Transient Populations: Linking HIV, Migrant Workers, and South African Male Inmates

Department of Community Health and Preventive Medicine, Morehouse School of Medicine, GA, USA.
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved (Impact Factor: 1.1). 06/2009; 20(2 Suppl):40-52. DOI: 10.1353/hpu.0.0157
Source: PubMed


Risk factors associated with the spread of HIV are common among South Africa's transient populations-migrant workers and prisoners. Social ills in South Africa have yielded a growing transient population. Importantly, the migrant workers and prisoners in this population are likely to subscribe to masculine beliefs. Migrants have proven to be an effective bridge in the spread of HIV from high-risk to low-risk populations. Although a relationship between the populations has yet to be established, the circumstances of migrant camps are similar to those of prison camps. Given the high levels of HIV in South Africa and the parallels between migrants (a population whose great HIV threat to the general community has already been established) and prisoners, the integration of former male inmates into the community may pose serious public health concerns.

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    • "Townsend, Giorgio, Zembe, Cheyip and Mathews (2014) and Weine and Kashuba (2012) have also successfully established the link between foreign migrants and the increased risk of HIV infection. Similarly, Camlin et al. (2010) and Essuon, Simmons, Stephens, Richter, Lindley and Braithwaite (2009) have also documented HIV among migrants in Southern Africa. Although there have been numerous studies focusing on migration and the spread of HIV and AIDS, no studies have been conducted in the industry to establish the link between empowerment and sexual behaviour among migrant workers. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Economic empowerment brings with it a wide range of consequences, both positive and negative. The objective of this paper was to examine the relationship between economic empowerment and the sexual behaviour and practices of migrant workers within the context of HIV and AIDS in the Lesotho textile industry. Data for this paper were extracted from the findings of a larger study which had been conducted concerning HIV and AIDS in the textile industry in Lesotho. Using in-depth interviews, data were collected from 40 participants who were purposively selected from five factories which had been chosen randomly. Empowerment theory was used as a lens to provide meanings for the experiences of the participants. The findings show that the participants were empowered only in certain respects in terms of Kabeer's empowerment model of 'power to' and 'power within', on one hand, and in terms of Malhotra's comprehensive empowerment framework at the household level, on the other, as being employed in the industry enabled them to participate in the economy. Employment in the sector provided the participants with the means to be able to acquire basic needs and the ability to participate in household decision-making: for the female participants, the ability to make independent sexual decisions was also enhanced. These improvements were greeted enthusiastically, particularly by the female participants, given their previously disadvantaged status as a result of coming from rural patriarchal villages with gender-defined hegemonic notions of respectability. The findings also indicate that environmental factors and others, such as meagre salaries, encouraged some of the female workers to engage in transactional sex, while some of the male participants tended to increase their sexual relationships as a result of acquiring employment and income from the industry. It is the contention of the authors of this study that true empowerment requires both vital resources and individual and collective participation, particularly for the women, who are more vulnerable than men. Finally, we conclude that the opportunities provided by economic empowerment have given the participants a new social meaning for their situation and an awareness about their place in power relations.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · SAHARA J: journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance / SAHARA , Human Sciences Research Council
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    ABSTRACT: The Department of Correctional Services Policy on the management of HIV and AIDS for offenders include voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV as one of the priorities in the rehabilitation of inmates. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with the utilisation of VCT services in the correctional centres in terms of level of satisfaction, their experiences and expectations, and motivating factors and barriers for VCT utilisation at Losperfontein Correctional Centre, South Africa. This was a case control study (cases being those who underwent testing and controls those who did not) examining predictors of HIV VCT utilisation among 200 male adult sentenced inmates serving medium and maximum sentences. Results indicate that a poor health system (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.23 - 0.50) was inversely associated with HIV testing acceptance in prison, while age, educational level, population group, marital status, length of incarceration and access to HIV testing in prison were not associated with HIV testing acceptance in prison. Half of the participants (50%) agreed that VCT services are accessible and are promoted at their correctional centre. Most were satisfied with different components of VCT services, ranging from 79% (fair to very good) for 'the way he/she received you' to 62% 'clarified all your concerns'. This study demonstrated some challenges and benefits to the field of health promotion and HIV prevention in the correctional centres especially with regard to VCT services.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · SAHARA J: journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance / SAHARA , Human Sciences Research Council
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