Dietary Sugars Intake and Cardiovascular Health A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.43). 09/2009; 120(11):1011-20. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192627
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

High intakes of dietary sugars in the setting of a worldwide pandemic of obesity and cardiovascular disease have heightened concerns about the adverse effects of excessive consumption of sugars. In 2001 to 2004, the usual intake of added sugars for Americans was 22.2 teaspoons per day (355 calories per day). Between 1970 and 2005, average annual availability of sugars/added sugars increased by 19%, which added 76 calories to Americans' average daily energy intake. Soft drinks and other sugar-sweetened beverages are the primary source of added sugars in Americans' diets. Excessive consumption of sugars has been linked with several metabolic abnormalities and adverse health conditions, as well as shortfalls of essential nutrients. Although trial data are limited, evidence from observational studies indicates that a higher intake of soft drinks is associated with greater energy intake, higher body weight, and lower intake of essential nutrients. National survey data also indicate that excessive consumption of added sugars is contributing to overconsumption of discretionary calories by Americans. On the basis of the 2005 US Dietary Guidelines, intake of added sugars greatly exceeds discretionary calorie allowances, regardless of energy needs. In view of these considerations, the American Heart Association recommends reductions in the intake of added sugars. A prudent upper limit of intake is half of the discretionary calorie allowance, which for most American women is no more than 100 calories per day and for most American men is no more than 150 calories per day from added sugars.

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Available from: Rachel K Johnson, Aug 29, 2014
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    • "Fructose is a powerful sweetener and has low costs of production, which makes it an important sweetener used in the manufacturing of bakery products and beverages (Hanover and White, 1993). Fructose content in sugar-sweetened beverages is nearly 61 mg/mL on average, and it contributes to a daily fructose consumption of 180 g by the general population (Johnson et al., 2009). The increasing consumption of these sugar-sweetened beverages has been associated with metabolic syndrome (Bray and Popkin, 2013; Koborová et al., 2015; Slyper, 2013; Yanai et al., 2008). "
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    • "SSB consumption is an especially important target for behavioral interventions among this population because sugared beverage consumption was reported to be most common among young adults, men, and African Americans (Kumar et al., 2014). Reducing SSB consumption has been identified as a weight management and chronic disease prevention strategy (Johnson et al., 2009; Kumanyika et al., 2011; Kumar et al., 2014); however, replacing consumption of sugared beverages with water and other healthier drinking options could be salient for African American males to reduce their elevated risks for obesity and chronic diseases. Behavior change is difficult; however , no studies to our knowledge have assessed the perceived degree of difficulty making lifestyle modifications among at risk populations like African American males. "
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    • "Sucrose was chosen as the reinforcer to both extend the results of these previous studies with cocaine and gain a better understanding of the neurobiology of food-directed relapse. Given the severity of the obesity epidemic (CDC 2014; WHO 2015), its associated negative health outcomes (Ogden et al. 2007), and also other negative outcomes related to excess food consumption (e.g., sugar; Johnson et al. 2009), further evaluation of factors that maintain feeding behaviors is warranted. In addition, we included both acute (overnight) and chronic (1 month) EE conditions to examine how the extent of EE and/or length of abstinence from self-administration affects neuronal activity. "
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