AimsTo synthesize evidence from randomized and non-randomized studies of physical activity interventions in children and young people with Type 1 diabetes so as to explore clinically relevant health outcomes and inform the promotion of physical activity.Method
We conducted a search of CINAHL Plus, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, SportDiscus and Web of Science between October and December 2012. Eligible articles included subjects aged ≤18 years with Type 1 diabetes and a physical activity intervention that was more than a one-off activity session. Physiological, psychological, behavioural or social outcomes were those of interest.ResultsA total of 26 articles (10 randomized and 16 non-randomized studies), published in the period 1964–2012, were reviewed. Although there was heterogeneity in study design, methods and reporting, 23 articles reported at least one significant beneficial health outcome at follow-up. Meta-analyses of these studies showed potential benefits of physical activity on HbA1c (11 studies, 345 participants, standardized mean difference -0.52, 95% CI -0.97 to -0.07; P = 0.02), BMI (four studies, 195 participants, standardized mean difference -0.41, 95% CI -0.70 to -0.12; P = 0.006) and triglycerides (five studies, 206 participants, standardized mean difference -0.70, 95% CI -1.25 to -0.14; P = 0.01).The largest effect size was for total cholesterol (five studies, 206 participants, standardized mean difference -0.91, 95% CI -1.66 to -0.17; P = 0.02).Conclusions
Physical activity is important for diabetes management and has the potential to delay cardiovascular disease, but there is a lack of studies that are underpinned by psychological behaviour change theory, promoting sustained physical activity and exploring psychological outcomes. There remains a lack of knowledge of how to promote physical activity in people with Type 1 diabetes.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.