recent work suggests that contact stress in the knee cartilage is a significant predictor of the risk for developing knee OA. Significant gaps in knowledge remain, however, as to how changes in musculoskeletal traits disturb the normal mechanical environment of the knee and contribute to sex differences in the initiation and progression of idiopathic knee OA. To illustrate this knowledge deficit, we summarize what is known about the influence of limb alignment, muscle function, and obesity on sex differences in knee OA. Observational data suggest that limb alignment can predict the development of radiographic signs of knee OA, potentially due to increased stresses and strains within the joint. However, these data do not indicate how limb alignment could contribute to sex differences in either the development or worsening of knee OA. Similarly, the strength of the knee extensor muscles is compromised in women who develop radiographic and symptomatic signs of knee OA, but the extent to which the decline in muscle function precedes the development of the disease is uncertain. Even less is known about how changes in muscle function might contribute to the worsening of knee OA. Conversely, obesity is a stronger predictor of developing knee OA symptoms in women than in men. The influence of obesity on developing knee OA symptoms is not associated with deviation in limb alignment, but BMI predicts the worsening of the symptoms only in individuals with neutral and valgus (knock-kneed) knees. It is more likely, however, that obesity modulates OA through a combination of systemic effects, particularly an increase in inflammatory cytokines, and mechanical factors within the joint. The absence of strong associations of these surrogate measures of the mechanical environment in the knee joint with sex differences in the development and progression of knee OA suggests that a more multifactorial and integrative approach in the study of this disease is needed. We identify gaps in knowledge related to mechanical influences on the sex differences in knee OA.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Biology of Sex Differences
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    • "In a recent meta-analysis, Pietrosimone et al. [13] showed that patients with knee OA have a deficit in the activation of the quadriceps muscles. Additionally, there is evidence that weak knee extensor increases the risk to develop symptomatic knee OA [14] [15]. The muscles surrounding the knee joint are important for the stability. "
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major health burden of our time. Age is the most prominent risk factor for the development and progression of OA. The mechanistic influence of aging on OA has different facets. On a molecular level, matrix proteins such as collagen or proteoglycans are modified, which alters cartilage function. Collagen cross-linking within the bone results in impaired plasticity and increased stiffness. Synovial or fat tissue, menisci but also ligaments and muscles play an important role in the pathogenesis of OA. In the elderly, sarcopenia or other causes of muscle atrophy are frequently encountered, leading to a decreased stability of the joint. Inflammation in form of cellular infiltration of synovial tissue or subchondral bone and expression of inflammatory cytokines is more and more recognized as trigger of OA. It has been demonstrated that joint movement can exhibit anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Therefore physical activity or physiotherapy in the elderly should be encouraged, also in order to increase the muscle mass. A reduced stem cell capacity in the elderly is likely associated with a decrease of repair mechanisms of the musculoskeletal system. New treatment strategies, for example with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are investigated, despite clear evidence for their efficacy is lacking.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of aging research
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