Outbreak of common midwife toad virus in alpine newts (Mesotriton Alpestris Cyreni) and common midwife toads (Alytes Obstetricans) in Northern Spain: a comparative pathological study of an emerging ranavirus

SERIDA, Servicio Regional de Investigación y Desarrollo Agroalimentario, Laboratorio de Sanidad Animal, 33299 Jove, Gijón, Spain.
The Veterinary Journal (Impact Factor: 1.76). 09/2009; 186(2):256-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.07.038
Source: PubMed


This report describes the isolation and characterisation of the common midwife toad virus (CMTV) from juvenile alpine newts (Mesotriton alpestris cyreni) and common midwife toad (CMT) tadpoles (Alytes obstetricans) in the Picos de Europa National Park in Northern Spain in August 2008. A comparative pathological and immunohistochemical study was carried out using anti-CMTV polyclonal serum. In the kidneys, glomeruli had the most severe histological lesions in CMT tadpoles, while both glomeruli and renal tubular epithelial cells exhibited foci of necrosis in juvenile alpine newts. Viral antigens were detected by immunohistochemical labelling mainly in the kidneys of CMT tadpoles and in ganglia of juvenile alpine newts. This is the first report of ranavirus infection in the alpine newt, the second known species to be affected by CMTV in the past 2 years.

Download full-text


Available from: Rosa Casais, Mar 28, 2014
  • Source
    • "Este último es un agente infeccioso capaz de provocar brotes de mortalidad en vertebrados ectotérmicos por todo el mundo (Brenes et al., 2014) y que puede dispersarse mediante la infección de portadores asintomáticos (Brenes, 2013). En 2008, Balseiro et al. (2010) detectaron una gran mortalidad causada por Ranavirus spp. en individuos juveniles de M. alpestris cyreni, precisamente una de las subespecies detectadas en la zona prospectada. "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
  • Source
    • "Watersheds located at higher elevations have been associated with increased probability of ranavirus infection and epizootics in some North American amphibian populations (Gahl and Calhoun 2008). Environmental conditions such as ambient temperature or pollution have also been associated with increased prevalence of ranavirus infection and disease (Balseiro et al. 2010; Kerby et al. 2011). The influence of temperature on host and parasite has been increasingly documented as a critical environmental feature modulating host–pathogen interactions outcomes (Wolinska and King 2009; Vale and Little 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The context-dependent investigations of host–pathogen genotypic interactions, where environmental factors are explicitly incorporated, allow the assessment of both coevolutionary history and contemporary ecological influences. Such a functional explanatory framework is particularly valuable for describing mortality trends and identifying drivers of disease risk more accurately. Using two common North American frog species (Lithobates pipiens and Lithobates sylvaticus) and three strains of frog virus 3 (FV3) at different temperatures, we conducted a labo-ratory experiment to investigate the influence of host species/genotype, ranavirus strains, temperature, and their interactions, in determining mortality and infec-tion patterns. Our results revealed variability in host susceptibility and strain infectivity along with significant host–strain interactions, indicating that the out-come of an infection is dependent on the specific combination of host and virus genotypes. Moreover, we observed a strong influence of temperature on infection and mortality probabilities, revealing the potential for genotype–genotype–envi-ronment interactions to be responsible for unexpected mortality in this system. Our study thus suggests that amphibian hosts and ranavirus strains genetic char-acteristics should be considered in order to understand infection outcomes and that the investigation of coevolutionary mechanisms within a context-dependent framework provides a tool for the comprehensive understanding of disease dynamics.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Evolutionary Applications
  • Source
    • "The first proven ranavirus-associated mass-mortality event in mainland Europe occurred in Spain 2007 in common midwife toads (Balseiro et al., 2009). In connection with a second disease outbreak in the same species in the Spanish Pyrenees, a ranavirus was also detected in alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris cyreni, formerly Mesotriton alpestris cyreni) (Balseiro et al., 2010). In Portugal, a ranavirus has been detected associated with mass mortality episodes affecting the newts Triturus marmoratus and T. boscai in 2003 (Alves de Matos et al., 2008). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several edible frogs (Pelophylax kl. esculentus) collected into a single group from various ponds in Europe died suddenly with reddening of the skin (legs, abdomen) and haemorrhages in the gastrointestinal tract. Ranavirus was detected in some of the dead frogs using PCR, and virus was also isolated in cell culture. Over the following 3years, another two outbreaks occurred with low to high mortality in between asymptomatic periods. In the first 2years, the same ranavirus was detected repeatedly, but a new ranavirus was isolated in association with the second mass-mortality event. The two different ranaviruses were characterized based on nucleotide sequences from four genomic regions, namely, major capsid protein, DNA polymerase, ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase alpha and beta subunit genes. The sequences showed slight variations to each other or GenBank entries and both clustered to the Rana esculenta virus (REV-like) clade in the phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, a quiescent infection was demonstrated in two individuals. By comparing samples taken before and after transport and caging in groups it was possible to identify the pond of origin and a ranavirus was detected for the first time in wild amphibians in Germany.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · The Veterinary Journal
Show more