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Sapindus mukorossi (areetha): An overview

Authors:

Abstract

The objective of this review is to form a short compilation of phytochemical screening, pharmacological activity and some analytical methods available for Sapindus mukorossi plant. Although the plant is of importance in Ayurvedic system of medicine mainly as cleansing agent, a review article based on the phytochemical and pharmacological screening of Sapindus mukorossi is not so far reported. The main phytoconstituent isolated and identified from different parts of this plant are triterpenoidal saponins of oleanane, dammarane and tirucullane type. The structure and chemical name of the all the types of triterpenoidal saponins reported in Sapindus mukorossi is included in this review. Many research studies have been conducted to prove the plant's potential as spermicidal, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-protozoal etc. This review focuses on the phytochemistry and pharmacological actions of Sapindus mukorossi. INTRODUCTION: Sapindus mukorossi (fam: Sapindaceae), well known as soapnuts, are used medicinally as an expectorant, emetic, contraceptive, and for treatment of excessive salivation, epilepsy, chlorosis, and migranes. Sapindus mukorossi is a popular ingredient in Ayurvedic shampoos and cleansers. They are used in Ayurvedic medicine for treatment of eczema, psoriasis, and for removing freckles. Soapnuts have gentle insecticidal properties and are traditionally used for removing lice from the scalp 1 .
Suhagia et al., IJPSR, 2011; Vol. 2(8): 1905-1913 ISSN: 0975-8232
Available online on www.ijpsr.com 1905
IJPSR (2011), Vol. 2, Issue 8 (Review Article)
Received on 25 March, 2011; received in revised form 26 July, 2011; accepted 29 July, 2011
SAPINDUS MUKOROSSI (AREETHA): AN OVERVIEW
B.N. Suhagia, I.S. Rathod, Sunil Sindhu*
L.M. College of Pharmacy, Dada Saheb Mavlankar Campus, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad-380009, Gujarat, India
ABSTRACT
The objective of this review is to form a short compilation of phytochemical
screening, pharmacological activity and some analytical methods available
for Sapindus mukorossi plant. Although the plant is of importance in
Ayurvedic system of medicine mainly as cleansing agent, a review article
based on the phytochemical and pharmacological screening of Sapindus
mukorossi is not so far reported. The main phytoconstituent isolated and
identified from different parts of this plant are triterpenoidal saponins of
oleanane, dammarane and tirucullane type. The structure and chemical
name of the all the types of triterpenoidal saponins reported in Sapindus
mukorossi is included in this review. Many research studies have been
conducted to prove the plant’s potential as spermicidal, hepatoprotective,
anti-inflammatory, anti-protozoal etc. This review focuses on the
phytochemistry and pharmacological actions of Sapindus mukorossi.
INTRODUCTION: Sapindus mukorossi (fam:
Sapindaceae), well known as soapnuts, are used
medicinally as an expectorant, emetic, contraceptive,
and for treatment of excessive salivation, epilepsy,
chlorosis, and migranes. Sapindus mukorossi is a
popular ingredient in Ayurvedic shampoos and
cleansers. They are used in Ayurvedic medicine for
treatment of eczema, psoriasis, and for removing
freckles. Soapnuts have gentle insecticidal properties
and are traditionally used for removing lice from the
scalp 1.
Most of the phytochemical constituents of this plant
have been discovered by various scientists. Among
them the most explored phytoconstituents are
triterpenoidal saponins of mainly three types viz
oleanane, dammarane and tirucullane type. Recently
many of the pharmacological actions of this plant has
been explored which includes the antimicrobial,
hepatoprotective, insecticidal, piscidal activity. One of
the most talked activities of this plant is the
contraceptive activity of the saponins extracted from
the pericarp of the fruits.
Botanical description: It is known as tree of North
India, a deciduous tree, known to the common man as
‘areetha’. It is also known as doda, dodan, and ritha in
Indian dialects. It is one of the most important trees of
tropical and sub-tropical region of Asia. It is common
tree in Shivaliks and the outer Himalayas of Utter
Pradesh, Uttranchal, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and
Jammu and Kashmir 2.
It is a fairly large, deciduous tree, usually up to 12 m in
height, sometimes attaining a height of 20 m and a
girth of 1.8 m, with a globose crown and rather fine
leathery foliage. Bark: dark to pale yellow, fairly
smooth, with many vertical lines of lenticels and fine
fissures exfoliating in irregular wood scales. Blaze: 0.8-
1.3 cm, hard, not fibrous, pale orange brown, brittle
and granular. Leaves: 30-50 cm long, alternate,
paripinnate; common petiole very narrowly bordered,
glabrous; leaflets 5-10 pairs, opposite or alternate, 5-
Keywords:
Sapindus mukorossi,
Sapindaceae,
Review,
Phytochemistry,
Pharmacology
Correspondence to Author:
Sunil Sindhu
L.M. College of Pharmacy, DadaSaheb
Mavlankar Campus, Navrangpura,
Ahmedabad-380009, Gujarat, India
Suhagia et al., IJPSR, 2011; Vol. 2(8): 1905-1913 ISSN: 0975-8232
Available online on www.ijpsr.com
1906
18 by 2.5-5 cm, lanceolate, acuminate, entire,
glabrous, often slightly falcate or oblique; petioles 2-5
m long. Inflorescence: a compound terminal panicle,
30 cm or more in length, with pubescent branches.
Flowers: about 5 mm across, polygamous, greenish
white, subsessile, numerous, mostly bisexual. Sepals 5,
each with a woolly scale on either side above the claw.
Fruit: a globose, fleshy, 1-seeded drupe, sometimes 2
drupels together, about 1.8-2.5 cm across. Seed: 0.8-
1.3 cm in diameter, globose, smooth, black, loose in
dry fruit 3.
Vernacular names 4:
Assamese: Haithaguti, Bengali: Ritha, Hindi: Aritha,
Dodan, kanmar, Kumon: Ritha, Punjabi: Aritha, Dodan,
Ritha, Thali, Sanskrit: Aristha, Phenila, Urista, United
provinces: Kanmar, Ritha, Italian: Uriya, Telugu:
Kunkudu.
Taxonomical classification 5:
Kingdom: Plantae (plants)
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta( Vascular plants)
Superdivision: Spermatophyta (seed plants)
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida (Dicotlyedons)
Subclass: Rosidae
Order: Sapindales
Family: Sapindaceae
Genus: Sapindus L (Soapberry)
Species: Sapindus mukorossi Geartn(Chinese
soapberry)
Morphological parts used: Woods, seeds, pericarp
extracts, kernels etc.
Phytochemistry: Seeds of Sapindus mukorossi contain
23 % oil of which 92 % is triglycerides; the triglyceride
fraction contained 30 % oleo-palmito-arachidin
glyceride, 13.3 % oleo-diarachidin glyceride and 56.7 %
di-olein type glycerides such as dioleo-palmitin, dioleo-
stearin and dioleo-arachidin 6.
According to Sengupta et al., two lipid fractions A and
B were isolated from Sapindus mukorossi seed oil by
preparative TLC(Thin Layer Chromatography). Fraction
A (70.4%, Rf value 0.76) is a normal triglyceride and its
fatty acid compositions was determined by GLC (Gas
Liquid Chromatography). Fraction B (29.6%, Rf value
0.51) shows the presence of nitrogenous constituents.
This non-glyceridic component of the seed oil is a
cyanolipid (1-cyano-2-hydroxymethyl prop-1-ene-3-ol)
7. Fruits of Sapindus mukorossi are reported to contain
sesquiterpenoidal glycosides and six different fatty
ester of tetracyclic triterpenoids 8. Leaf extract of
Sapindus mukorossi contains different type of
flavanoids like quercetin, apigenin, kaempferol and
rutin. All these flavanoids were isolated by column
chromatography on a polyamide sorbent 9.
Various types of triterpene, saponins of oleanane,
dammarane and tirucullane type were isolated from
the galls, fruits and roots of Sapindus mukorossi.
Oleanane type triterpenoid saponins named
Sapindoside A&B (Fig. 34 & 35) were reported from
the fruits of Sapindus mukorossi 10. Sapindoside C (Fig.
36) 11, Sapindoside D (Fig. 37 ) 12, which is a hexaoside
of hederagenin, and Sapindoside E (Fig. 38) 13, a
nonaoside of hederagenin, was isolated and identified
by Chirva et al from the methanolic extract of the fruits
of Sapindus mukorossi.
Dammarane-type saponins, named Sapinmusaponins A
& B (Fig. 11 & 12), C-E (Fig. 15, 16, 17), together with
three known phenylpropanoid glycosides, were
isolated from the galls of Sapindus mukorossi 14.
Tirucallane-type saponins, sapinmusaponins F-J (Fig.
18-22), were isolated from the galls of Sapindus
mukorossi as reported by Huang et al., 15. The
structures of these saponins were elucidated on the
basis of spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D
NMR techniques.
Triterpene saponins of oleanane type like,
Sapinmusaponin K-N (Fig. 25-28), Mukorozisaponin G
& E1 (Fig. 29-30), Sapindoside A & B along with
dammarane types like Sapinmusaponin O and P (Fig.
13 & 14) were isolated from fruits and the galls of
Sapindus mukorossi as per Huang et al., 16. In another
study by Nakayama et al., 17 Mukorozisaponin Y1 (Fig.
31), Y2 (Fig. 32), X (Fig. 33) were isolated from the
pericarp of Sapindus mukorossi.
Suhagia et al., IJPSR, 2011; Vol. 2(8): 1905-1913 ISSN: 0975-8232
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1907
Fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the galls of
Sapindus mukorossi has resulted in the isolation of two
tirucallane type triterpenoid saponins, sapinmusaponin
Q and R (Fig. 23-24), along with three known oleanane
type triterpenoid saponins: sapindoside A, sapindoside
B, and hederagenin-3-O--D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)+--
L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1→2)+-α-L-arabinopyranoside 18.
The roots of Sapindus mukorossi contain tirucallane-
type triterpenoid saponins like Sapimukoside A & B 19,
Sapimukoside C &D 20 as reported by Teng et al.
Further investigation of the roots of Sapindus
mukorossi by the Ni et al reported the presence of,
Sapimukosides E-J 21. The structures of Sapimukosides
A-J are shown in Fig. 1 to Fig. 10 respectively.
Saxena et al., 22 recognized six different saponins from
the fruits of Sapindus mukorossi by LC-MS. They were
found to be Sapindoside A, Sapindoside B, Sapindoside
C, Sapindoside D, Mukorozisaponin E1 and
Mukorozisaponin Y1.
R1O
H
O
O
R2
H
FIG.: STRUCTURE OF SAPIMUKOSIDES A-J
Fig
R1
R2
1
H
2
Glc6-Rha
H
3
Et
4
Me
5
Glc3-Ara
2-Rha3-Ara
Et
6
Glc3-Ara
2-Rha3-Xyl
Et
7
Glc3-Ara
2-Rha3-Xyl
Me
8
Glc3-Rha
2-Rha3-Ara
Et
9
Glc3-Rha
2-Rha3-Ara
Me
10
Glc6-Rha
Et
R2R3
R4
R5
OHR1O
FIG.: STRUCTURE OF SAPIMUSAPONINS A-B AND O-P
Fig
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
11
Glc2-Rha
H
OH
OH
H
12
Glc2-Rha
H
OH
OH
OH
13
Glc2-Rha
OH
CH3
H
H
14
Glc2-Rha
CH3
OH
H
H
HOH
R2
OHR1O
R3
FIG.: STRUCTURE OF SAPIMUSAPONINS C-E
Fig
R1
R2
R3
15
Glc2-Rha
OH
OH
16
Glc2-Rha
OH
OCH3
17
Glc2-Rha
H
OCH3
R1O
H
O
H
R2
H
FIG.: STRUCTURE OF SAPIMUSAPONINS F-J, Q-R
Glc: β-D-Glucopyranosyl
Rha-L-hamnopyranosyl
Ara-L-rabinopyranosyl
Xyl: β-D-Xylopyranosyl
Suhagia et al., IJPSR, 2011; Vol. 2(8): 1905-1913 ISSN: 0975-8232
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1908
Fig
R1
R2
18
Glc6-Rha
β-OCH3
19
Glc6-Rha
α-OCH3
20
Glc2-Rha
α-OCH3
21
Glc2-Rha
6-Rha
β-OCH3
22
Glc2-Rha
6-Rha
α-OCH3
23
Glc2-Glc
α-OCH3
24
Glc2-Glc
6-Rha
α-OCH3
COOR2
CH2OH
R1O
FIG.: STRUCTURE OF SAPIMUSAPONINS K-N, SAPINDOSIDES A-
E, MUKOROZI SAPONIN E1, G, Y1, Y2 &X
Fig.
R1
R2
25
Ara2-Rha3-Ara3-OAc
H
26
Ara2-Rha3-Rha4-OAc
H
27
Ara2-Rha3-Xyl2-OAC
3-OAC
H
28
Ara2-Rha3-Xyl2-OAC
4-OAC
H
29
Ara2-Rha3-Xyl3-OAC
4-OAC
H
30
Ara2-Rha3-Xyl4-OAC
H
31
Ara2-Rha3-Xyl
Glc2-Glc
32
Ara2-Rha3-Xyl
Glc2-Glc
33
Ara2-Rha
Glc2-Glc
34
Ara2-Rha
H
35
Ara2-Rha3-Xyl
H
36
Ara2-Rha3-Xyl4-Glc
H
37
Ara2-Rha3-Xyl4-Glc6-Rha
2-Glc
H
38
Ara2-Rha3-Xyl
Ara2-Rha3-Xyl4-Glc6-Rha
2-Glc
The chemical names of all the types of saponins
mentioned above are summarized in Table 1. (The
chemical names are as reported by the authors in
various journals).
TABLE 1: LIST OF SAPONINS ISOLATED FROM SAPINDUS MUKOROSSI
Saponins
Chemical name
Tirucullane/
dammarane type
Structure
Reference
Sapindoside
A
Hederagenin-3-O-α-L-arabinosyl-(2→1)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside
Oleanane
34
10
B
Hederagenin-3-O-α-L-arabinosyl-(2→1)-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(3→1)-β-D-
xylanopyranoside
Oleanane
35
10
C
Hederagenin-3-O-β-D-glucosyl(1→4)-β-D-xylosyl (1→3)-α-L-rhamnosyl(1→2)-
α-L-arabinoside
Oleanane
36
11
Sapinmusaponin
A
3,7,20(S),22-tetrahydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O- -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 2)
D-glucopyranoside
Dammarane
11
14
B
3,7,20(S),22,23-pentahydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O- -L-rhamnopyranosyl-
(1 2)-D-glucopyranoside
Dammarane
12
14
C
3,7,20(S),22,25-pentahydroxydammar-23-ene-3-O- -L-rhamnopyranosyl-
(1 2)-D-glucopyranoside
Dammarane
15
14
D
25-methoxy-3,7,20(S),22-tetrahydroxydammar-23-ene-3-O- -L-
rhamnopyranosyl-(1 2)-D-glucopyranoside,
Dammarane
16
14
E
25-methoxy-3,7,20(R)-trihydroxydammar-23-ene-3-O- -L-rhamnopyranosyl-
(1 2)-D-glucopyranoside
Dammarane
17
14
F
21 β-methoxy-3-β-21(S), 23I-epoxy tirucall-7,24-diene-3-O-α-L-
rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl
Tirucullane
18
15
G
21 α-methoxy-3-β-21(S), 23I-epoxy tirucall-7,24-diene-3-O-α-L-
rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl
Tirucullane
19
15
Suhagia et al., IJPSR, 2011; Vol. 2(8): 1905-1913 ISSN: 0975-8232
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1909
H
21 α-methoxy-3-β-21(S), 23I-epoxy tirucall-7,24-diene-3-O-α-L-
rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl
Tirucullane
20
15
I
21 β-methoxy-3-β-21(S), 23I-epoxy tirucall-7,24-diene-3-O-α-L-
dirhamnopyranosyl-(1→2,6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl
Tirucullane
21
15
J
21 α-methoxy-3-β-21(S), 23I-epoxy tirucall-7,24-diene-3-O-α-L-
dirhamnopyranosyl-(1→2,6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl
Tirucullane
22
15
K
hederagenin-3-O-(3-O-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-(1→3)-alpha-L-
rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside
Oleanane
25
16
L
hederagenin-3-O-(4-O-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-(1→3)-alpha-L-
rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-alpha-L-arabino-pyranoside,
Oleanane
26
16
M
hederagenin-3-O-(2,3-O-diacetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1→3)-alpha-L-
rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside
Oleanane
27
16
N
hederagenin-3-O-(2,4-O-diacetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1→3)-alpha-L-
rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside
Oleanane
28
16
O
3,7,20(S)-trihydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-
beta-D-glucopyranoside
Dammarane
13
16
P
3,7,20(R)-trihydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-
beta-d-glucopyranoside
Dammarane
14
16
Q
21α-methoxy-3β, 21I, 23(S)-epoxytirucall-7,24-diene-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-
(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside
Tirucullane
23
18
R
21α-methoxy-3β, 21I, 23(S)-epoxytirucall-7,24-diene-3-O-α-L-
rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside
Tirucullane
24
18
Sapinmukoside
A
3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 2) – -L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)+ – β-D-
glucopyranosyl-21, 23R-epoxyl tirucall-7, 24R-diene-3 β, 21 – diol
Tirucullane
1
19
B
3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 6) – β-D-glucopyranosyl-21, 23R-epoxyl
tirucall-7, 24R-diene-3 β, 21-diol
Tirucullane
2
19
C
3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)--L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)+-β-D-
glucopyranosyl (21,23R)-epoxyl tirucalla-7,24-diene-(21S)-ethoxyl--ol
Tirucullane
3
20
D
3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)--L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)+-β-D-
glucopyranosyl (21,23R)-epoxyl tirucall-7, 24-diene-(21S)-methoxyl--ol .
Tirucullane
4
20
E
3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)--L-
arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)+-β-D-glucopyranosyl (21,23R)-epoxyl tirucalla-7,24-
diene-21β-ethoxyl--ol}
Tirucullane
5
21
F
{3-O-β-D-xylanopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)--L-
arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)+-β-D-glucopyranosyl 21,23R-epoxyl tirucalla-7,24-
diene-21β-ethoxyl--ol}
Tirucullane
6
21
G
{3-O-β-D-xylanopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)--L-
arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)+-β-D-glucopyranosyl (21,23R)-epoxyl tirucalla-7,24-
diene-21β-methoxy--ol}
Tirucullane
7
21
H
{3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)--L-
rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)+-β-D-glucopyranosyl 21,23R-epoxyl tirucalla-7,24-
diene-21β-ethoxy--ol}
Tirucullane
8
21
I
{3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)--L-
rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)+-β-D-glucopyranosyl 21,23R-epoxyl tirucalla-7,24-
diene-21β-methoxy--ol}
Tirucullane
9
21
J
{3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl 21,23R-epoxyl
tirucalla-7,24-diene-21β-ethoxyl--ol}
Tirucullane
10
21
Mukorozi-saponin
G
Hederagenin-3-O-(2-O-acetyl-β-D-xylanopyranosyl)-(1→3)-α-L-
rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinoside.
Oleanane
29
16
E1
Hederagenin-3-O-α-L-arabinosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-
arabinoside.
Oleanane
30
16
Suhagia et al., IJPSR, 2011; Vol. 2(8): 1905-1913 ISSN: 0975-8232
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1910
Phytoanalytical methods: A colorimetric assay method
for the estimation of total saponin content of Sapindus
mukorossi was reported by Diwedi et al 23. High
performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) as
well as high performance liquid chromatography
(HPLC) method combined with ES-MS are developed
and validated for fingerprinting Sapindus saponin and
quantitative determination of Sapindoside B, one of
the oleanane type triterpene saponin, in bulk drug
samples of Sapindus saponin and its formulation
consap cream 22.
Pharmacology:
Insecticidal activity: Ethanolic extract of Sapindus
mukorossi was investigated for repellency and
insecticidal activity against Sitophilus oryzae and
Pediculus humanus. Average mortality percentage
indicated that the extracts caused significant mortality
and repellency on the target insects and bioassays
indicated that toxic and repellent effect was
proportional to the concentration 24.
Spermicidal activity: Saponin isolated from Sapindus
mukorossi has potent spermicidal activity.
Morphological changes in human ejaculated
spermatozoa after exposure to this saponin were
evaluated under scanning electron microscopy. The
minimum effective concentration (0.05% in spot test)
did not affect the surface topography after exposure
for 1 minute. However, incubation of spermatozoa for
10 minutes resulted in extensive vesiculation and
disruption of plasma membrane in the head region.
Higher concentrations (0.1%, 1.25%, 2.5% and 5.0%)
caused more or less similar changes which included
vesiculation, vacuolation, disruption or erosion of
membranes in the head region. These findings suggest
that the morphological changes observed are due to
alterations in the glycoproteins associated with the
lipid bilayer of plasma membrane of spermatozoa 25.
Another intimate use of soapnut is as a contraceptive
cream. Very soon consap a contraceptive cream
developed by the Lucknow CDRI is going to hit the
Indian markets. It is advocated to be totally safe and
easy to use. It is intended for post-coital use 26. The
cream is recommended for all women of reproductive
age group who want to space their children. It is safe
and free from systemic side effects on continuous
prolonged use. The preparation has been developed by
using saponins from the soapnut or reetha (Sapindus
mukorossi). The cream went through all regulatory
testing and Phase I, II and III clinical trials and proved
to be an effective contraceptive product. DCG (I)
cleared the cream for use. It has been licensed to the
Hindustan Latex Limited who is going to market the
product 27.
Spermicidal activity on human sperm of polyherbal
pessary, formulated with purified ingredient from
neem leaves, S. mukorossi (pericarp of fruit) and
Mentha oil was tested by Sander-Cramer slide test in
vitro and by post-coital tests in vivo. The combination
of three herbal ingredients resulted in potentiation of
spermicidal action by eight folds, when tested in rabbit
28.
Anti-protozoal activity: The gonotropic cycle of female
Anopheles was impaired by exposure to neem, reetha
(S. mukorossi) and garlic 29.
Anti-inflammatory activity: The anti-inflammatory
activities of hederagenin and crude saponin isolated
from Sapindus mukorossi were investigated utilizing
carrageenan-induced edema, granuloma pouch and
adjuvant arthritis in rats. The effects of these agents on
vascular permeability and acetic acid-induced writhing
in mice were also examined. In some experiments, the
results were compared with those obtained with
saikogenin A, crude platycodin, platycodigenin and
oleanolic acid. Anti-inflammatory activity on
carrageenan edema was observed with i. p. and p. o.
administered crude saponin, while hederagenin and
the other agents used showed activity only when
administered i. p. Hederagenin, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.
o. per day for 7 days, showed no significant inhibitory
effect on granuloma and exudate formations in rats,
while crude saponin, 100 and 200 mg/kg p. o., showed
significant effects.
Crude saponin, 200 mg/kg p. o. per day for 21 days,
significantly inhibited the development of hind paw
edema associated with adjuvant arthritis in rats, but
hederagenin, 50-200 mg/kg p. o., did not. Crude
saponin, 400 mg/kg p. o., inhibited the increase in
vascular permeability and the number of writhings
Suhagia et al., IJPSR, 2011; Vol. 2(8): 1905-1913 ISSN: 0975-8232
Available online on www.ijpsr.com
1911
induced by acetic acid in mice. The results suggest that
hederagenin and crude saponin, as well as the other
agents used, show some degree of anti-inflammatory
activity, especially in the case of saponin 30.
Piscicidal activity: Effects of Sapindus mukorossi have
been studied on fish. Pericarp of Sapindus mukorossi is
the most toxic parts yielding 100% mortality rate
within 12 hours and mean survival time was found to
be 1.18 hours. LD0, LD50, LD100 ranging between
3.5ppm and 10 ppm at 48 hrs and possess high
potential for fish eradication. Sapindus mukorossi fruit
pericarp can be used as a selective eradicant for horny
fish like Heteropneustes fossils and channa punctuate31
Cytotoxic activity: In- vitro cytotoxic activity of
triterpenoid saponins from Sapindus mukorossi
showed that α-hederin, β-hederin, Sapindoside A,
Sapindoside B, Sapindoside C, Sapindoside D exhibited
good cytotoxic activity at 10μg/ml to 100μg/ml when
tested on four cell strains like Mouse B16 melanoma
cells, Mouse 3T3 non-cancer fibroblasts, Flow 2002
non-cancer human cells and HeLa human tumor cells.
Strychnopentamine was the reference compound used
in the study. All saponins were reported to be at least
5 times less active than the reference compound 32.
Hepatoprotective activity: The dried powder of S.
mukorossi and R. emodi was extracted successively
with petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, and
ethanol and concentrated in vacuum. In- vitro and in-
vivo studies were done to prove the hepatoprotective
activity of different extracts of S. mukorossi and R.
emodi. Primary rat hepatocyte monolayer cultures
were used for in vitro studies.
These cultures were treated with CCl4 and extracts of
S. mukorossi & R. emodi. A protective activity could be
demonstrated in the CCl4 damaged primary monolayer
culture. For the in vivo study, the hepatoprotective
capacity of the extract of the fruit pericarp of S.
mukorossi and the rhizomes of R. emodi was analyzed
in liver injured CCl4- treated male rats. Extracts of the
fruit pericarp of S. mukorossi (2.5 mg/mL) and
rhizomes of R. emodi (3.0 mg/mL) were found to have
protective properties in rats with CCl4 induced liver
damage as judged from serum marker enzyme
activities. Thus, it was concluded that the extracts of S.
mukorossi and R. emodi do have a protective capacity
both in vitro on primary hepatocytes cultures and in in-
vivo in a rat model of CCl4 mediated liver injury 33.
Anti-platelet aggregation activity: Biological
evaluation of ethanolic extract of the galls of S.
mukorossi showed that two saponins isolated,
Sapinmusaponins Q and R, demonstrated more potent
anti-platelet aggregation activity than aspirin 18.
Sapinmusaponins F-J isolated from the galls of
S.mukorossi showed anti-platelet-aggregation effects,
but no obvious cytotoxic activity for platelets as
assayed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage was
reported 15.
Anti-trichomonas activity: Using in- vitro susceptibility
assay, the MIC of Sapindus saponins for T. vaginalis
(0.005%) was found to be 10-fold lower than its
effective spermicidal concentration (0.05%). Saponins
concentration dependently inhibited the ability of
parasites to adhere to HeLa cells and decreased
proteolytic activity of the parasite’s cysteine
proteinases. This was associated with decreased
expression of adhesin AP65 and membrane-expressed
cysteine proteinase TvCP2 genes. Saponins produced
no adverse effect on host cells in mitochondrial
reduction potential measurement assay.
Saponins also reversed the inhibitory mechanisms
exerted by Trichomonas for evading host immunity.
Early response of saponins to disrupt actin
cytoskeleton in comparison with their effect on the
nucleus suggests a membrane-mediated mode of
action rather than via induction of apoptosis 34.
Anti-fungal activity: Extracts from the dried pericarp of
Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae) fruits were
investigated for their antifungal activity against clinical
isolates of yeasts Candida albicans and C. non-albicans
from vaginal secretions of women with Vulvovaginal
Candidiasis. Four clinical isolates of C. albicans, a single
clinical isolated of each of the species C. parapsilosis, C.
glabrata, C. tropicalis, and the strain of C. albicans
ATCC 90028 were used. The hydroalcoholic extract was
bioactivity-directed against a clinical isolate of C.
parapsilosis, and showed strong activity. The n-BuOH
extract and one fraction showed strong activity against
all isolates tested 35.
Suhagia et al., IJPSR, 2011; Vol. 2(8): 1905-1913 ISSN: 0975-8232
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1912
CONCLUSION: S. mukorossi is a common plant
available at various places in India. The plant is widely
used in cosmetic preparation like shampoos and
cleansers. It is reported to contain mainly oleanane,
dammarane and tirucullane type saponins. The
structures and chemical name of various saponins
isolated from S. mukorossi have been compiled in the
present review. The pharmacological studies reported
in the present review confirm the therapeutic value of
this plant.
There is a lack of phytoanalytical methods available for
the estimation of chemical markers from this plant.
Quantitative analysis of the different constituents of S.
mukorossi from its different parts is still not successful.
Phytochemical studies on this plant except for
saponins have not yet been explored. This review will
provide a basic idea of most of the phytoconstituents
present in S. mukorossi less than one heading With the
availability of primary information, further studies can
be carried out like phytopharmacology of different
extracts, standardization of the extracts, identification
and isolation of active principles, and pharmacological
studies of isolated compound.
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... Various beneficial properties of S. mukorossi have been shown in Fig. 1. Previously reviews related to S. mukorossi have been published [3,8]. However, they only focused on the pharmacological activities and bioactive compounds of the plant. ...
... In India also the plant is used as Ayurvedic medicine to treat eye disorders, asthma, tooth diseases, snake bite, and piles [86]. In Ayurveda, it is also reported to treat freckles, eczema, and psoriasis [8]. They are also an important part of Japanese and Chinese traditional medicine where it is used to treat dermatomycoses and used as antitussive and anthelminthic agent [3,4]. ...
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... Sapindus mukorossi: The phytochemical screening of plant shows that the pericarp of the fruit consists about 10.1% of saponin (Upadhyay and Singh 2012). It contains oleanane, dammarane, and tirucullane type saponins (Suhagia et al. 2011). Saponins are surface active, nonvolatile compounds which are mostly found in plants (Oleszek 2002). ...
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The structure of two triterpone glycosides from Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. has been established. It has been shown that sapindoside A is hederagenin 3-O-α-L-arabinosyl-(2 → 1)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and sapindoside B is the 3-O-α-L-arabopyranosyl-(2 → 1)-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(3→ 1)-β-D-xylopyranoside.
Article
High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method as well as high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method combined with ES-MS are developed and validated for fingerprinting (profiling) Sapindus saponin and quantitative determination of Sapindoside B in bulk drug samples of Sapindus saponin and its formulation Consap cream. The separation of saponins using TLC is achieved on precoated silica gel plates using chloroform: methanol: water as mobile phase. Detection of the spots is done at the 630 nm. The identification of saponins is done by LC-MS, using Electro Spray Ionisation [ESI] technique. The HPLC method involves chromatography of the saponins on reverse phase (C-18) column, using acetonitrile-water gradient as mobile phase. The detection is done by UV-visible detector at a wavelength of 215 nm. Calibration graphs are found to be linear over the range 11-220 μg in HPTLC and 30-200 μg/mL in HPLC method. The methods developed are being used for the analysis of the bulk drug samples and Consap cream samples.
Article
The structure of two triterpone glycosides fromSapindus mukorossi Gaertn. has been established. It has been shown that sapindoside A is hederagenin 3-O-α-L-arabinosyl-(2 → 1)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and sapindoside B is the 3-O-α-L-arabopyranosyl-(2 → 1)-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(3→ 1)-β-D-xylopyranoside.