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New Species of Chaetostoma (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Central Peru

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A new species of rubbernose armored catfish, collected by the Catherwood Foundation Peruvian Amazon Expedition from the upper Huallaga River (650 m elevation) in central Peru, is described herein. This new species differs from all other described Chaetostoma species in having a conspicuously banded dorsal fin and by the combination of the following characters: presence of fleshy excrescence on posterior tip of supraoccipital, typically nine branched dorsal-fin rays, and evertible cheek plates with two to four hypertrophied odontodes. Una nueva especie de carachama nariz de goma colectada por la Catherwood Foundation Peruvian Amazon Expedition, en el alto Río Huallaga (650 m elevación) en Perú central es descrita. Esta nueva especie difiere de todas las otras especies descritas de Chaetostoma por tener una aleta dorsal conspicuamente bandeada, y por la combinació n de los siguientes caracteres: presencia de una excresencia carnosa en el extremo posterior del supraoccipital; generalmente nueve radios dorsales ramificados; y placas evertibles de la mejilla con dos a cuatro odontodes hipertrofiados.
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New Species of Chaetostoma (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Central Peru
NORMA J. SALCEDO
A new species of rubbernose armored catfish, collected by the Catherwood
Foundation Peruvian Amazon Expedition from the upper Huallaga River (650 m
elevation) in central Peru, is described herein. This new species differs from all other
described Chaetostoma species in having a conspicuously banded dorsal fin and by the
combination of the following characters: presence of fleshy excrescence on posterior
tip of supraoccipital, typically nine branched dorsal-fin rays, and evertible cheek plates
with two to four hypertrophied odontodes.
Una nueva especie de carachama nariz de goma colectada por la Catherwood
Foundation Peruvian Amazon Expedition, en el alto Rı´o Huallaga (650 m elevacio´n) en
Peru´ central es descrita. Esta nueva especie difiere de todas las otras especies descritas
de Chaetostoma por tener una aleta dorsal conspicuamente bandeada, y por la
combinacio´n de los siguientes caracteres: presencia de una excresencia carnosa en el
extremo posterior del supraoccipital; generalmente nueve radios dorsales ramificados;
y placas evertibles de la mejilla con dos a cuatro odontodes hipertrofiados.
WITH 42 valid species, the genus Chaetostoma
is one of the most diverse genera within
the family Loricariidae (Fisch-Muller, 2003).
These species inhabit fast flowing well oxygenat-
ed waters and are distributed along the Andes
through Panama, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecua-
dor, and Peru, as well as on the slopes of the
Guyana shield in Brazil and Venezuela. Chaeto-
stoma species inhabit distinct, patchily distributed
habitat, comparable in part with the distribution
of the highly diverse characid genus Creagrutus
(see Vari and Harold, 2001). Such a pattern
could signify a highly undetected species diversity
within the genus Chaetostoma, which would be
represented mainly by species of very restricted
distribution (Eigenmann and Allen, 1942).
The genus Chaetostoma was restricted and
diagnosed by Regan (1904) based on the shared
broad naked snout without tentacles on the
dorsal surface, wide mouth, short maxillary
barbels, and naked ventral surface of head and
abdomen. Armbruster (2004) diagnosed Chaeto-
stoma based on osteological characters and
expanded the sense of the genus so that it now
includes one species previously recognized in
Cordylancistrus in addition to the species recog-
nized by Regan. Within the genus, Schultz (1944)
and Ceas and Page (1996) suggested that the
presence of a fleshy excrescence (dermal keel)
on the posterior tip of the supraoccipital could
be used to separate two groups of species
described from Venezuelan material.
Chaetostoma species are difficult to identify due
to the overall external resemblance among them.
The identification process is particularly chal-
lenging when considering early descriptions of
Chaetostoma species, which provide little detail
and lack comparisons with other species (e.g.,
Steindachner, 1879; Regan, 1912). Recent de-
scriptions are more detailed, but they rely solely
on external features (Rapp Py-Daniel, 1991; Ceas
and Page, 1996; Lasso and Provenzano, 1998).
The search for characters for a preliminary
phylogenetic analysis of the genus Chaetostoma
(Salcedo, 2003) revealed discrete osteological
characteristics useful to differentiate among
similar Chaetostoma species. Furthermore, during
the identification of species for that study a new
Chaetostoma species from central Peru was discov-
ered from material collected by the Catherwood
Foundation Peruvian Amazon Expedition in
1955, deposited in the Academy of Natural
Sciences of Philadelphia. This new species is
herein described based on 15 specimens from
the upper Huallaga River.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Due to the restricted distribution of Chaeto-
stoma species, new species are usually compared
only with geographically proximate Chaetostoma
species (Ceas and Page, 1996; Lasso and Proven-
zano, 1998). For thoroughness in this paper,
comparisons to three species from Ecuador
(Chaetostoma breve,C. carrioni,andC. dermo-
rhynchum) and all nine Peruvian species recog-
nized by Fisch-Muller (2003) were included,
which correspond to all described Chaetostoma
species from southern tributaries of the Amazon
River. In instances when type material was not
available for study, topotypical series that exactly
matched the original description, illustrations,
Copeia, 2006(1), pp. 60–67
#2006 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists
and/or photographs of holotypes were examined
(see Material Examined). In the case of Chaeto-
stoma breve,C. carrioni,C. dermorhynchum, and C.
greeni Isbru¨cker, 2001 (replacement name for
Chaetostomus maculatus Regan, 1904, preoccupied
by Chaetostomus [Ancistrus]cirrhosus var. maculata
Steindachner, 1881) only the original description
and illustration were available, and they were
used for comparison.
Measurements of bilaterally symmetrical fea-
tures were made using dial calipers on the left
side of the body, unless the structure in question
was damaged. Measurements follow Boeseman
(1968), except as follows: the tip of the snout is
considered the external point of the anterior
border of the mesethmoid; the posterior limit of
the dorsal-fin base refers to the posterior surface
of the insertion point of the posteriormost
branched dorsal ray. Additional measurements
were: premaxilla length as the minimum length
of the lateral border of the tooth cup; dentary
length as the minimum length of its tooth cup
lateral border; body depth, taken at the origin of
the dorsal-fin base; the interbranchial width, the
minimum ventral distance between the branchial
openings. Body measurements are reported as
percents of standard length (SL) or head length
(HL).
Counts were made on the left side of the body,
with the exception of teeth and hypertrophied
odontodes on evertible cheek plates, which were
counted on both sides. Tooth counts include
only the row with fully developed teeth: anterior
row on the premaxilla and posterior row on the
dentary. Lateral-line plates exclude the elongat-
ed plate at the anterior margin of the caudal fin.
Predorsal plates were counted from the posterior
margin of the supraoccipital to the anterior
margin of the nuchal plate. Dorsal-fin base plates
were counted from, but do not include, the plate
in contact with the insertion of the dorsal-fin
spine, to, and including, the plate in contact with
the insertion of the posteriormost dorsal-fin ray.
The dorsal-adipose plates were counted from,
but do not include, the plate in contact with the
last dorsal-fin ray insertion to, and include, the
pre-adipose plate. The adipose-caudal plates were
counted from the posterior border of the pre-
adipose plate to the anterior margin of the
caudal-fin base, but do not include the plate at
the anterior margin of the caudal fin. The anal-
caudal plates were counted from the posterior
border of the anal fin to the anterior border of
the caudal-fin base. Vertebral counts consider
the Weberian apparatus as five vertebrae and the
hypural plate as one.
Osteological observations were made on
cleared-and-stained specimens (CS), following
Taylor and Van Dyke (1985). Osteological and
muscular nomenclature follow Schaefer (1987,
1997). Infraorbital nomenclature follows
Armbruster (2004). Sexual maturity of males
was determined based on the presence of
external secondary sexual characteristics, as de-
scribed by Rapp Py-Daniel (1991). Drawings were
prepared with the aid of a camera lucida
mounted on a Wild M5 dissecting microscope.
The material examined is presented in the
following sequence: institutional acronym and
catalog number, number of specimens in the lot,
specimen size, number of cleared and stained
specimens and their size, locality description
(geographic coordinates followed by elevation
when available), collectors, and date collected.
Institutional abbreviations are as listed in Leviton
et al. (1985) with the addition of Museo de
Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de
San Marcos (MUSM). Geographic coordinates
and elevation follow Stephens and Traylor
(1983).
Chaetostoma changae, new species
Figure 1, Tables 1, 2
Holotype.—ANSP 179125, 63.7 mm SL, male,
Peru, Departamento de Hua´nuco, vicinity of
Tingo Marı´a, back-water near Puerto Nuevo,
flowing into Rı´o Tullamayo, 09u189S, 75u599W,
649 m, 27 Sept. 1955, Catherwood Foundation
Peruvian Amazon Expedition.
Paratypes.—ANSP 138891, 1, 50.3 mm SL, Peru,
Departamento de Hua´ nuco, vicinity of Tingo
Marı´a, back-water near Puerto Nuevo, flowing
into Rı´o Tullamayo, 09u189S, 75u599W, 649 m,
27 Sept. 1955, Catherwood Foundation Peruvian
Amazon Expedition; ANSP 138950, 13, 33.4–
76.1 mm, 1 CS, 50.7 mm SL, collected with the
holotype; MUSM 14904, 2, 62.5–64.2 mm SL,
Peru, Departamento de Hua´ nuco, Tingo Marı´a,
´o Huallaga, 09u189S, 75u599W, 649 m, 11 July
1998, F. Chang and M. Vela´ squez.
Non-type material.—MUSM 4724, 1, 26.0 mm SL,
Peru, Departamento de Hua´ nuco, Tingo Marı´a,
´o Huallaga, 09u189S, 75u599W, 649 m, 11 July
1998, F. Chang and M. Vela´ squez; MUSM 6882, 1
CS, 45.9 mm, Peru, Departmento de Hua´nuco,
´o Huallaga.
Diagnosis.—Chaetostoma changae is distinguished
from all other Chaetostoma species by the con-
spicuously banded dorsal fin. Chaetostoma changae
can be further distinguished from other Chaeto-
stoma species by the combination of the following
SALCEDO—NEW CHAETOSTOMA FROM CENTRAL PERU 61
characters: presence of fleshy excrescence on
posterior tip of supraoccipital; typically nine
branched dorsal-fin rays (rarely eight or ten);
and evertible cheek plates with two to four
hypertrophied odontodes. Chaetostoma changae
differs from species described from the same
drainage as follows: C. breve has 5–8 hypertro-
phied odontodes on evertible cheek plates (vs. 2–
4inC. changae); C. carrioni does not have adipose
and anal fins (vs. presence); C. dermorhynchum has
4–5 hypertrophied odontodes on evertible cheek
plates (vs. 2–4) and five ramified anal-fin rays (vs.
Fig. 1. Chaetostoma changae, holotype, ANSP 179125, 63.67 mm SL, male.
62 COPEIA, 2006, NO. 1
3–4); C. branickii,C. lineopunctatum,C. lobo-
rhynchos,C. marcapatae,C. marmorescens,C. mollina-
sum,C. sericeum, and C. taczanowskii have six
infraorbital plates (vs. seven) and first anal-fin ray
with two or more rows of odontodes along its
anterior border (vs. first anal-fin ray without
odontodes); C. greeni,C. marcapatae and C.
sericeum have a wide interorbital width: 37.0–
48.0%HL (vs. 28.3–32.4%HL) and numerous
hypertrophied odontodes on evertible cheek
plates: 7–12 (vs. 2–4); C. branickii has a reduced
triangular sphenotic (vs. square); C. lineopuncta-
tum has dark spots on body (vs. uniformly
pigmented); C. loborhynchos,C. marmorescens,C.
mollinasum, and C. taczanowskii exhibit rounded
papillae on the naked snout (vs. irregularly
shaped papillae) and straight hypertrophied
odontodes on evertible cheek plates (vs.
hooked); C. loborhynchos,C. marmorescens,C.
mollinasum, and C. taczanowskii lack the longitu-
dinal fleshy excrescence on the posterior tip of
the supraoccipital, a fleshy projection on the
middle third on the anterior soft border of
dentary, and contact between sixth infraorbital
and suprapreopercle.
Description.—Head and body depressed but deep-
er than caudal peduncle. Head profile convex
from posterior border of snout to posterior
border of supraoccipital. Trunk profile slightly
convex from posterior border of supraoccipital
to anterior border of dorsal fin, straight along
base of dorsal fin with a shallow slope descending
towards caudal peduncle, and slightly concave
towards anterior border of caudal fin. Caudal
peduncle triangular in cross-section, with apex
dorsally. Dense fat pads in fleshy naked snout,
ventrally along sides of abdomen, especially
between pectoral-fin and pelvic-fin origins,
around dorsal-fin and anal-fin bases and in
longitudinal rows along dorsal border of proxi-
mal half of pectoral-fin and pelvic-fin rays. Body
dorsally and laterally covered by plates with
odontodes larger at posterior plate margin. Body
naked ventrally from tip of snout to origin of anal
fin. Caudal peduncle with a row of coalescent
plates ventrally along mid-line, posterior to anal-
fin base.
Morphometrics in Table 1. Head and body
broad, greatest body width at cleithrum. Head as
long as wide. Anterior border of snout rounded,
TABLE 1. MORPHOMETRIC DATA OF Chaetostoma changae,NEW SPECIES,BASED ON THE HOLOTYPE AND 16 PARATYPES.
Holotype Range Mean Standard deviation
Standard length (mm) 63.7 33.4–76.1 49.6
Percents of standard length
Head length 34.1 33.1–37.0 35.2 1.0
Head depth 16.1 16.1–20.2 18.3 1.0
Body depth 16.5 15.8–21.6 18.3 1.5
Cleithral width 36.8 34.0–38.6 36.4 1.0
Interbranchial width 28.9 26.2–29.4 27.8 1.0
Pre-dorsal length 45.3 45.2–47.9 46.8 0.8
Base of dorsal-fin length 27.2 23.8–28.7 26.3 1.3
Dorsal-adipose length 15.4 13.9–18.6 16.1 1.3
Pectoral-pelvic length 21.3 20.3–24.3 22.0 1.1
Pectoral spine length 30.7 26.9–33.5 29.9 1.8
First pelvic-fin ray length 29.5 24.6–32.6 27.2 2.6
Second pelvic-fin ray
length
25.9 23.5–27.1 25.2 1.0
Pelvic-anal length 25.8 24.0–27.2 25.6 1.0
First anal-fin ray length 11.5 7.0–11.5 9.5 1.3
Second anal-fin ray
length
19.8 9.7–19.9 14.4 3.6
Caudal peduncle length 24.7 23.8–27.1 25.2 1.0
Caudal peduncle depth 11.6 11.1–12.1 11.6 0.3
Percents of head length
Snout length 62.1 59.0–66.5 62.2 1.8
Internaris width 7.1 6.9–8.9 8.0 0.7
Interorbit width 28.3 28.3–32.4 30.5 1.3
Orbit diameter 14.9 14.7–17.8 16.2 1.0
Premaxilla length 24.2 24.2–27.0 25.3 0.8
Dentary length 26.2 26.2–31.7 28.5 1.3
SALCEDO—NEW CHAETOSTOMA FROM CENTRAL PERU 63
snout naked, covered with irregularly shaped
papillae. Head with medial ridge from posterior
border of naked snout to anterior border of nare
openings. Wide ridges rise slightly from lateral
border of nare openings to anterior border of
eyes. Posterior tip of supraoccipital with conspic-
uous, longitudinally oriented, fleshy excrescence.
Hypertrophied odontodes on evertible cheek-
plates embedded in soft connective tissue over-
laying thick fleshy flap. Small opercular opening
covered by fleshy flap, bordered posteriorly by
exposed cleithrum.
Oral disk densely covered by blister-shaped
papillae but are absent close to border of
posterior lip. Posterior lip border with irregular
lobes along its edge. Maxillary barbels conspicu-
ous, almost reaching posterior border of lip.
Several small digitiform papillae on middle of
posterior soft border of each premaxilla. Roof of
mouth between premaxillae with fleshy digiti-
form to triangular papilla. Wide fleshy papilla on
middle third of anterior soft border of each
dentary; digitiform projections arising from this
papilla and/or laterally next to it. Teeth ar-
ranged in two rows in premaxillary and dentary
bones, more numerous in dentary (Table 2).
Teeth slender, asymmetrically bifid, cusp tips
sharp. Medial tooth cusp twice as long as lateral
tooth cusp. Lateral tooth cusp juxtaposed over
medial cusp from bifurcation to almost its full
length.
Dorsal fin reaches pre-adipose plate when
depressed. Dorsal fin typically with nine
branched rays, rarely eight (one specimen) or
ten (two specimens; Table 2). Adipose fin
conspicuous, slender adipose spine dorsally
rounded and compressed ventrally. Anal fin
conspicuous, always present. Anal fin typically
with six rays, rarely five (two specimens). First
anal-fin ray without odontodes. Caudal fin
obliquely truncated, lowerrayslongerthan
upper rays. Pectoral spine reaches origin of
pelvic fin when depressed. Pectoral spine strong,
with enlarged dorsally oriented odontodes on
medial border and enlarged odontodes distally;
first distal branched pectoral-fin ray of larger
specimens also with enlarged odontodes dorsally
on its medial third. First simple pelvic-fin ray
thick.
Anteriormost infraorbital (IO0) simple tube
with very little laminar expansions and embed-
ded in fleshy snout (Fig. 2). First (IO1) and
second (IO2) infraorbitals small, with lateral
laminar projections. Third infraorbital (IO3)
forms lateral border of nasal opening. Fourth
(IO4) to sixth (IO6) infraorbitals form antero-
lateral border of orbit. Nasal plates greatly
reduced to a long tube with little laminar
projections. Frontal large and elongated forming
posterior border of nares and medial border of
orbit. Sphenotic approximately square, project-
ing laterally, reaching sixth infraorbital and
forming posterior border of orbit. Suprapreo-
percle has wide lateral projections, making it
a square canal-bearing plate, and dorsally con-
tacts sixth infraorbital. Lateral line extends from
posterior border of suprapreopercle to base of
caudal fin. Laminar extensions of first and
second median plate reduced to half size of
third median plate.
Evertible cheek plates formed by three thick
plates with one or two thick hypertrophied
odontodes each. Hypertrophied odontodes with
distal tips hooked anteriorly. Exposed part of
opercle triangular, its free border with straight,
slightly thickened odontodes.
TABLE 2. MERISTIC DATA OF Chaetostoma changae,NEW SPECIES,BASED ON THE HOLOTYPE AND 16 PARATYPES.
Holotype Range of paratypes Mode
Lateral-line plates 24 23–25 24
Premaxillary teeth 55 38–57 42
Dentary teeth 64 50–73 61
Dorsal fin I +i+9I+i+8–10 I +i+9
Pectoral fin I +6I+6I+6
Pelvic fin i +5i+5i+5
Anal fin ii +4 i–ii +3–4 ii +4
Caudal fin i +14 +ii+14 +ii+14 +i
Dorsal-fin base plates 8 8–9 8
Inter-dorsal plates 6 5–6 6
Plates between adipose and
caudal fins
6 5–6 6
Plates between anal and
caudal fins
9 8–10 9
Hypertrophied odontodes
on evertible cheek plates
3 2–4 3
64 COPEIA, 2006, NO. 1
Vertebrae, twenty eight. Nine pairs of ribs, first
pair thick and articulating with sixth centrum,
ribs two through nine articulating with eighth to
15th centra. Epural separated from fused hypur-
als (hypurals 3–5 +uroneural) and reduced to
small bladelike bone articulating dorsally with
base of posteriormost procurrent ray.
Nuchal plate completely covered by bony
plates. First dorsal-fin spinelet completely cov-
ered by skin. Dorsal fin supported by ten
pterygiophores with first pterygiophore articulat-
ing with neural spine of seventh vertebrae. Anal
fin supported by five pterygiophores with first
pterygiophore contacting hemal spine of 15th
vertebrae. Posterior process of cleithrum partially
exposed; exposed part of cleithrum more or less
rectangular, vertically elongated and posterodor-
sally oriented.
Coloration in alcohol.—Head and body brown.
Longitudinal dark stripe along median lateral
plate series. Light vermiculated spots present on
dorsal and mid-dorsal plate rows. Dark line on
posterior border of pterotic-supracleithrum.
Fleshy excrescence on posterior tip of supraocci-
pital black in most individuals, but varying from
dark to light brown in others. Black spot present
on base of membrane between first unbranched
and first branched dorsal-fin ray; six or more
short yellow rectangular blotches spaced along
length of ramified rays that macroscopically give
the entire fin the appearance of having six to
eight yellow bands; largest specimens with inter-
radial membranes marked with yellow dots on
dark brown background, giving the same overall
yellow banded appearance of dorsal fin observed
on smaller individuals. Anal fin uniformly pale
brown in most specimens or banded in mature
males or other large specimens, as the anal fin
becomes proportionally larger. Caudal fin with
brown ground color and with up to seven (absent
in some specimens) yellow bands on dorsalmost
rays; distal edges of rays yellow, but yellow is most
prominent on dorsal- and ventralmost rays.
Pectoral-fin rays brown dorsally, pectoral-fin
spine delineated by dark brown pigment along
medial border, membranes hyaline. Pectoral fin
yellowish ventrally. Pelvic-fin rays brown dorsally,
membranes hyaline. Pelvic fin yellowish ventrally.
Ventral plates of caudal peduncle pale brown in
smaller specimens (SL #52.4 mm), but with
dark brown dots in large specimens (SL $
67.9 mm).
Sexual dimorphism.—Mature males have first
pelvic-fin ray elongated, with a well developed
fleshy fold along its dorsomedial edge. Tuft of
well-developed odontodes present on dorsal
margin of the most medial section of the first,
second and third branched pelvic-fin rays.
Females lack development of fleshy fold or
enlarged odontodes on dorsal surface of pelvic
fin. Second anal-fin ray of males is elongate
relative to condition in female and immature
specimens. There is no apparent difference
in urogenital papillae of mature males and
females.
Distribution.—Chaetostoma changae is only known
from the upper Rı´o Huallaga basin at Tingo
Marı´a (650 m), Department of Hua´ nuco, Peru
(Fig. 3).
Etymology.—This species is named in honor of
Fonchii Chang (1963–1999), for her outstanding
contributions to the study of Peruvian fish fauna
and her effort mentoring Peruvian students in
the Departmento de Ictiologı´a of the Museo de
Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de
San Marcos (MUSM) in Lima, Peru.
MATERIAL EXAMINED
Chaetostoma branickii. Peru: MUSM 1906, 7, 1
CS, Cajamarca, km. 74 towards Jae´n, Rı´o Cha-
maya; MUSM 5145, 3, 1 CS, Cajamarca, 74 km
from Jae´ n, between Pucara´ and Guabel and
tributary of Rı´o Huancabamba; MUSM 12576,
3, 1 CS, Cajamarca, Rı´o Chotano. C. lineopuncta-
Fig. 2. Infraorbital series, left side of Chaetostoma
changae, paratype, ANSP 138950, 50.7 mm SL. F 5
frontal, IO0–IO6 5infraorbitals, SP 5sphenotic,
SPO 5suprapreopercle, nr 5nostril, or 5orbit.
Dorsal view, anterior top. Scale 51 mm.
SALCEDO—NEW CHAETOSTOMA FROM CENTRAL PERU 65
tum. Peru: CAS 64650, 1, holotype, Rı´o Azupizu´;
CAS 64651, 1, paratype, Rı´o Azupizu´ ; MUSM
1714, 1, Oxapampa, Iscozacı´n, Rı´o Iscozacı´n,
Quebrada Atamaro; MUSM 1977, 21, 1 CS,
Hua´ nuco, Pachitea, Panguana; MUSM 9132, 30,
2 CS, Hua´ nuco, Pachitea, Panguana, Rı´o Llulla-
pichis; MUSM 10621, 8, 1 CS, Hua´ nuco, Pachi-
tea, Rı´o Llullapichis, 2 km from mouth; MUSM
11577, 2, Junı´n, Chanchamayo, La Merced, small
stream between La Merced and Villa Rica. C.
loborhynchos. Peru: NMW 47190, 1, syntype, Junı´n,
´o Tulumayo in Vitoc Mountain; MUSM 20288,
1, Junı´n, Rı´o Tulumayo, downstream Chimay
dam; MUSM 20291, 5, 1 CS, Junı´n, Jauja,
Pacaybamba, Rı´o Tulumayo. C. marcapatae. Peru:
MUSM 10087, 1, Puno, Carabaya, San Gaba´n, Rı´o
Inambari, Rı´o Chaquimayo; MUSM 11452, 1 CS,
Puno, Carabaya, Rı´o Inambari, Cuesta Blanca. C.
marmorescens. Peru: ANSP 138975, 12, 3 CS,
Hua´nuco, vicinity Tingo Marı´a, Rı´o Rondos
(tributary of Rı´o Monzo´ n) just above new bridge
site; CAS 45783, 51, Hua´nuco Dept., Huanca-
chupa Creek, near Hua´ nuco and Huallaga; CAS
64526, 3, Huancashiysa Creek near Hua´ nuco;
CAS 77111, 3, Huancachupa Creek, near Hua´-
nuco; CAS 77112, 6, Rı´o Tingo, Hua´ nuco near
Huallaga; CAS 77113, 15, Hua´ nuco Department,
Huancachupa Creek, near Hua´nuco and Hual-
laga, elev. 6000 ft.; MUSM 729, 3, Hua´nuco,
Leoncio Prado, Tingo Marı´a, Rı´o Huallaga;
MUSM 2961, 4, 1 CS, Hua´ nuco, Rı´o Huallaga,
20 km Northeast of Hua´ nuco, Puente Taruca;
MUSM 13251, 3, 1 CS, Hua´nuco, Rı´o Huallaga,
Churubamba. C. mollinasum. Peru: CAS 64653, 8,
syntypes, Amazonas, Balsas Rı´o Maran˜o´n; MUSM
5148, 21, 2 CS, Cajamarca, 74 km North of
Jae´ n, between Pucara´ and Guabel, Trib. Rı´o
Huancabamba; MUSM 5187, 2, Cajamarca,
Jae´n, San Ignacio, Quebrada Jae´n; MUSM
10613, 1, Amazonas, Bagua, Rı´o Utcubamba,
Quebrada Lluhuana. C. sericeum. Peru: ANSP
22005, 1, lectotype, Loreto, Rı´o Ambiyacu;
MUSM 10726, 1, 1 CS, Loreto, Maynas,
´o Amazonas, Sta. Elena, Qda. Falco´n, afl.
Yanayacu; MUSM 10784, 6, 1 CS, Loreto, Rı´o
Amazonas, Sta. Elena; MUSM 10824, 3, Loreto,
´o Amazonas, Sta. Elena, Qda. Bombonaje,
afte. Yanayacu; MUSM 12566, 1, Loreto, Maynas,
´o Amazonas, Iquitos. C. taczanowskii. Peru:
MUSM 5186, 1 CS, San Martı´n, Rodriguez de
Mendoza, Rı´o Huallabamba; MUSM 5191, 2,
San Martı´n, Rodriguez de Mendoza, Rı´o Hualla-
bamba.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
For access to facilities, hospitality, and help
while visiting collections under their care and/or
the loan of specimens, I am indebted to D.
Catania, W. Eschmeyer, C. Ferraris, Jr., M.
Hoang, T. Iwamoto, J. Lundberg, M. Sabaj, and
S. Pringle. My visit to CAS was supported by the
Lakeside Foundation. Thanks to H. Ortega and
V. Pacheco who made available the facilities of
their laboratories. For the support and facilities
at the Natural Sciences Research Lab of Texas
Tech University, I thank R. Baker, C. Jones, and
R. Strauss. For photographs of a Chaetostoma
loborhynchos type, my thanks to H. Wellendorf. I
also thank S. Diamond, J. Dunnum, R. Fonseca,
A. Harold, J. Lundberg, H. Mantilla, J. Salazar-
Bravo, S. Solari, L. Torres, and R. Vari, for their
comments and suggestions on the manuscript.
And last, but not least, my eternal gratitude to my
mentor Fonchii Chang, for her patient guidance,
encouragement, and example of hard work
during my first years in this fascinating field.
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taczanowskii; (5) C. changae; (6) C. marmorescens; (7)
C. lineopunctatum; (8) C. loborhynchos; (9) C. marca-
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DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES,TEXAS TECH
UNIVERSITY,LUBBOCK,TEXAS 79409-3131 . E-
mail: norma.salcedo@ttu.edu. Submitted: 23
Sept. 2003. Accepted: 29 Aug. 2005. Section
editor: J. W. Armbruster.
SALCEDO—NEW CHAETOSTOMA FROM CENTRAL PERU 67
... Inside the Chaetostoma group, this character is reported also for species of Dolichancistrus (Ballen & Vari, 2012). Species included in Transancistrus have a naked snout border, and species of Chaetostoma have a larger naked surface, mainly towards the dorsoanterior region of snout, in all species of these two genera there is no mention or report of the presence of any kind of odontodes, on naked areas of snout (Rapp Py-Daniel, 1991;Ceas & Page, 1996;Lasso & Provenzano, 1997;Salcedo, 2003Salcedo, , 2006aSalcedo, ,b, 2013Ballen, 2011;Tan & Armbruster, 2012;Salcedo & Ortega, 2015;Lujan, et al. 2015c;Ballen, et al. 2016). Species of Andeancistrus have a snout totally covered with plates, but lack enlarged odontodes, and A. platycephalus has keels on lateral body plates (Lujan, et al. 2015a). ...
... It may be that these patterns are not found in species that inhabit Colombia, or that our spiny pattern, subpattern C correspond to those types. Apparently, claw and spiny B patterns are the more common ones among the species of Chaetostoma (Rapp Py- Daniel, 1991;Ceas & Page, 1996;Lasso & Provenzano, 1997;Salcedo, 2003Salcedo, , 2006aSalcedo, ,b, 2013Ballen, 2011;Lujan, et al., 2015c;Ballen, et al., 2016). ...
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... Inside the Chaetostoma group, this character is reported also for species of Dolichancistrus (Ballen & Vari, 2012). Species included in Transancistrus have a naked snout border, and species of Chaetostoma have a larger naked surface, mainly towards the dorsoanterior region of snout, in all species of these two genera there is no mention or report of the presence of any kind of odontodes, on naked areas of snout (Rapp Py-Daniel, 1991;Ceas & Page, 1996;Lasso & Provenzano, 1997;Salcedo, 2003Salcedo, , 2006aSalcedo, ,b, 2013Ballen, 2011;Tan & Armbruster, 2012;Salcedo & Ortega, 2015;Lujan, et al. 2015c;Ballen, et al. 2016). Species of Andeancistrus have a snout totally covered with plates, but lack enlarged odontodes, and A. platycephalus has keels on lateral body plates (Lujan, et al. 2015a). ...
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CONTENTS Introduction................... 3 The generic name................. 4 The type species of Hypostomus Lacépède.......... 6 The identity of Acipenser plecostomus Linnaeus........ 9 The distribution and habitats of the Surinam species........ 12 The relationship of the Surinam species............ 17 Some physiographical data on Surinam waters.......... 21 Collecting localities................. 25 Collecting and collections................ 26 Measurements and methods............... 26 Miscellaneous remarks................ 28 The Surinam species................. 29 Key to the Surinam species............... 30 Descriptions of the Surinam species etc............. 31 Acknowledgements................. 72 Summary ................... 73 References................... 73 Addendum................... 77 Diagrams................... 80 INTRODUCTION The imminent realization of the so-called "Brokopondo Project", first put forward in 1950, and involving the establishment of a barrage and hydroelectric plant in the Surinam River at Afobaka, eventually induced members of the Stichting Natuurwetenschappelijke Studiekring voor Suriname en de
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A phylogenetic analysis of nearly all genera of the Hypostominae and the Ancistrinae is provided based on osteology, external anatomy, and digestive tract anatomy. The results suggest that the Hypostominae is a paraphyletic assemblage. Delturus and Upsilodus form a monophyletic group sister to all other loricariids. Hemipsilichthys, Isbrueckerichthys, Kronichthys, and Pareiorhina form a monophyletic group with Neoplecostomus and the Hypoptopomatinae and are transferred to the Neoplecostominae. The remainder of the Hypostominae is made paraphyletic by the continuing recognition of the Ancistrinae. Ancistrinae is returned to the Hypostominae and recognized as a tribe, Ancistrini. In addition, four new tribes (Corymbophanini, Hypostomini, Pterygoplichthini, and Rhinelepini) are described. Hypostomus is also paraphyletic, the bulk of it forming a monophyletic clade with Aphanotorulus, Cochliodon, and Isorineloricaria. All of the potential monophyletic groups within Hypostomus grade into one another; therefore, Aphanotorulus, Cochliodon, and Isorineloricaria are placed in the synonymy of Hypostomus. Pterygoplichthys and Glyptoperichthys are also polyphyletic, and Liposarcus and Glyptoperichthys are recognized as synonyms of Pterygoplichthys. Sister to Pterygoplichthys is the Hemiancistrus annectens group (including Hypostomus panamensis) which represents an undescribed genus. The phylogeny presented is compared with previous hypotheses. © 2004 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2004, 141, 1−80.