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Two new species of Chaetostoma (Silurif ormes: Loricariidae) from the Huallaga River in central Peru

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Two new species of rubbernose armored catfish are described from the upper Huallaga River (650 m elevation) in central Peru. Chaetostoma daidalmatos, new species, is distinguished from all other Chaetostoma species in having a unique combination of: large dark rounded spots on the body and on the dorsal and caudal fins, cleithral width 29.2-30.8 % SL, head length 28.4-30.9 % SL, and interorbital width 32.5-36.6 % HL. Chaetostoma stroumpoulos, new species, is distinguished from all other Chaetostoma species in having a unique combination of: dark rounded spots on the body, head depth 17.9-21.2 % SL, base of dorsal-fin length 21.4-24.9 % SL, caudal peduncle length 25.8-29.9 % SL, interorbital width 31.3-35.6 % HL, and orbit diameter 15.0-17.6 % HL. The new species occur in sympatry and differ from each other on characters such as: shape of papillae on naked snout, extent of dorsal fin and pectoral spine, and caudal-fin shape; and measurements such as: cleithral width, interbranchial width, first dorsal-fin ray length, and pelvic-anal length.
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... stroumpoulos para Chaetostoma y A. bufonius). Éstos géneros agrupan un complejo críptico de especies, muchas veces con distribución muy restringida (Eigenman & Allen, 1942), por lo que es difícil su identificación a nivel específico, incluso Salcedo (2006) menciona que las especies C. changae, C. stroumpoulos y C. daidalmatos son especies simpátricas que habitan en la cuenca alta del río Huallaga, esto nos hace suponer que nuestras especies de Chaetostoma no identificadas podrían tratarse Tabla 1. Porcentaje de identidad y número de accesión de las secuencias del BLAST que coinciden con las del presente trabajo. El BLAST logró identificar a las especies encontradas del género Hypostomus como H. cochliodon e H. ancistroides, este último fue identificado taxonómicamente en base a caracteres morfológicos como H. hemicochliodon, las diferencias entre la identificación del BLAST y morfológica en la determinación de la especie se debe a que en el GenBank no se encuentra depositada ninguna secuencia de la especie H. hemicochliodon con el gen mitocondrial Citocromo C Oxidasa sub unidad I (COI), es por ello que al momento de realizar la comparación de bases nucleotídicas, el BLAST identifica a nuestro individuo con la secuencia disponible más próxima, en este caso con la especie H. ancistroides. ...
... DOI: https://doi.org/10.24841/fa.v27i1.458 de las mencionadas porSalcedo, 2006. García- Dávila et al. (2015 yMoreira et al. (2017) en sus investigaciones también obtuvieron secuencias del género Ancistrus, no logrando identificarlos a nivel de especie. ...
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Fue estimada la diversidad específica de la familia Loricariidae (Siluriformes, Pisces) en las 10 provincias de la región San Martín (Amazonia peruana). Para la caracterización molecular fueron obtenidas las secuencias nucleotídicas del gen mitocondrial Citocromo C Oxidasa sub unidad I (COI). El análisis filogenético de las secuencias confirmó la presencia de 16 especies, distribuidos en nueve géneros. Los valores de la riqueza observada y la riqueza esperada muestran a la provincia Picota como la de mayor riqueza (siete especies), contrariamente la provincia Rioja fue la que presentó la menor riqueza observada (una especie), seguida por la provincia El Dorado (dos especies). El análisis de componente principal (PCA) nos permitió observar la importancia que tiene la especie Chaetostoma sp. 1 en la provincia Rioja, así como Ancistrus sp. 2 para la provincia San Martín. Además nuestros resultados muestran que la especie más abundante en la región San Martín fue Chaetostoma sp. 1, mientras que la de menor abundancia fueron Aphanotorolus emarginatus y Chaetostoma sp. 3. La especie de mayor distribución fue Ancistrus sp. 2 encontrándose en seis provincias, seguida de las especies Chaetostoma stroumpoulos y Chaetostoma sp. 1 quienes estuvieron presentes en cinco provincias diferentes de la región San Martín. Las especies Pterygoplichthys pardalis, Aphanotorulus emarginatus, Chaetostoma sp. 3, Ancistrus sp. 1 y Farlowella smithi estuvieron restrictas cada una a solo una provincia. Las especies comerciales conocidas como carachama parda P. pardalis y carachama negra Hypostomus hemicochliodon fueron poco frecuentes en las capturas (seis y 11 individuos respectivamente), la primera estuvo restricta solo a la provincia de Picota, en tanto que la segunda fue encontrada en las provincias de Bellavista, Huallaga y Picota. Los resultados muestran que si bien la diversidad de especies de loricáridos no es tan diversa como en la selva baja, algunas especies de esta familia están bien distribuidas y son bastante abundantes en esta región.
... At the same time, he maintained C. variolus as a synonym of Ancistrus cirrhosus (Valenciennes, 1836) and confirmed C. sericeus as a species of Chaetostoma. The species C. sericeus was considered as Chaetostoma by many authors Fisch-Muller, 2003;Salcedo, 2006;Ferraris, 2007). But recently, Lujan, et al. (2015b) transferred the species Chaetostomus sericeus to the genus Ancistrus. ...
... Ancistrus alga and A. tectirostris continue as synonyms of A. hoplogenys. Ancistrus malacops, A. variolus and A. sericeus are considered valid species (Fisch- Muller, 2003;Salcedo, 2006;Ferraris, 2007;Lujan, et al. 2015b;Fricke, et al. 2018). ...
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To elucidate the species of the genus Ancistrus that inhabit freshwater systems of Ecuador, cataloged lots of the Fish Collection, Museo de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional (MEPN), in Quito, were analyzed. Four species were identified: Ancistrus alga (Cope, 1872), A. malacops (Cope, 1872), A. clementinae Rendahl, 1937, and a new species that herein is described. Ancistrus clementinae inhabits aquatic systems of the Pacific slope, mostly in the Guayas River drainage. The other three species live in freshwater systems that drain to the Amazon River Basin. Ancistrus alga inhabit the northern and central portions of eastern Ecuador. Ancistrus malacops has a broad distribution from north to south, but is absent from the Santiago River. Both species occasionally live in sympatry. The new species is restricted to the Santiago River, in Morona-Santiago province. Each species has unique external morphological features and/or a coloration pattern that allow unambiguous identification, at least of males. This paper provides a description of the new species, and a re-description and images of the other three.
... Only a few species of Chaetostoma present a color pattern consisting of spots on both the head and the body (C. anale, C. daidalmatos, C. lineopunctatum, C. milesi, C. strompoulos, C. trimaculineum and C. vagum, (Lujan et al. 2015a;Salcedo 2006b). Chaetostoma joropo differs from these species except C. daidalmatos by having spots on the body that are larger (in diameter) than the spaces separating them from neighboring spots(vs. ...
... Chaetostoma joropo differs from C. daidalmatos by having spots that are smaller than the orbital diameter (vs. spots larger than orbital diameter, (Salcedo 2006b). Finally, Chaetostoma joropo differs from C. milesi as follows: by having the spots on the head more densely packed together, with the space between spots smaller than spot diameter (vs. ...
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Chaetostoma joropo n. sp. is described from the piedmont of the Orinoco River drainage in Colombia. The new species has been long confused with Chaetostoma milesi, a species with similar overall morphology and color pattern that is restricted to the Magdalena-Cauca River Basin. We diagnose the new species on the basis of morphology as well as a precise description of the color pattern. Chaetostoma joropo n. sp. is also easily distinguished from C. formosae the most similar species and other species inhabiting the Orinoco River drainage in Colombia. Data on ontogenetic variation and sexual dimorphism are provided, as well as natural history notes and remarks on the usage of the name Chaetostoma milesi for specimens from both the Orinoco and Magdalena-Cauca drainages. A discussion on the usage of the name Chaetostoma platyrhynchus is also provided given its current instability in the literature.
... It may be that these patterns are not found in species that inhabit Colombia, or that our spiny pattern, subpattern C correspond to those types. Apparently, claw and spiny B patterns are the more common ones among the species of Chaetostoma (Rapp Py- Daniel, 1991;Ceas & Page, 1996;Lasso & Provenzano, 1997;Salcedo, 2003Salcedo, , 2006aSalcedo, ,b, 2013Ballen, 2011;Lujan, et al., 2015c;Ballen, et al., 2016). ...
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As a part of an assessment of loricariid catfishes inhabiting the Andes of Colombia, specimens belonging to an interesting new species were identified. The new species is described herein, and it is tentatively included in the genus Cordylancistrus. The new species can be easily distinguished among its congeners by the presence of a unique diagnostic character: a fleshy keel or excrescence, black or dark brown, over the posterior tip of supraoccipital. Specimens of the new species were captured in rivers of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the Sierra de Perijá that drain to the Magdalena River Basin and Caribbean Sea. The occurrence of one species of Cordylancistrus in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta could have interesting biogeographic implications for hypotheses related to the geological history of northwestern corner of South America or to the dispersal or vicariance models used to explain biogeographical patterns of related species in Colombia.
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A new species of rubbernose armored catfish, collected by the Catherwood Foundation Peruvian Amazon Expedition from the upper Huallaga River (650 m elevation) in central Peru, is described herein. This new species differs from all other described Chaetostoma species in having a conspicuously banded dorsal fin and by the combination of the following characters: presence of fleshy excrescence on posterior tip of supraoccipital, typically nine branched dorsal-fin rays, and evertible cheek plates with two to four hypertrophied odontodes. Una nueva especie de carachama nariz de goma colectada por la Catherwood Foundation Peruvian Amazon Expedition, en el alto Río Huallaga (650 m elevación) en Perú central es descrita. Esta nueva especie difiere de todas las otras especies descritas de Chaetostoma por tener una aleta dorsal conspicuamente bandeada, y por la combinació n de los siguientes caracteres: presencia de una excresencia carnosa en el extremo posterior del supraoccipital; generalmente nueve radios dorsales ramificados; y placas evertibles de la mejilla con dos a cuatro odontodes hipertrofiados.
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The “shear” method of Humphries et al. (1981) is based on a path model intended to explain differences in form by multiple factors: one for size and one or more for shape differences. Its adaptation for “removing” the effects of a within-population size-factor from between-group morphometric analyses is presented in compact matrix form, simplified, and compared to the method of orthogonal projection proposed by Burnaby (1966). While the sizecorrection methods give similar results for most real data sets, Burnaby's procedure with k = 1 (i.e., using a single composite size variable) is recommended for this purpose owing to its geometrical and computational simplicity. An example based on artificial data demonstrates that sheared principal components are not necessarily uncorrelated with size. Path modeling of size and shape together is a different purpose than size-correction, and is better served by a different procedure.
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The genus Otocinclus Cope (1872) of the siluriform family Loricariidae is diagnosed as monophyletic on the basis of shared derived characters of the cranial and hyobranchial skeleton, dorsal gill arch musculature, and gut. Otocinclus are relatively small herbivorous catfishes restricted to small streams and quiet slow-flowing margins of larger rivers, most frequently living in close association with aquatic macrophytes and terrestrial marginal grasses extending into the water column. Otocinclus species share a novel modification of the distal esophageal wall which is developed into an accessory blind diverticulum that may function in aerial respiration and for providing additional modulatory positive buoyancy for remaining in the upper water column at stream margins. Otocinclus has no junior synonyms, however several nominal species originally described in Otocinclus are here formally re-assigned to other genera in the subfamily Hypoptopomatinae. Otocinclus cephalacanthus Ribeiro 1911, O. depressicauda Ribeiro 1918, O. francirochai Ihering 1928, O. laevior Cope 1894, O. leptochilus Cope 1894, O. maculipinnis Regan 1904, O. nigricauda Boulenger 1891, and O. paulinus Regan 1908 are all placed in the genus Microlepidogaster Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889; O. obtusos Ribeiro 1911 was placed in Pseudotothyris Britski & Garavello 1984; the genus Nannoptopoma Schaefer 1996 was erected for O. spectabilis Eigenmann 1914 in the tribe Hypoptopomatini; O. gibbosus Ribeiro 1908 is removed from Otocinclus, yet remains of undetermined generic status. Thirteen species are recognized in Otocinclus: O. affinis Steindachner 1877 of the lower Paraná/Paraguay and Uruguay basins and coastal streams of southeastern Brazil; O. bororo n. sp. of the upper Río Paraguay; O. caxarari n. sp. of the middle Río Guaporé/Mamoré system; O. flexilis Cope 1894 of the lower Paraná/Paraguay and Uruguay basins and coastal streams of southeastern Brazil; O. hasemani Steindachner 1915 of northern Brazil; O. hoppei Ribeiro 1939 of the upper Amazon, Tocantins and Paraguay basins and coastal streams of northeastern Brazil; O. huaorani n. sp. of the upper Amazon and Orinoco basins; O. macrospilus Eigenmann & Allen 1942 of the upper Amazon basin of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru; O. mariae Fowler 1940 of the lower Amazon, upper Madeira and Paraguay basins; O. mura n. sp. of the middle Amazon River; O. vestitus Cope 1872 of the upper Amazon and lower Paraná basins; O. vittatus Regan 1904 of the Amazon, Orinoco, Paraná/Paraguay, and Tocantins basins; and O. xakriaba n. sp. of the rio São Fransisco basin. Two species are placed in synonymy: Otocinclus arnoldi Regan 1909 and O. fimbriatus Cope 1894 are junior synonyms of O. flexilis. Keys to the species of Otocinclus and genera of the Hypoptopomatinae are provided. A descriptive treatment of the osteology and cranial myology is provided for O. vittatus. Detailed analysis of meristic and morphometric variation based on geometric morphometric procedures is provided for the phenetically similar species pairs O. mariae and O. vittatus, O. bororo and O. huaorani in an a posteriori evaluation of separate species status. The phylogenetic relationships among Otocinclus species, and the phylogenetic position of Otocinclus among genera of the Hypoptopomatinae, are determined based on analysis of 27 morphological features using cladistic parsimony. Monophyly of Otocinclus was confirmed; within Otocinclus, a clade comprised of O. affinis and O. flexilis is the sister-group to the remainder of the genus. Within that latter clade, O. hasemani and O. xakriaba are the first and second-level sister-groups to the remainder of the genus, within which relationships among species are not fully resolved with available data. The phylogenetic biogeography of Otocinclus is informative regarding the historical relationships among major river drainage basins, particularly of those river systems of the Brazilian Shield. A biogeographic hypothesis is proposed based on the area cladogram derived from the species-level phylogenetic relationships, which suggests successive vicariance and speciation in the non-Amazonian regions of endemism of southeastern and eastern South America, followed by speciation and dispersal within the Amazon, Orinoco and upper Paraguay basins. The pattern of vicariance revealed by the Otocinclus species-level phylogeny is congruent with the geologic history of the major river drainage basins of the Brazilian Shield. This result suggests that, for Otocinclus and perhaps other loricariid catfishes, much of their generic and species-level diversification occurred prior to the formation of the Amazon basin.
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Chaetostoma yurubiense, a new species, is described from the Ríos Aroa, Urama, and Yaracuy basins, three stream systems that empty into the Golfo Tríste of the Caribbean Sea of northern Venezuela. Chaetostoma yurubiense is distinguished from the syntopic C. stannii by several features, including the presence of a fleshy black keel at the posterior tip of the supraoccipital bone, a narrower head and more elongate body, pigmentation characteristics of the body and caudal and dorsal fins, shape of the caudal fin, and five (vs four) anal-fin rays. Chaetostoma yurubiense is distinguished from all other described species of Chaetostoma inhabiting Venezuela by combinations of these characteristics and the number and shape of the cheek spines. /// Se describe Chaetostoma yurubiense, una nueva especie, de las cuencas del Río Aroa, Río Urama, y el Río Yaracuy, tres sistemas de arroyos que desembocan en el Golfo Tríste del Mar Caribeño del norte de Venezuela. Chaetostoma yurubiense se distingue de el sintópico C. stanni por un numero de características, incluyendo: la presencia de una quilla carnosa en la punta posterior de la placa supraoccipital; una cabeza más angosta y un cuerpo más alargado; características de la pigmentación del cuerpo y de las aletas caudal dorsal; la forma de la aleta caudal; y cinco (vs cuatro) radios en la aleta anal. Chaetostoma yurubiense se distingue de todas otras especies descritas que habitan en Venezuela por combinaciones de estas características y el numero y la forma de las espinas en la mejilla.
Article
A phylogenetic analysis of nearly all genera of the Hypostominae and the Ancistrinae is provided based on osteology, external anatomy, and digestive tract anatomy. The results suggest that the Hypostominae is a paraphyletic assemblage. Delturus and Upsilodus form a monophyletic group sister to all other loricariids. Hemipsilichthys, Isbrueckerichthys, Kronichthys, and Pareiorhina form a monophyletic group with Neoplecostomus and the Hypoptopomatinae and are transferred to the Neoplecostominae. The remainder of the Hypostominae is made paraphyletic by the continuing recognition of the Ancistrinae. Ancistrinae is returned to the Hypostominae and recognized as a tribe, Ancistrini. In addition, four new tribes (Corymbophanini, Hypostomini, Pterygoplichthini, and Rhinelepini) are described. Hypostomus is also paraphyletic, the bulk of it forming a monophyletic clade with Aphanotorulus, Cochliodon, and Isorineloricaria. All of the potential monophyletic groups within Hypostomus grade into one another; therefore, Aphanotorulus, Cochliodon, and Isorineloricaria are placed in the synonymy of Hypostomus. Pterygoplichthys and Glyptoperichthys are also polyphyletic, and Liposarcus and Glyptoperichthys are recognized as synonyms of Pterygoplichthys. Sister to Pterygoplichthys is the Hemiancistrus annectens group (including Hypostomus panamensis) which represents an undescribed genus. The phylogeny presented is compared with previous hypotheses. © 2004 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2004, 141, 1−80.
Strauss for comments and suggestions on the manuscript
  • C Ferraris
  • A S Harold
C. Ferraris, Jr., A. S. Harold, and R. E. Strauss for comments and suggestions on the manuscript. This research was supported by tlie All Catfish Species Inventory Project (NSF DEB-0315963, L. M. Page, P. I.).
The catfishes of Venezuela, with descriptions of thirty-eight new forms
  • L P Schultz
Schultz, L. P. 1944. The catfishes of Venezuela, with descriptions of thirty-eight new forms. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 94: 173-338.