Article

Gendering the Death Penalty: Countering Sex Bias in a Masculine Sanctuary [1]

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Abstract

American death penalty laws and procedures persistently minimize cases involving female capital offenders. Recognizing some benign explanations for this disparate impact, Professor Streib nonetheless sees the dearth of female death penalty trials, death sentences, and actual executions as signaling sex bias throughout the death penalty system. In this article, he provides data concerning death sentencing and execution patterns and then suggests both substantive and procedural means to address the apparent sex bias. Much more significant, however, is the unique lens for examining the death penalty that is provided by a sex bias analysis. Professor Streib concludes that this perspective unmasks the system's crime-fighting rhetoric to reveal a macho refuge that masculinizes all who enter therein.

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... Mitigating factors include evidence demonstrating the defendant experienced a challenging or abusive upbringing, committed the crime under provocation during the "heat of passion," and demonstrates remorse (Iyengar, 2011). Research suggests the circumstances of cases vary by defendant sex, with aggravating factors more likely in male-perpetrated killings, and mitigating factors more likely in female-perpetrated killings (Cooper & Smith, 2011;Gross & Mauro, 1989;Streib, 2002Streib, , 2005. ...
... For example, dyadic homicide defendants comprising a woman and man more frequently result in judges and juries identifying the man as the dominant actor (Streib, 2005). Another pertinent mitigator involves evidence suggesting the defendant experienced mental or emotional disturbance during the offense, which judges and juries more often find for female than male homicide defendants (Streib, 2002). Conversely, a major aggravating circumstance predicting death penalty eligibility and sentencing is premeditated homicide, which judges and juries identify in 80 % of felony murders, but rarely for women (Gross & Mauro, 1989). ...
... Conversely, a major aggravating circumstance predicting death penalty eligibility and sentencing is premeditated homicide, which judges and juries identify in 80 % of felony murders, but rarely for women (Gross & Mauro, 1989). The aggravating circumstance of homicides committed during another felony such as a rape, kidnapping, or armed robbery presents itself far more commonly for male than female defendants (Cooper & Smith, 2011;Streib, 2002), and males more typically enter capital trials with violent criminal records than female defendants (Streib, 2002). Finally, some states afford the defense the opportunity to present any other circumstances "relevant" to whether defendants should receive the death penalty as mitigation, which judges and juries consider more often for female than male defendants (Streib, 2005). ...
Article
Extralegal disparities between defendants sentenced to the death penalty and those who receive life without parole disturb even the most resolute advocates of capital punishment. Extensive bodies of research document extralegal factors influencing death penalty outcomes. Although studies largely focus on race and ethnicity, a growing body of research considers the impact of sex on the capital sentencing process. This paper reviews the extant research on the impact of the sex of the victim, defendant, attorney, juror, and judge on capital case outcomes. Women’s scarcity on death row and a previously documented “female victim effect” condemning male defendants who kill female victims, particularly for those committing crimes of sexual degradation, suggests that death row policies and their implementation chivalrously protect female defendants and victims. Conversely, a limited amount of research documents a “domestic discount,” or greater leniency for death-eligible crimes commonly victimizing women than for those victimizing acquaintances or strangers. Although opinion polls document greater support for the death penalty among men than women, juror sex inconsistently predicts sentencing outcomes in the literature. Minimal research on judge and attorney sex finds female judges more liberal in death penalty sentencing than male judges and inconclusive relationships between attorney sex and adjudication. Findings in the research on sex and death penalty outcomes support the existence of a “sex effect” and inform recommendations for future research to expand the body of literature.
... Between the years of 1632 and 2004, there have been 566 documented executions of women. Since the earliest colonial times, female offenders have comprised 2.8% of all executions in the United States, and during the modern death penalty era, women have comprised less than 2% of death sentences (Streib, 2002Streib, , p. 439, 2007). In 2005, 52 women were under the sentence of death in the United States; this is 1.6% of the 3,254 people on death row (Snell, 2006, p. 1). ...
... These methods allow for a more in-depth understanding of particular cases where women are sentenced to death but suffer from small sample sizes. Most commonly, authors look at the population of women either currently on death row or who have been executed in the past and attempt to either describe their characteristics or compare them with men in the same predicament (Atwell, 2002; Rapaport, 1991; Streib, 1990 Streib, , 2002 ). This analysis is useful in determining what offenses women are sentenced to death for but is relatively useless in determining who is sentenced to death. ...
Article
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This research examines a newspaper sample of men and women who killed multiple people in a single domestic altercation during the years 1993 to 2002. As all these perpetrators of multiple domestic homicide are eligible to be capitally tried, differences in capital sentencing are examined using bivariate statistics and descriptive, case-oriented analyses. Women who kill their children using a knife or firearm are disproportionately sentenced to death, whereas men who kill in the context of a separation are granted leniency in regard to the death penalty. The interaction between the gender of the offender and the crime committed is discussed.
... Most notably, Cornell Law School's report, Judged for More Than Her Crime: A Global Overview of Women Facing the Death Penalty, found that the population of approximately 500 women who face the death penalty worldwide are victims of gender-based discrimination and have faced, and continue to face, various forms of oppression (Cornell Center on the Death Penalty Worldwide 2018). Up until this point, very few references had been made to women facing capital punishment, and those few had focused upon women sentenced for homicide in the United States (US), arguing that women benefit from a gender bias at sentencing which has meant they are often spared the ultimate punishment (Streib 1990(Streib , 1992(Streib , 2002(Streib , 2005(Streib , 2006Carroll 1996;Shapiro 2000;Shatz and Shatz 2012). Such analyses fall short in their comprehension of the unique and often-times disadvantaged circumstances that give rise to female criminality. ...
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This paper draws upon my doctoral research into the experiences of women who have been sentenced to death for drug trafficking in Malaysia. I utilise this case-study as a lens through which to examine the relationship between women, crime and economic factors. From my data derived from ‘elite’ interviews, as well as legal and media database searches (resulting in information on 147 cases), I argue that current feminist criminological theorising should be updated to incorporate the relationship between women’s crime and precarious work. As I show, precarity is gendered and disproportionately affects women from the global south. Overall, I find that many of the women who have been sentenced to death in Malaysia were engaged in precarious work and drug trafficking was a way to make ‘quick money’ to address economic insecurity. Clearly, capital punishment is incommensurate with the crime.
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Masculinities scholarship is an essential piece of feminist analysis and of critical equality analysis. It requires that we "ask the man question" to further unravel inequalities. This symposium marks one of several movements toward examining and considering what masculinities scholarship can offer. In this introduction, I suggest a framework of masculinities analysis and describe its relationship to feminist theory. First, I consider why we should ask the "man question," and how we should ask it. Second, I explore how masculinities analysis might be useful in our examination of the "man question." Masculinities work can be used to understand more clearly how male privilege and dominance are constructed. It can make us see harms suffered by boys and men that we have largely ignored. It may also reinforce and strengthen the commitment to antiessentialism in feminist theory. Exposing the complexities and multiplicity of masculinities leads toward understanding intersectional and multiple forms of discrimination more clearly. In this way, it is analogous to noticing that the issues and positions of all women are not the same and include instances of women subordinating women.
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This article will discuss current issues surrounding the administration of capital punishment in the U.S. with insights from Shirley Jackson’s “The Lottery”. The story itself shows the atavistic nature lurking beneath humankind’s civilized surface and leads the reader to examine such notions as scapegoating, ritual cleansing, gender, class structure, arbitrary condemnation, and sanctioned violence. There may be more truth in Jackson’s short story than the reader cares to confront. This opens the possibility that fiction can give us more insight into value issues than other sources can. Although fiction is made up of imaginary elements, it is true to reality and human experience. The legal historical reality of capital punishment and its subsequent implementation as it has existed and still exists in our culture purports to establish and maintain what amounts to a legal fiction of its own. In this story, Jackson presents us with a glimpse into humankind’s past and brings the reader to question the justification and use of capital punishment in our culture.
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Men, patriarchy and masculine characteristics have predominantly been examined within feminist theory as a source of power, domination, inequality and subordination. Various theories of inequality have been developed by feminists to challenge and reveal structures and discourses that reinforce explicitly or implicitly the centrality of men and the identity of the top of a hierarchical power and economic structure as male. The study of masculinities has been inspired by feminist theory to explore the construction of manhood and masculinity, and to question the real circumstances of men. It has explored how privilege is constructed, and what price is paid for privilege. Masculinities study challenges an essentialist portrait of men. Instead of seeing men as a single entity, and only described in terms of dominance and power, the study of masculinities reveals ways in which the dominant gender system subordinates and differentiates among men. At the same time, anti-essentialism also means exposing affirmative differences among men that challenge dominant definitions of masculinity. Masculinities analysis exposes how those alternative models are constructed as well as quashed by the dominance of a preferred, singular gender model that ultimately limits men's freedom as well as resisting women's equality.The study of masculinity thus reveals not only a more complex portrait of men, but also enhances the understanding of the construction of gender for women.This paper is linked to an larger project on the interface between masculinities scholarship and feminist theory, in which I hope to explore the theoretical relationship between the two, as well as looking at some particular examples that relate to boys and to men. In this article I suggest in is time for feminist theory to move toward a richer analysis of men, informed by masculinities scholarship. I outline the theoretical perspective of masculinities scholarship. I then explore how this plays out in specific areas related to boys and men. In this article I look at boys and education as well as men and fatherhood. Finally, I suggest how masculinities scholarship might inform feminist analysis. I hope to de-essentialize men in feminist theory, use masculinities scholarship to enrich efforts to identify male privilege and the specific practices that sustain male dominance, and challenge masculinities theory to more strongly address the means to undermine male power. This paper should be of interest to critical scholars, as well as those interested in the range of masculinities scholarship across a broad array of legal subjects.
Article
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District prosecutors in the United States exercise virtually unfettered power and discretion to decide which murder cases to prosecute for capital punishment. According to neoclassical theory of formal legal rationality, the process for determining criminal punishment should be based upon legal rules established and sanctioned by the state to communicate the priorities of the political community. The theory therefore argues in favor of a determinate mode of decision making that diminishes the importance of extrinsic elements such as race and gender in the application of law. In the empirical research herein reported, I test this theory using death eligible cases in Durham County, North Carolina from 2003 to 2007.The analysis indicates that although law has an important effect in determining criminal punishment, extrinsic elements such as race and gender overwhelm the law in influencing prosecutorial decisions to go for death. Durham county prosecutors are 43 percent more likely to seek the death penalty when a black defendant kills a white victim compared to a situation where a black defendant kills a black victim. The analysis also demonstrates the existence of a gender gap in prosecutorial decision making. Female murder victims are significantly more likely to precipitate a capital prosecution compared to male victims. These results have important policy implications. Despite publicized attempts by the Supreme Court to eradicate the twin evils of arbitrariness and discrimination from our system of capital punishment, these problems persist. Therefore, it is important for policy makers to devise explicit mechanisms to channel the discretionary judgments of local prosecutors toward greater reliance upon legal precepts rather than extra-legal considerations such as race and sex. As Justice William Brennan warned in his dissent in McKleskey v. Kemp, “The way in which we choose those who will die reveals the depth of moral commitment among the living.”
Article
Few criminal justice topics have garnered as much attention as capital punishment. This voluminous literature ranges from constitutional and procedural issues to race issues and gender issues. While the intellectual and legal community has paid a great deal of attention to the role of race in capital punishment, as well as the role of gender in capital punishment, the extant literature is lacking with regard to African-American women and the death penalty. To be clear, the lack of literature is not because there are no African-American women on death row. This article attempts to fill a void in the capital punishment literature through a qualitative analysis that explores the lives and crimes of African-American women on death row.
  • Plantz V State
  • Tom Kuncl
  • Row Death
  • Women
Plantz v. State, 876 P.2d 268, 271-72 (Okla. Crim. 1994); TOM KUNCL, DEATH ROW WOMEN 193-215 (1994);
  • Steven F Shatz
  • Cases And
  • On
  • The
  • Penalty
[163] See, e.g., Schmall, supra note 11. [164] H.R. 4442, 100th Cong. (1988); see NINA RIVKIND & STEVEN F. SHATZ, CASES AND MATERIALS ON THE DEATH PENALTY 284 (2001). [165] KY. REV. STAT. ANN. § § 532.300-.309 (Michie 1999).
Death Penalty for Female Offenders, supra note 11
  • Streib
Streib, Death Penalty for Female Offenders, supra note 11, at 879.
at the Ohio Penitentiary in Columbus Less than five months later, Betty Butler met the same fate on
  • Dovie Blanche
  • Myers Dean
Dovie Blanche Myers Dean was electrocuted on January 15, 1954 at the Ohio Penitentiary in Columbus. See Edward Colonel, Eyewitness Account of Dean Execution, CLERMONT COURIER (Batavia, Ohio), Jan. 21, 1954, at 2. Less than five months later, Betty Butler met the same fate on June 11, 1954. Betty Butler Dies in Chair, CINCINNATI ENQUIRER, June 12, 1954, at 1. No women have been executed in Ohio since 1954. [26] Streib, Femdeath, supra note 15, at 8.
The appendix at the end of this article lists names, dates, and additional information about these executions. [38] This execution was a federal case carried out in Missouri
  • Death Penalty
  • Juveniles
STREIB, DEATH PENALTY FOR JUVENILES 74-75 (1988). [37] As of June 30, 2001. The appendix at the end of this article lists names, dates, and additional information about these executions. [38] This execution was a federal case carried out in Missouri. See the appendix for details. [39] One of these executions was a federal case carried out in New York. See the appendix for details.
  • Witherspoon V
  • Illinois
Witherspoon v. Illinois, 391 U.S. 510 (1968).
The examples of death penalty statutes used in this analysis are from the federal statute and the state statutes of Arizona, California, Georgia, and Ohio, but this analysis is intended to apply to essentially all death penalty statutes. [134] See, e.g., 18
  • Code Ann
[133] The examples of death penalty statutes used in this analysis are from the federal statute and the state statutes of Arizona, California, Georgia, and Ohio, but this analysis is intended to apply to essentially all death penalty statutes. [134] See, e.g., 18 U.S.C. § § 3592(C)(7)-(8) (2000); ARIZ. REV. STAT. § § 13-703(F)(4)-(5) (1995); GA. CODE ANN. § 17-10-30(b)(4) (1997); OHIO REV. CODE § 2929.04(A)(2) (1997). [135] ARIZ. REV. STAT. § 13-703(F)(4).
Plantz, 876 P.2d at 271-72; KUNCL, supra note 120, at 193-215; Doucette, supra note 118. [122] Doucette, supra note 118
  • Supra Doucette
  • Note
Doucette, supra note 118. [121] Plantz, 876 P.2d at 271-72; KUNCL, supra note 120, at 193-215; Doucette, supra note 118. [122] Doucette, supra note 118. [123] NAACP, supra note 21, at 7. [124] Id. at 8. [125] Virginia Christian was executed by the Commonwealth of Virginia on Aug. 16, 1912. See STREIB, DEATH PENALTY FOR JUVENILES, supra note 23, at 89-90.
Murderer or Victim of Abuse? As Beets' Death Date Nears, Her Claims Ridiculed By Slain Man's Son, DALLAS MORNING NEWS, Feb103] See the appendix for a list of females (with ages) executed since 1900
See Diane Jennings, Murderer or Victim of Abuse? As Beets' Death Date Nears, Her Claims Ridiculed By Slain Man's Son, DALLAS MORNING NEWS, Feb. 11, 2000, at 1A. [101] Id. [102] Id. [103] See the appendix for a list of females (with ages) executed since 1900. [104] See Emily Yellin, Arkansas Executes a Woman Who Killed Both Her Children, N.Y. TIMES, May 3, 2000, at A22.
Female on State's Death Row? It's Unprecedented, but Possible for Everett Woman
  • See Janet Burkitt
See Janet Burkitt, Female on State's Death Row? It's Unprecedented, but Possible for Everett Woman, SEATTLE TIMES, June 5, 2001, at A1. [60] Id.
  • E G See
  • Ariz
  • Rev
  • Stat Ga
  • Code
  • Ann
See, e.g., 18 U.S.C. § § 3592(A)(5), (C)(2), (C)(3), & (C)(4) (1997); ARIZ. REV. STAT. § 13-703(F)(2); CAL. PENAL CODE § 190.2(a)(2) (1998); GA. CODE ANN. § 17-10-30(b)(1) (1997); OHIO REV. CODE § 2929.04(A)(5). [138] 18 U.S.C. § 3592(C)(2).
(stating that "death is a disproportionate penalty for the crime of raping an adult woman"). [127] For a particularly persuasive piece on this issue, see Rapaport, Capital Murder
  • Coker V
  • Georgia
Coker v. Georgia, 433 U.S. 584, 597 (1977) (stating that "death is a disproportionate penalty for the crime of raping an adult woman"). [127] For a particularly persuasive piece on this issue, see Rapaport, Capital Murder, supra note 11.
  • Naacp See
  • Inc Fund
See NAACP LEGAL DEFENSE AND EDUCATION FUND, INC., DEATH ROW USA 8 (Spring 2001) [hereinafter NAACP]
Less than five months later, Betty Butler met the same fate on
  • Dovie Blanche Myers
Dovie Blanche Myers Dean was electrocuted on January 15, 1954 at the Ohio Penitentiary in Columbus. See Edward Colonel, Eyewitness Account of Dean Execution, CLERMONT COURIER (Batavia, Ohio), Jan. 21, 1954, at 2. Less than five months later, Betty Butler met the same fate on June 11, 1954. Betty Butler Dies in Chair, CINCINNATI ENQUIRER, June 12, 1954, at 1. No women have been executed in Ohio since 1954.
Christina Walters in North Carolina was twenty-two and Priscilla Ford was seventy-two. Id
  • Femdeath Streib
Streib, Femdeath, supra note 15, at 8 tbl.4. Christina Walters in North Carolina was twenty-two and Priscilla Ford was seventy-two. Id. at 17-18.
Some Questions, supra note 11
  • See Rapaport
See Rapaport, Some Questions, supra note 11, at 539.
Decision on Execution Order a Key Issue in Carolina Race
  • See William
  • E Schmidt
  • E William
  • Schmidt
See William E. Schmidt, Woman Executed in North Carolina, N.Y. TIMES, Nov. 2, 1984, at A1; William E. Schmidt, Decision on Execution Order a Key Issue in Carolina Race, N.Y. TIMES, Sept. 27, 1984, at A1, [hereinafter Schmidt, Decision on Execution Order].
Decision on Execution Order, supra note 71
  • See Schmidt
See Schmidt, Decision on Execution Order, supra note 71.
Divisive Case of a Killer of Two Ends as Texas Executes Tucker
  • See Sam Howe
  • Verhovek
See Sam Howe Verhovek, Divisive Case of a Killer of Two Ends as Texas Executes Tucker, N.Y. TIMES, Feb. 4, 1998, at A1.
The author's research has documented this and essentially all other executions of female offenders in the United States and its antecedent colonies and territories. The 1863 execution of Chipita Rodriguez was reported to various media by the author, verified by them, and then widely reported by them
The author's research has documented this and essentially all other executions of female offenders in the United States and its antecedent colonies and territories. The 1863 execution of Chipita Rodriguez was reported to various media by the author, verified by them, and then widely reported by them. See, e.g., Gender and Death, WALL STREET JOURNAL, Feb. 2, 1998, at A22 (editorial);
  • Verhovek Sam Howe
Sam Howe Verhovek, Texas, in First Time in 135 Years, is Set to Execute Woman, N.Y. TIMES, Feb. 3, 1998, at A1.
This marvelous work of fiction describes two kind and gentle elderly ladies with the strange habit of poisoning gentlemen callers and burying them in their cellar
  • Joseph Kesselring
  • Lace
JOSEPH KESSELRING, ARSENIC AND OLD LACE (1941). This marvelous work of fiction describes two kind and gentle elderly ladies with the strange habit of poisoning gentlemen callers and burying them in their cellar.
at 140-55; see also Margaret Carlson, Death, Be Not Proud
  • Bush See
See BUSH, supra note 81, at 140-55; see also Margaret Carlson, Death, Be Not Proud, TIME, Feb. 21, 2000, at 38;
Equality of the Damned, supra note 11
  • See Rapaport
See Rapaport, Equality of the Damned, supra note 11, at 596.
Florida to Execute Woman Amid No Outcry, Celebrities, USA TODAY
  • E G See
  • Tony Boylan
See, e.g., Tony Boylan, Florida to Execute Woman Amid No Outcry, Celebrities, USA TODAY, Mar. 23, 1998, at 1A;
But see Alan Judd, Buenoano Death Raises Execution Issue; When Judy Buenoano Went to the Electric Chair Monday She Resurrected the Larger Issue of the Role Gender Plays in Death Sentences and in How They Are Carried Out
  • Miry Navarro
Miry Navarro, Execution Without All the Attention, N.Y. TIMES, Feb. 10, 1998, at A10. But see Alan Judd, Buenoano Death Raises Execution Issue; When Judy Buenoano Went to the Electric Chair Monday She Resurrected the Larger Issue of the Role Gender Plays in Death Sentences and in How They Are Carried Out, SARASOTA HERALD-TRIBUNE, Mar. 31, 1998, at 4B.
Beets Executed for Husband's Murder: Woman Is Second To Be Put to Death in Texas Since Civil War
  • Jennings See Diane
See Diane Jennings, Beets Executed for Husband's Murder: Woman Is Second To Be Put to Death in Texas Since Civil War, DALLAS MORNING NEWS, Feb. 25, 2000, at 1A.
Texas Board Denies Clemency for Woman
See Jim Yardley, Texas Board Denies Clemency for Woman, 62, on Death Row, N.Y. TIMES, Feb. 23, 2000, at A12.
Murderer or Victim of Abuse? As Beets' Death Date Nears, Her Claims Ridiculed By Slain Man's Son, DALLAS MORNING NEWS
  • Jennings See Diane
See Diane Jennings, Murderer or Victim of Abuse? As Beets' Death Date Nears, Her Claims Ridiculed By Slain Man's Son, DALLAS MORNING NEWS, Feb. 11, 2000, at 1A. [101] Id.
Arkansas Executes a Woman Who Killed Both Her Children
  • See Emily Yellin
See Emily Yellin, Arkansas Executes a Woman Who Killed Both Her Children, N.Y. TIMES, May 3, 2000, at A22.
Arkansas Executes 1st Woman Since 1845; Former Nurse Smothered Her Kids
Arkansas Executes 1st Woman Since 1845; Former Nurse Smothered Her Kids, FLORIDA TIMES-UNION (Jacksonville, Fla.), May 3, 2000, at A-9.
Killer Declines Clemency Bid
  • E G See
  • Suzi Parker
See, e.g., Suzi Parker, Killer Declines Clemency Bid;
available at LEXIS, News Library, Deutsche Presse-Agentur File; Arkansas to Execute First Woman in 150 Years
  • E G See
See, e.g., Arkansas Executes First Woman in 150 Years, DEUTSCHE PRESSE-AGENTUR, May 3, 2000, available at LEXIS, News Library, Deutsche Presse-Agentur File; Arkansas to Execute First Woman in 150 Years, AGENCE FRANCE PRESSE, May 2, 2000, available at LEXIS, News Library, Agence France Presse File;
At Last I Can Be With My Babies; Chilling Last Words of Nurse Who Killed Her Kids
Arkansas Woman Executed for Murder of Children, WASH. POST, May 3, 2000, at A10; Ron Moore, At Last I Can Be With My Babies; Chilling Last Words of Nurse Who Killed Her Kids, SCOTTISH DAILY RECORD & SUNDAY MAIL, May 4, 2000, at 24; Child Poisoner Will Have Her Death Wish Granted Today, DAILY MAIL (London), May 2, 2000, at 31;
Woman Facing Execution Wants to Die
U.S. Woman Facing Execution Wants to Die, TORONTO STAR, May 2, 2000, available at LEXIS, News Library, Toronto Star File.
Nadeau Smith were on Oklahoma's death row on
  • Marilyn Kay Wanda Jean Allen
  • Lois Plantz
Wanda Jean Allen, Marilyn Kay Plantz, and Lois Nadeau Smith were on Oklahoma's death row on January 1, 2001. See Streib, Femdeath, supra note 15, app. B at 18.
at 13; see also Drew Alice Timmins, A Death Sentence Waiting to Happen: The Tragic Case of Wanda Jean Allen, LESBIANATION, at www.lesbianation.com (last visited
TIMES, Jan. 15, 2001, at 13; see also Drew Alice Timmins, A Death Sentence Waiting to Happen: The Tragic Case of Wanda Jean Allen, LESBIANATION, at www.lesbianation.com (last visited Dec. 14, 2000);
Was Justice Served? Death Penalty Conviction Against Lesbian Defendant, THE ADVOCATE
  • David Kirby
David Kirby, Was Justice Served? Death Penalty Conviction Against Lesbian Defendant, THE ADVOCATE, Feb. 27, 2001, at 26. See generally Streib, Death Penalty for Lesbians, supra note 11.
Oklahoma Woman Denied Clemency; Execution Set for Next Month
  • See Arnold Hamilton
See Arnold Hamilton, Oklahoma Woman Denied Clemency; Execution Set for Next Month, DALLAS MORNING NEWS, Dec. 16, 2000, at 43A.
Woman Dies for Husband's 1988 Slaying, DAILY OKLAHOMAN
  • See Bob Doucette
See Bob Doucette, Woman Dies for Husband's 1988 Slaying, DAILY OKLAHOMAN, May 2, 2001, available at LEXIS, News Library, The Daily Oklahoman File;
  • Steven F
  • Shatz
see NINA RIVKIND & STEVEN F. SHATZ, CASES AND MATERIALS ON THE DEATH PENALTY 284 (2001).
See generally Duke University's collection of articles on the ABA's proposed moratorium on the death penalty, compiled into a symposium issue. Symposium, The ABA's Proposed Moratorium on the Death Penalty
See generally Duke University's collection of articles on the ABA's proposed moratorium on the death penalty, compiled into a symposium issue. Symposium, The ABA's Proposed Moratorium on the Death Penalty, 61 LAW & CONTEMP. PROBS. 1 (1998).
However, information via footnote is provided state-by-state for the total executions of female offenders and the time period of those executions
  • Oklahoma
Oklahoma). This appendix provides information concerning only 46 of these executions, those which occurred from January 1, 1900, through June 30, 2001. However, information via footnote is provided state-by-state for the total executions of female offenders and the time period of those executions.