[Anesthesia with transfemoral and transapical aortic valve implantation. Periinterventional management and hemodynamic observations].
Klinik für Anästhesiologie und Intensivmedizin, Universitätsklinikum Essen, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.Herz (Impact Factor: 0.69). 09/2009; 34(5):381-7.
Percutaneous transfemoral and transapical aortic valve implantations are novel procedures that often confront the anesthesiologist with bigger challenges than surgical aortic valve replacements using cardiopulmonary bypass. Due to old age and the presence of severe comorbidities including pulmonary vascular hypertension, most patients have a very high risk. Individual comorbidities and their severity are as important for the choice of the anesthetic technique as pharmacological cardiovascular therapy and communication during the respective phases of the intervention. Since severe hemodynamic alterations (cardiogenic shock, coronary ischemia, arrhythmias) and potential interventional complications (bleeding, ventricular and vascular injury) may occur, the authors routinely perform an extended cardiovascular monitoring. General endotracheal anesthesia may be advantageous even for transfemoral valve implantation and was not associated with a worse outcome. Following valve implantation a substantial increase in cardiac index, but also of all filling pressures was measured. Anesthesia coverage time for the first 100 cases averaged 263 min (+/- 96) for transfemoral and 297 (+/- 78) for transapical valve implantation, which appears greater than for conventional aortic valve replacement surgery, but it decreased significantly for transfemoral valve implantation over the course of interventions. Accordingly, the anesthesiologist, besides providing anesthesia and managing the airway, assumes responsibility for invasive cardiopulmonary monitoring, cardiovascular pharmacotherapy tailored to intervention phases, and "troubleshooting" in the event of complications for these still developing interventions.
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ABSTRACT: Surgical replacement of aortic valves is the gold standard for therapy of high grade aortic valve stenosis. However, the changes in demography confront the responsible medical discipline with an increasingly higher risk profile of patients which necessitates the development of new less invasive alternative forms of treatment for the surgical therapy of aortic valve stenosis. This developmental process has progressed from mini-thoracotomy to transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The TAVI procedure is a new therapeutic option for treatment of patients with high grade aortic valve stenosis and high perioperative morbidity and mortality risks with conventional aortic valve replacement. Because TAVI can be carried out while the heart is still beating and without a sternotomy or heart-lung maschine, this procedure is particularly suitable for elderly multimorbid patients and/or patients with previous cardiac surgery. The initial results of large prospective multicenter studies underline the value of TAVI in the modern treatment of high risk patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis. In addition to an understanding of the surgical procedure, anesthetists must have precise knowledge of the perioperative anesthesia management and possible complications of the procedure.
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