Dietary Sugars Intake and Cardiovascular Health A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.43). 09/2009; 120(11):1011-20. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192627
Source: PubMed


High intakes of dietary sugars in the setting of a worldwide pandemic of obesity and cardiovascular disease have heightened concerns about the adverse effects of excessive consumption of sugars. In 2001 to 2004, the usual intake of added sugars for Americans was 22.2 teaspoons per day (355 calories per day). Between 1970 and 2005, average annual availability of sugars/added sugars increased by 19%, which added 76 calories to Americans' average daily energy intake. Soft drinks and other sugar-sweetened beverages are the primary source of added sugars in Americans' diets. Excessive consumption of sugars has been linked with several metabolic abnormalities and adverse health conditions, as well as shortfalls of essential nutrients. Although trial data are limited, evidence from observational studies indicates that a higher intake of soft drinks is associated with greater energy intake, higher body weight, and lower intake of essential nutrients. National survey data also indicate that excessive consumption of added sugars is contributing to overconsumption of discretionary calories by Americans. On the basis of the 2005 US Dietary Guidelines, intake of added sugars greatly exceeds discretionary calorie allowances, regardless of energy needs. In view of these considerations, the American Heart Association recommends reductions in the intake of added sugars. A prudent upper limit of intake is half of the discretionary calorie allowance, which for most American women is no more than 100 calories per day and for most American men is no more than 150 calories per day from added sugars.

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Available from: Rachel K Johnson, Aug 29, 2014
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    • "Fructose is a powerful sweetener and has low costs of production, which makes it an important sweetener used in the manufacturing of bakery products and beverages (Hanover and White, 1993). Fructose content in sugar-sweetened beverages is nearly 61 mg/mL on average, and it contributes to a daily fructose consumption of 180 g by the general population (Johnson et al., 2009). The increasing consumption of these sugar-sweetened beverages has been associated with metabolic syndrome (Bray and Popkin, 2013; Koborová et al., 2015; Slyper, 2013; Yanai et al., 2008). "
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    • "SSB consumption is an especially important target for behavioral interventions among this population because sugared beverage consumption was reported to be most common among young adults, men, and African Americans (Kumar et al., 2014). Reducing SSB consumption has been identified as a weight management and chronic disease prevention strategy (Johnson et al., 2009; Kumanyika et al., 2011; Kumar et al., 2014); however, replacing consumption of sugared beverages with water and other healthier drinking options could be salient for African American males to reduce their elevated risks for obesity and chronic diseases. Behavior change is difficult; however , no studies to our knowledge have assessed the perceived degree of difficulty making lifestyle modifications among at risk populations like African American males. "
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    ABSTRACT: Racial disparities in weight-related outcomes among males may be linked to differences in behavioral change efficacy; however, few studies have pursued this line of inquiry. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which self-efficacy associated with changing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption intake varies by race among male first-year college students. A self-administered, cross-sectional survey was completed by a subsample of freshmen males (N = 203) at a medium-sized southern university. Key variables of interest were SSB intake and self-efficacy in reducing consumption of sugared beverages. African American and Whites had similar patterns of SSB intake (10.2 ± 2.8 vs. 10.1 ± 2.6); however, African Americans had lower proportions of individuals who were sure they could substitute sugared beverages with water (42.2% vs. 57.5%, p < .03). The results from logistic regression models suggest that self-efficacy to reduce SSB intake among males vary by race. African American males were less likely to assert confidence in their ability to change behaviors associated with SSB (odds ratio = 0.51; confidence interval [0.27, 0.95]) in the full model adjusting for weight-related variables including SSB consumption. The findings suggest that weight loss and weight prevention interventions targeting young African American males require components that can elevate self-efficacy of this group to facilitate behavioral modifications that reduce SSB consumption and their risk for obesity-related diseases. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · American journal of men's health
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    • "Sucrose was chosen as the reinforcer to both extend the results of these previous studies with cocaine and gain a better understanding of the neurobiology of food-directed relapse. Given the severity of the obesity epidemic (CDC 2014; WHO 2015), its associated negative health outcomes (Ogden et al. 2007), and also other negative outcomes related to excess food consumption (e.g., sugar; Johnson et al. 2009), further evaluation of factors that maintain feeding behaviors is warranted. In addition, we included both acute (overnight) and chronic (1 month) EE conditions to examine how the extent of EE and/or length of abstinence from self-administration affects neuronal activity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) reduces sucrose seeking by rats with a history of sucrose self-administration. The present experiment examined whether acute or chronic EE also reduces brain Fos levels, a protein marker indicative of neuronal activation. Fos levels were also examined after either 1 or 30 days of forced abstinence to examine whether Fos levels vary with the incubation of sucrose craving. Fos expression was examined in 18 regions and was identified in brain slices using immunohistochemistry. Fos levels were higher in most regions after 30 days of forced abstinence and were decreased in most regions by either acute or chronic EE. Eleven regions had some statistically significant effect and/or interaction of EE or incubation on Fos; the most salient of these are listed here. In the prelimbic cortex, there was an incubation of Fos and EE reduced Fos at both forced abstinence time points. In contrast, in the orbitofrontal cortex, there was no Fos incubation but EE reduced Fos at both forced abstinence time points. An interaction of EE and incubation was observed in the anterior cingulate cortex and nucleus accumbens core and shell where Fos incubated but EE only decreased Fos at the day 30 forced abstinence time point. In contrast, in the dorsolateral striatum Fos incubated, but EE robustly decreased Fos expression at both forced abstinence time points. These differential expression patterns provide rationale for more detailed, site-specific molecular functional studies in how they relate to the ability of EE to reduce sucrose seeking.
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