ArticlePDF Available

FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH ON EFFICACY OF HEAT ON BED BUGS: COMMERCIAL PRODUCT USING LP FOR RESIDENTIAL & HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

Authors:
  • Temp-Air, Inc.

Abstract

Recently, there has been tremendous resurgence of bed bug infestations all over the country. Residences, apartments, low income housing groups, hospitality industry (motels/hotels), property management groups and public spaces like the hospitals, university dorms, and schools have all been battling the bed bug menace. The evolution of resistance to residual insecticides due to repeated usage has contributed significantly to the re-emergence of bed bugs as a serious pest & a threat to public health. This project investigated temperature-time mortality studies on life stages of bed bugs. The temperatures were set at 30, 35, 40, 43, 45, 50, and 55°C with exposure times of 2, 10, 20, 40, 60, 90, and 120 min. Results showed that a minimum temperature of 48°C for more than 20 min is required to kill all life stages of bed bugs. Practically, the clutter in the treated space and need to penetrate voids, the treatment times are range from 6 to 8 h. Commercial treatments were performed in a single bedroom apartment and multi-level house to determine rate of penetration of lethal heat through mattresses, furniture, exterior walls, and other structural elements. Achieving lethal temperatures of 48°C in treated space alone is not sufficient for 100% kill but also requires efficient air-flow management to ensure that all surfaces and structural members attain 48°C to avoid cold pockets that can harbor bed bugs. Commercial application envisages a trailerized unit with an on-board LP generator supplying power to electrical heaters, fans for air-flow management and accessories. The unit under development will effectively heat treat high-rise apartment complexes, residences, and hospitality industry dwellings.
Raj_et al_1
FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH ON EFFICACY OF HEAT ON BED BUGS:
COMMERCIAL PRODUCT USING LP FOR RESIDENTIAL & HOSPITALITY
INDUSTRY
R. Hulasare1, S. Kells2, G. Kerr3
1Senior Scientist & Product Manager, TEMP AIR, INC., Burnsville, MN, 2Assistant Professor,
University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, 3Director of Research & Development, Propane Edu.
Res. Council, Detroit, MI, United States
Accepted on July 01, 2010 for presentation at Global Technology Conference of 23rd World LP
Forum on October 1, 2010 at Madrid, Spain (http://www.wlpgasforum-aegpl2010.com)
Abstract:
Recently, there has been tremendous resurgence of bed bug infestations all over the country.
Residences, apartments, low income housing groups, hospitality industry (motels/hotels),
property management groups and public spaces like the hospitals, university dorms, and schools
have all been battling the bed bug menace. The evolution of resistance to residual insecticides
due to repeated usage has contributed significantly to the re-emergence of bed bugs as a serious
pest & a threat to public health. This project investigated temperature-time mortality studies on
life stages of bed bugs. The temperatures were set at 30, 35, 40, 43, 45, 50, and 55°C with
exposure times of 2, 10, 20, 40, 60, 90, and 120 min. Results showed that a minimum
temperature of 48°C for more than 20 min is required to kill all life stages of bed bugs.
Practically, the clutter in the treated space and need to penetrate voids, the treatment times are
range from 6 to 8 h.
Commercial treatments were performed in a single bedroom apartment and multi-level
house to determine rate of penetration of lethal heat through mattresses, furniture, exterior walls,
and other structural elements. Achieving lethal temperatures of 48°C in treated space alone is not
sufficient for 100% kill but also requires efficient air-flow management to ensure that all
surfaces and structural members attain 48°C to avoid cold pockets that can harbor bed bugs.
Commercial application envisages a trailerized unit with an on-board LP generator
supplying power to electrical heaters, fans for air-flow management and accessories. The unit
under development will effectively heat treat high-rise apartment complexes, residences, and
hospitality industry dwellings.
Introduction:
The human bed bug, Cimex lectularius, is a small parasitic insect that infests areas where
humans sleep, rest, or remain stationary for extended periods. This insect feeds on humans and
animals, taking a blood meal similar to that of a mosquito. However, unlike mosquitoes, bed
bugs do not fly in their search for this blood meal, but quietly approach victims while they are
sleeping or preoccupied. Once on a victim, bed bugs feed for 3 6 minutes then quickly move
away from the host to harbor cracks and crevices, digesting this blood meal for the purposes of
growth, mating and egg production. The results of this feeding are usually not detected by the
victim until there is an established infestation. The bed bugs are excellent hitchhikers and their
presence has little to do with sanitation.
Raj_et al_2
In addition to these unique behaviors and feeding with little detection, there are additional
behaviors that increase the difficulty for detection and, once found, the difficulty for elimination
from a structure. In an infestation, the majority (80%) of bed bugs will be found congregating in
harborages close to their feeding site. However, 10 20 % will move away from this primary
site of feeding in search of other feeding sites, or just simply to “hide”. Examples of hiding
locations used by this bug include: picture frames; drapes and fixtures; clothes hanging in
closets; other furniture; smoke detectors; fire sprinklers; and suitcases. The mechanisms causing
this hiding behavior and the implications to eradicating an infestation are currently under study,
but at present, this hiding behavior permits an infestation to continue and must be taken under
consideration when eliminating bed bugs from a site.
The bed bugs are also extremely hardy and survive long periods of time without food or
blood meal and possess remarkable water retention capacity enabling them to survive for longer
duration. The bed bugs have been known to survive from 4 months to 2 years without feeding
(Benoit et al., 2007). This remarkable capability lets bed bugs linger around for longer durations
within domestic hideouts like the bedding, clutter, and cracks or crevices. An apparently vacant
dwelling for an extended period of time may still have the bed bugs patiently waiting for their
meal the humans.
Bed Bug Resurgence & Resistance:
Recently, bed bug infestations have become increasingly common in the United States
and in other locations where they have been otherwise considered to be rare or extirpated (Paul
and Bates 2000; Doggett et al. 2004; Hwang et al. 2005). Several factors have contributed to the
resurgence of this pest. The increase in international trade and travel, the exchange of previously
used items such as furniture and clothing, the increased frequency of residence turnover, and the
evolution of resistance to residual insecticides due to repeated usage have all added significantly
to the reemergence of bed bugs as a serious pest and threat to public health (Hwang et al. 2005;
Potter 2006). Although bed bugs have never been shown to transmit disease through their bite,
repeated feeding on the same host may manifest itself as itchy, lesions and can promote
discomfort, anxiety, sleeplessness, and a reduced quality of life (Hwang et al. 2005; Reinhardt
and Siva-Jothy 2007). The continued spread of this insect, and the problems caused, require
control techniques that can be used in both transitional and permanent human residences.
The recent global resurgence of bed bugs, the lack of public awareness and limitations of
current control methods have permitted these insects to reach near epidemic proportions within
North American society. Prior to the 1970, the use of DDT caused a substantial decline of this
pest and, when resistance started to develop, organophosphate insecticides were used (Usinger
1966). This combination caused the near eradication of this pest from North America. However,
during the 1970s and up to today there have been substantial changes in how pests are controlled.
DDT and organophosphate insecticides are no longer permitted for use due to safety concerns,
and the market is dominated by pyrethroid insecticides which raise the risk of resistance
development. The amount of insecticides decreased as more specialized techniques and products
were employed to control other pests such as ants, cockroaches and other insect pests.
When infestations started to appear in North America, the abilities of this pest were
greatly underestimated and this pest flourished very quickly. Meek (2005) reported that one pest
Raj_et al_3
control company experienced a 500% increase in the number of bed bug complaints in 2003 and
a further 20% increase in 2004.
Current research on this pest indicates that the bed bugs we are encountering during this
resurgence are 10 to 300x more resistant than populations that were maintained in research
colonies and had not been exposed to insecticides for the last 30 years. Problems have been
encountered when insecticides were used as the sole control agent, and attention has turned to the
use of non-chemical control measures to supplement or even replace many chemical measures
(Kells 2006).
The use of non-chemical measures such as heat treatments has distinct advantages. This method
does not have many limitations with respect to the number of items treated and the area to be
treated. There are no chemical residues to consider and, compared to gas fumigation of areas,
margins for safety are considerably greater. The area treated can include a number of items
(garments and furniture) that would otherwise increase the complexity of other control measures,
the time required to treat these items, and the potential for control failure.
The gravity of the bed bug problem can also be gauged from the fact that EPA convened
first ever (Anonymous1, 2009) bed bug summit on April 14-15, 2009 (EPA, 2009) in Arlington,
VA to tackle the bed bug menace across the country. At the National level, a bill (H.R. 2248)
titled „Don't Let the Bed Bugs Bite Act of 2009‟ was introduced to combat bed bug outbreaks in
lodging facilities, residential housing and other settings (Anonymous2, 2009). The NPMA
(National Pest Management Association) came out in support of the bill (Anonymous3, 2009).
Heat and Bed bugs:
The thermal death point of bed bugs has previously reported to be 45ºC for eggs and 1°C
lower for adults for a 1-h exposure (Mellanby, 1939). Mellanby (1939) reported that a 24-h
exposure at 40°C is sufficient to kill all life stages. In flour mills, extensive studies are available
for different food processing pests and their response to heat (Roesli et al 2003). However, the
rate of heating used by Mellanby is not equivalent to the application of heat in a practical control
situation as demonstrated in food processing plants. The current target temperature to be reached
is in a range of 47 to 52 oC, but practically there may be areas above and below these values.
Typically, target temperatures are achieved by gradually raising temperatures to protect the
structure and contents from over-heating. While thermal death point is important, for areas
below this point, time of exposure becomes an important measure. Currently, such measures of
both thermal death point and time of exposure are unknown, relative to the application of heat in
a control situation.
There are potential limitations in application of heat that require further investigation.
One limitation may include the penetration of heat into the myriad of items and places where bed
bugs may harbor. Living quarters are designed with insulative qualities for protection against or
reducing the effects of heat, cold and noise and similar disturbances. Another potential limitation
is the ability to survive high temperatures via physiological and behavioral mechanisms that
were only rudimentarily studied in bed bugs. Overcoming these gaps in knowledge is important
to ensuring that high temperature applications for bed bug control are both effective and energy
efficient.
Raj_et al_4
Objectives:
This project investigated several aspects of effect of temperature and delivery of heat into
structures for the purposes of controlling bed bugs. First, while the minimum critical
temperature is known (113oF, Usinger 1966), little is known about lethal (or sub-lethal)
temperatures with a time component incorporated. Second, knowing how bugs will respond to
increasing temperatures will determine the rate at which items within a structure must be heated
to avoid escape. Being able to move at approximately 1 m / min (Usinger 1966), it is unknown if
bed bugs have the capacity to escape a zone of elevated temperatures. There are two ways that
bugs may be exposed to heat, including conductive or convective heating and their response to
each may be critical for determining the chances of escape. Finally, due to variation in structures
and the level of clutter, trials conducted during actual heat treatments are expected to reveal if
additional work is required to ensure all areas receive thorough heating in reaching temperatures
inimical to bed bugs.
Therefore, the following objectives were set for this investigation:
1. Determine lethal temperature / time mortality for control of bed bugs.
2. Determine threshold behavior and subsequent movement of bed bugs in response to
increasing temperatures delivered through conduction and convection.
3. Determine the rate of penetration of lethal heat through mattresses, upholstered
furniture, exterior walls and other structural elements in two habitat types (apartment,
house).
Materials and Methods:
Temperature versus exposure time mortality studies in bed bugs (Objective 1):
Live bed bugs were collected from six commercial properties located in Minnesota,
Wisconsin, Florida, and New Jersey and combined to form the ECL‟06 colony in 2005 (Olson et
al. Pers. Comm.). Bed bugs from this field colony were cultured in 473 mL glass jars containing
several 9.0 cm dia filter papers for harborage and covered with fine mesh for ventilation. The
colony was maintained at 27°C and 70%RH under a 16:8 L:D photoperiod in a controlled
environment chamber (Percival Scientific, Inc.; Perry IA). Bed bugs were fed whole,
heparinized human blood through an artificial membrane system similar to Montes, et al., 2002.
Human blood was procured from expired stocks purchased from the American Red Cross (St.
Paul, MN).
For experiments using adults, 10 fed or 10 unfed adult bed bugs per vial were placed in 6 mL
plastic sample vials containing a 1 cm x 3 cm filter paper strip for harborage. Bed bugs
categorized as “fed” were provided blood ad libitum and used in experiments within 24h of
feeding. Bed bugs that were categorized as “unfed” had not been offered a blood meal at least
14 days prior to use in experiments. A screw cap with a 4mm hole, blocked with filter paper,
allowed for ventilation. Vials containing adult bed bugs were maintained under conditions
identical to the field colony until use.
For egg collection, at least 10 engorged adult bed bugs per vial were placed into 6mL plastic
sample vials containing several 1cm x 3cm filter paper strips for harborage, as well as to offer a
Raj_et al_5
substrate for oviposition. A screw cap with a 4mm hole, blocked with filter paper, allowed for
ventilation. Sex ratios in the vials were heavily weighted in favor of females. Vials were
maintained under conditions identical those of the field colony. After 5 days, viable eggs were
collected from the filter paper strips and immediately used in experiments. At least 10 eggs per
vial were placed with their substrate into 6mL plastic sample vials identical to those mentioned
above.
Two heating devices were used for exposing bed bugs to elevated temperatures. First, a
controlled environment chamber was programmed to increase the temperature at a constant rate
of 0.06°C/min or 3.6°C/h from 23°C up to a maximum of 50°C. Due to limitations on the
maximum temperature output provided by the environmental chamber, the oven of a gas
chromatograph (GC) (6890N, Agilent Technologies, Inc.; Santa Clara, CA) was employed for
experiments for temperatures greater than 50°C. Also, with a smaller volume and better heater
control, the GC oven was used in experiments where time periods were short. The lowest
obtainable temperature for the GC was 30°C and this temperature served as the starting point for
all experiments.
Vials containing adult fed or unfed bed bugs or eggs were placed in the GC oven and the
temperature was allowed to increase at a constant rate of 0.06°C/min from a starting temperature
of 30°C. Vials were randomly assigned to a 10-min temperature exposure of 30, 35, 40, 43, 45,
50, of 55°C. Control vials containing adult fed or unfed bed bugs or eggs were placed in the
environmental chamber and maintained at 30°C. When the GC reached one of the treatment
temperatures, a vial was randomly removed from the oven along with its corresponding control
vial. All vials were then held for 24 h at room temperature, after which time mortality was
recorded and dead bugs were removed. All vials were then returned to conditions identical to the
field colony for 2 weeks.
For determining time of exposure on bed bug mortality, vials containing adult fed or unfed bed
bugs or eggs were placed in the environmental chamber and the temperature was allowed to
increase at a constant rate of 0.06°C/min from a starting temperature of 23°C. Vials were
randomly assigned to exposure times of 2, 10, 20, 40, 60, 90, and 120min at a temperature of 30,
35, 40, 43, 45, 48, 50, or 55°C. Control vials containing adult fed or unfed bed bugs or eggs were
set aside at room temperature. When the appropriate exposure time and temperature were
reached, the assigned vials were transferred to room temperature for 24h. After 24h, mortality
was recorded and dead bugs were removed. All vials were then returned to conditions identical
to the field colony for 2 weeks.
At 1- and 2-week intervals following treatment, remaining living bugs were offered a blood
meal. The number that successfully fed was recorded and those bugs were removed from the
vials along with any dead bugs. At the end of the 2-week interval, the number of emerged
nymphs was recorded from vials originally containing eggs.
Bed bug behavior at increasing temperatures through convection and conduction (Objective 2):
For conduction studies: Bed bugs were observed in an arena consisting of a heater placed in
contact with a 1 m2 x 3 mm aluminum plate. Surrounding the heater and supporting the
aluminum was Styrofoam® insulation, which focused heat dissipation across the aluminum plate.
Thermocouples were placed in concentric circles radiating out from the center of the heater to
monitor the development of temperature across the aluminum plate (Figure 1). These
Raj_et al_6
thermocouples were set to scan temperatures at 20 second intervals. A linen sheet stretched over
the aluminum provided a surface for bed bug movement. In addition to the thermocouples, a non
contact (infrared) thermometer was employed to monitor surface temperatures. This assembly
was constructed after many trials with different materials. The aluminum plate replaced wood
materials because there was enough insulative resistance with wood products resulting in a very
small lateral heat gradient.
The arena was completed by a 10 cm high plexiglass wall. In the center of the arena a
piece of harborage consisting of soiled filter paper (1 cm diameter) provided a starting point for
the bugs. A plexi-glass lid (approx 1m2) was placed on top of the bordering walls. In the center
of this lid, a 2.5cm hole permitted removal of a containment cylinder which released the bed bug,
starting the experiment.
For convection studies: The demonstration case used by Temp-air was modified into a two
chamber arena (Figure 2). This case (1 m x 60cm x 20cm high) is constructed of aluminum with
one side and the top lid made of Plexiglas for observing bed bug behavior. The floor of the arena
consisted of plywood sealed with epoxy paint, with edges sealed to the walls with tape. Heat
was delivered from a 1500 W heater through a hose (5 cm dia) and into a plenum (10cm x
60cm). The plenum dispersed hot air across the chamber floor. To divide the arena into two
chambers, an insulated panel (Styrofoam® board 5cm” thick) was placed across the centerline of
the arena. At the base of the panel, there was a 0.6 cm gap along the bottom which enabled heat
to move into the second chamber and permitted a heat refugia for bed bugs. Preliminary tests of
temperature distribution within the chamber were accomplished by placing thermocouples at
specific points within each chamber. Thermocouples were placed just above the surface of the
chamber, so there was no interference of the surface temperature. The thermocouples were
connected to a Personal Daq datalogger and connected by USB to a personal computer. The data
logger scanned temperatures every 20s. The preliminary trials were run until temperatures
stabilized and four replicates were performed.
As bed bugs can be affected by objects in the arena, the number of thermocouples were
reduced to five; including one thermocouple at the harborage and 2 thermocouples on either side
of the insulated panel. Bed bugs were placed in the arena similar to the heat conduction
experiment with the exception that a petri plate was placed over the harborage to protect the bed
bugs from a direct air flow. Bed bugs could move from under the plate because half of the rim
was removed. As per the conduction experiment, both fed and unfed bugs were used.
The bed bug was placed close to a piece of soiled harborage and permitted a period to
calm. Once calmed, the heater turned on and simultaneously the thermocouples were triggered
to record data. Similar to the conduction experiment, bed bugs were observed for behavioral
changes and these behaviors were recorded along with the time of occurrence. The experiment
continued until the bed bug was dead, the bug escaped out of the heat field, or the bug remained
peripheral to the heat field but outside the lethal range (up to 30 minutes).
After each experiment, the chamber was permitted to cool to room temperature and the
bed bugs were removed. Behavior of each bed bug was summarized and the corresponding
escape temperature was found by matching the time that the behavior occurred with the scan
time from the datalogger.
Raj_et al_7
Heat penetration through upholstered furniture, walls, and structural elements in two habitat
types (Objective 3):
Temperature monitoring was conducted during two heat treatments. The first heat
treatment took place in a single bedroom apartment, and a second treatment was conducted in a
larger multi-level house. During the heat treatments, temperature dataloggers were placed in
various areas within the apartment, including: in the general space, in between sofa cushions,
inside the foundation of a mattress and underneath piles of clothes. During the heat treatment of
the house, dataloggers were placed inside sofas and overstuffed chairs, and around the exterior
perimeter of the room. Specific areas of the exterior perimeter included under carpeting, the
wall-floor junction and inside the wall voids beside electrical junction or phone boxes.
Temperatures were scanned every 30 60 seconds for the duration of the heat treatment.
Raj_et al_8
2
2
3
4
5
5
4
3
Heater
Figure 1. Schematic of thermocouple placement for conduction arena
Distance
from
center
(cm)
Number of
Thermocouples
1
1.7
2.7
4.5
7.5
12.3
20.3
33.5
Raj_et al_9
Results and Discussion:
Temperature- time mortality of bed bugs:
Complete and immediate kill of adult bed bugs occurred when temperatures reached at least
118°F. For failed emergence of eggs, complete and immediate kill occurred at 122°F. Temperatures in the
range of 113 - 122°F required a time component, displayed in the table, below:
Temperature (°F)
Time
Adults
Eggs
113
90 minutes
8 hours
118
2 minutes
90 minutes
122
0 minutes
0 minutes
A distinct advantage of heat is that unlike chemical treatments, heat can penetrate cracks and
crevices and inaccessible areas where bed bugs reside or harbor. To ensure control, it is important to
achieve and maintain temperatures above 118°F for more than 90 min. to effectively kill all life stages of
bed bugs. In practice, considering the clutter in the treated space and the need to penetrate cracks and
crevices, treatment times are much longer, ranging from 6 to 8 hours, and hence 118°F would be highly
effective.
Conduction study’s findings:
Initial movement of bed bugs started at an average temperature of 81°F and feeding behavior was
observed at an average temperature of 95°F. Escape behavior was initiated at an average temperature of
106°F. However, post-escape behavior showed many bed bugs returning toward the heat for the purposes
of feeding.
Bed bugs tend to forage or feed as temperatures rise, and the narrow temperature differential
(13°F) between the escape threshold and lethal temperatures is indicative that they will tend to stay within
an area being heated or are contained. Even if escape would initially occur, their tendency to move toward
heated zones helps position them closer to areas where they may encounter lethal heat. Also, the use of
residual dust insecticides in extreme outlying cracks and crevices areas will help prevent bed bugs
returning from any refugia that may be created. Also, this study considered conductive heat only and must
be considered along with convective heat.
Convection Study’s findings:
Bed bugs were less responsive to convective heat, compared to conductive heat (shown in
part 2). Threshold air temperatures causing escape averaged 118 °F and were above the lethal
threshold temperatures of 113°'F. When escape was attempted, more than half of the bed bugs
attempted to return to their harborage, and 60% died within the arena. This is despite the thermal
refugia only being 3" from the harborage.
In the convection scenario, bed bugs stayed longer in harborage and tended to return to
the harborage as air temperatures rose in the peripheral areas. About 37.5% of bed bugs escaped
from the harborage to peripheral areas highlighting the need for managing airflow around the
perimeter and moving stuff away from the walls. However, these laboratory studies imply that
convective heat shows a better means of containing bed bugs from escaping.
Heat penetration through upholstered furniture, walls, and structural elements in two
habitat types:
The rate of temperature increase was slower for the single multi-level house (5.0 to 11.7°F/hr)
compared to a single bedroom apartment (8.3 to 13.2°F/hr). For the apartment, the bagged pile of clothes
Raj_et al_10
took longest to come up to the lethal temperatures. With the exception of the pile of clothes, the rate of
temperature increase was lowest for baseboards and under the baseboards for the apartment and house,
respectively.
The commercial treatment brought forth the importance of managing airflow in the space being
heat treated. Achieving lethal temperatures of at least 118°F and above in the air space provides a
threshold for kill and enables mass transfer of heat to other articles in the living space for effective
control. It is important to manage the airflow around the walls/periphery and also make sure that piles of
clothing or any articles allow the air movement through them so that cold pockets are avoided, thus
eliminating areas of potential harborage for the bed bugs.
Development of Prototype LP Fueled Mobile Unit to Control Bed bugs:
Based on results and the insight gained the fundamental research on bed bug behavior
and the heat transfer rates in dwellings, we plan on starting a second phase that will focus on
design, development and testing of a mobile trailorized propane-fueled unit to control bed bugs.
The proposed prototype will be a modification of existing diesel based system that comprises of
a trailer with diesel generator powering the four electrical heaters along with an array of fans,
accessories, and temperature monitoring system.
The proposed propane fueled prototype will have following distinct advantages over the
existing diesel-based system:
1) Environmental concerns:
a) Propane burns much cleaner than diesel. The emissions (NOX) from diesel are known to
be carcinogenic and polluting compared to propane
b) Spills and contamination: Diesel spills can cause seepage in soil, spill-pollution and
related ground water contamination whereas propane simply vaporizes without causing
significant pollution.
2) Maintenance cost of generator: Since propane burns much more cleanly than diesel; there
are no associated concerns of carbon deposits and higher wear and tear unlike diesel. This
also ensures a higher life for the propane generator due to low maintenance costs.
3) Quality of fuel in storage: Diesel in storage can deteriorate in quality and might have start-up
issues in a diesel generator whereas; propane in storage does not deteriorate and hence have
little or no start up issues.
4) Start-up problems: Diesel based system has start up problem during winter. We propose a
system that will utilize heat from the engine to vaporize the propane and our engineering
development team informs me that start-up issues associated with diesel generator will be
eliminated by use of propane generator. Diesel engines have start up problems in cold
weather conditions and also the diesel tends to gel requiring addition of stabilizer.
5) BTUs & Fuel cost: Diesel yields higher BTUs per gallon (130,500 BTUs) compared to
propane (91,659 BTUs). However, this is more than offset by lower cost propane compared
to diesel. Providing a higher capacity on-board propane tank will essentially allow
performing the same or more number of heat treatments.
6) Cost of heat treatment: Considering the fact that generally the market prices of both diesel
and propane rise in tandem, rough calculations show cost of heat treatment using propane
will be lower compared to diesel.
The development of proposed prototype will offer a „greener‟, environmentally friendly and
effective solution to combat the bed bug menace. This project envisages about six months
developing a prototype and two months to test in full scale commercial trials before market
release.
Raj_et al_11
References:
Anonymous1, 2009. http://www.myfoxdc.com/dpp/news/041409_epa_bedbug_summit, accessed
on June 8, 2010.
Anonymous2, 2009. http://www.govtrack.us/congress/billtext.xpd?bill=h111-2248 accessed on
June 8, 2010.
Anonymous3, 2009. http://www.pestworld.org/press-releases/national-pest-management-
association-supports-federal-bed-bug-legislation, accessed on June 8, 2010.
Doggett, S., 2006. A code of practice for the control of bed bug infestations in Australia.
Australian Environmental Pest Managers Assn., Ltd., NSW., Australia. 54pp.
www.aepamacom.au
Dorsch, J., 2008. New research: bed bug work continues to rise. Pest Control Technology 36,
50.
EPA, 2009. http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/ppdc/bedbug-summit/partic-recom.pdf, accessed on
June 8, 2010.
Gangloff-Kaufmann, J., Hollingsworth, C., Hahn, J., Hansen, L., Kard, B., Waldvogel, M., 2006.
Bed bugs in America: A pest management industry survey. Pest Control Technology 34, 46-
60.
Guedes, RNC, KY Zhu, GP Opit and JE Throne. 2008. Differential Heat Shock Tolerance and
Expression of Heat-Inducible Proteins in Two Stored-Product Psocids. Journal of Economic
Entomology 101, 1974-1982.
Hwang, S., Svoboda, T. , DeJong, I., Kabasele, K., Gogosis, E., 2005. Bed bug infestations in an
urban environment. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11, 533-538.
Joshua B. Benoit,Nicholas A. Del Grosso, Jay A. Yoder, and David L. Denlinger. 2007.
Resistance to dehydration between bouts of blood feeding in the bed bug, cimex lectularius,
is enhanced by water conservation, aggregation, and quiescence. American Journal of
Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 76(5), 2007, pp. 987993.
Montes, C., Cuadrillero, C., Vilella, D., 2002. Maintenance of a laboratory colony of Cimex
lectularius (Hemiptera Cimicidae) using an artificial feeding technique. Journal of Medical
Entomology 39, 675-679.
Mellanby, K. 1939a. The physiology and activity of the bed-bug (Cimex lectularius) L. in a
natural infestation. Parasitology 31, 200-211.
Paul, J., Bates, J., 2000. Is infestation with the common bedbug increasing? British Medical
Journal 320, 1141.
Potter, M., A. Romero, K. Haynes, and W. Wickemeyer. 2006. Battling bed bugs in apartments.
Pest Control Technology, 45-52.
Reinhardt K and Siva-Jothy MT. 2007. Biology of the bed bugs (Cimicidae). Annual Review of
Entomology 52, 351-374.
Romero A, MF Potter, DA Potter and KF Haynes. 2007. Insecticide resistance in the bed bug: A
factor in the pest's sudden resurgence? Journal of Medical Entomology 44, 175-178.
Roesli R, B Subramanyam, FJ Fairchild and KC Behnke. 2003. Trap catches of stored-product
insects before and after heat treatment in a pilot feed mill. Journal of Stored Product
Research 39, 521-540.
Usinger, R., 1966. Monograph of Cimicidae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera), The Thomas Say
Foundation. Entomological Society of America, Baltimore. M.D
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
The in vitro maintenance technique described in this article has been used successfully to rear Cimex lectularius (L.) by feeding for >2 yr all nymphal stages and adults through parafilm "M" sealing film on different types of blood. Using this feeding technique, the subsequent egg production of female bedbugs was remarkably high. The blood was maintained at 37 degrees C to enhance the attachment of the bugs. The effect of anticoagulation methods for the blood meal was investigated, and heparinized blood was found the most suitable for feeding bugs. All stages of the bugs fed weekly on blood in the artificial feeding system remained attached for up to 0.5-1.0 h, until completion of their blood meals, and all reached engorged weights. More than 90% of the bugs fed artificially on whole blood, and they molted or laid eggs successfully.
Article
Full-text available
Until recently, bed bugs have been considered uncommon in the industrialized world. This study determined the extent of reemerging bed bug infestations in homeless shelters and other locations in Toronto, Canada. Toronto Public Health documented complaints of bed bug infestations from 46 locations in 2003, most commonly apartments (63%), shelters (15%), and rooming houses (11%). Pest control operators in Toronto (N = 34) reported treating bed bug infestations at 847 locations in 2003, most commonly single-family dwellings (70%), apartments (18%), and shelters (8%). Bed bug infestations were reported at 20 (31%) of 65 homeless shelters. At 1 affected shelter, 4% of residents reported having bed bug bites. Bed bug infestations can have an adverse effect on health and quality of life in the general population, particularly among homeless persons living in shelters.
Article
The pilot feed mill at Kansas State University was heated to temperatures of ⩾50°C for 28–35h during August 4–6, 1999 using natural gas heaters to kill stored-product insects. A three-parameter nonlinear regression model satisfactorily described temperature profiles on each of the four mill floors and was useful in showing differences among floors in the number of hours taken to reach 50°C and hours above 50°C. Pitfall traps with food and pheromone lures and sticky traps with pheromone lures were used to sample adults of beetles and moths, respectively, between July 8 and December 1, 1999 to evaluate heat treatment effectiveness. A total of 32 insect species representing 26 families in seven orders were captured in traps. Immediately after heat treatment, there was 95% reduction in total beetle captures in pitfall traps and 99% reduction in moth captures in sticky traps. Trap captures of the almond moth, Cadra cautella (Walker) and cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (L.) were significantly reduced and remained low after heat treatment. However, trap captures of the flat grain beetle, Cryptolestes pusillus (Schöenherr), Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) increased gradually after heat treatment, especially on the 1st and 4th floors. Our results indicated that traps are valuable tools for gauging the degree and duration of insect suppression obtained by heat treatment. In addition to trapping, visual inspection of the mill areas and absolute sampling of ingredients, products and spillage should be undertaken, so that areas of incipient insect reinfestation can be identified and potential problems rectified or averted.
Article
Some marked bugs were released and the proportion of recaptures to others in the total catch was noted. From this a rough estimate of the population was made. It appears that few adults live more than 29 days as they are probably killed by the rats when trying to feed.(Received January 11 1939)
Article
The recent recognition of psocids as a major concern in stored products and also the reemergence of heat treatment as a control tactic of stored-product insects led to the present investigation. The objectives of this study were to determine whether there are differences in heat shock tolerance of two species of stored-product psocids--Lepinotus reticulatus Enderlein (Trogiidae) and Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein) (Liposcelididae)--and to determine whether heat shock proteins (HSPs) underlay such tolerance. Time-response bioassays were therefore carried out at increasing temperatures for both psocids. The lethal time (LT)50 and LT95 estimates were correlated with the expression of heat shock proteins after exposure at the same range of temperatures for 30 min. The expression of HSP was determined through Western blot analyses using HSP 70 antibody. Liposcelis entomophila was more than two-fold more tolerant than L. reticulatus for nearly all of the range of temperatures (> or = 40.0 degrees C). Expression of HSP 70 was not observed for either of the psocid species, but the expression of two low-molecular-mass heat-inducible proteins (HIPs; 23 and 27 kDa) was observed in L. entomophila. The expression of these small proteins was induced by exposure to higher temperatures, and the trend was particularly strong for HIP 27. In contrast, no expression of small heat-inducible proteins was detected in L. reticulatus, reflecting its higher susceptibility to heat treatments. The relatively high heat tolerance of L. entomophila might help explain its more common occurrence in grain stored in warmer regions of the world.