A new effective scaffold to facilitate peripheral nerve regeneration: Chitosan tube coated with maggot homogenate product
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011, Liaoning Province, China. Medical Hypotheses
(Impact Factor: 1.07).
09/2009; 74(1):12-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2009.07.053
Recent efforts in scientific research in the field of peripheral nerve regeneration have been directed towards the development of artificial nerve guides. Chitosan tubes applied as a biocompatible and biodegradable bilateral guide for nerve repair is a hot spot in research to date. In previous study, we have found the homogenate product from disinfected maggot larvae can promote wound nerve regeneration and neuropeptides release. Wound nerves belong to the peripheral nerve system. We thus hypothesize that maggot homogenate product use as an external layer outside the chitosan tube will be an effective therapy to facilitate peripheral nerve regeneration.
Available from: Ronald Sherman
- "Using remittance spectroscopy to evaluate patients before and after maggot therapy, Wollina and colleagues  found that vascular perfusion and tissue oxygenation surrounding the wound actually increased following maggot therapy. Zhang and colleagues  are currently seeing evidence that maggot extracts may even stimulate the growth of neural tissue. Early clinical reports of maggot-induced wound healing were merely case studies or series; but beginning in the 1990's, controlled comparative trials of maggot therapy began to appear. "
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ABSTRACT: MEDICINAL MAGGOTS ARE BELIEVED TO HAVE THREE MAJOR MECHANISMS OF ACTION ON WOUNDS, BROUGHT ABOUT CHEMICALLY AND THROUGH PHYSICAL CONTACT: debridement (cleaning of debris), disinfection, and hastened wound healing. Until recently, most of the evidence for these claims was anecdotal; but the past 25 years have seen an increase in the use and study of maggot therapy. Controlled clinical studies are now available, along with laboratory investigations that examine the interaction of maggot and host on a cellular and molecular level. This review was undertaken to extract the salient data, make sense, where possible, of seemingly conflicting evidence, and reexamine our paradigm for maggot-induced wound healing. Clinical and laboratory data strongly support claims of effective and efficient debridement. Clinical evidence for hastened wound healing is meager, but laboratory studies and some small, replicated clinical studies strongly suggest that maggots do promote tissue growth and wound healing, though it is likely only during and shortly after the period when they are present on the wound. The best way to evaluate-and indeed realize-maggot-induced wound healing may be to use medicinal maggots as a "maintenance debridement" modality, applying them beyond the point of gross debridement.
Available from: Hale Ciğdem Arca
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ABSTRACT: A general introduction to tissue engineering and chitosan as well as its applications in hard tissues has been given in the first part of this review which is previously published in this journal. In this second part, applications of chitosan based systems for the soft tissue engineering will be reviewed. Due to the its properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, bioadhesivity as well as its bioactive properties wound healing effect, homeostasis, and antimicrobial activity, chitosan it is a promising scaffold material for tissue engineering. After a brief introduction to tissue engineering in soft tissues such as skin, adipose, cornea, liver, nerve and blood vessel, the application of chitosan for regeneration of these tissues will be discussed in regard to formulation of scaffolds. The strategies to improve their efficacy will also be mentioned. INTRODUCTION Tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field that applies the principles of engineering and life sciences in order to fabricate living replacement parts for the body (1). The most common approach for tissue engineering is utilization of scaffolds which are artificial structures capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation and cellular differentiation.
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ABSTRACT: Chitosan was initially discovered in the mid-18th century, but remained little-knownuntil preliminary clarification of its crystalline structure in 1934 and further pioneeringstudies by Muzzarelli and Hirano aroused further interest. Discovered in molds, andcommercially produced from crustacean shells, chitosan is now used in diverseapplications. Due to the seasonal lulls in fishery industries and the still-growing demandfor high quality chitosan, sources like mushrooms and other fungi are being re-evaluated.However, the crab shells currently used to make chitosan are waste materials of thefishery industry. Hence, chitosan production from fungi can only be economicallycompetitive if waste mycelia from the industrial use of fungi as bio-catalysts in "whitebiotechnology" , or waste carbon sources, e.g. from food processing industries, are usedas substrates for cultivating high chitosan-yielding fungi. Many fungi are known toproduce sufficiently high amounts of chitosan for commercial production, and manytreatments can reportedly enhance chitosan yields without applying metabolic or geneticengineering techniques. However, although there many potential sources, applications,and manufacturers, of chitosan-and many chemical and physical techniques have beenestablished for its characterization and quality control-it is still very difficult to obtainchitosan that is fully standardized with respect to molecular weight and degree ofdeacetylation, especially for pharmaceutical research.Despite this problem, the chitosan research "community" is still growing,accompanied by exponential growth in the annual number of publications on chitosan.Further, chitosan was initially almost entirely used in macro-scale applications, but inrecent decades many micro-and nano-scale applications of chitosan in the form of nano-particles and composite materials have emerged, and current foci are largely on suchsmall-scale uses.This chapter considers: the economic values of chitosan itself and the raw materialsthat are potentially available for chitosan production (apart from the fishery industry);sources of substrates and potential chitosan-producing fungi; cultivation techniques thatcan be used to increase chitosan production; extraction methods; and laboratory protocolsthat can be used to determine the quality of the extracted chitosan. In addition, currentand future applications are summarised and some results from the authors' studies arepresented on chitosan adsorption of copper and 17ß estradiol, and the application ofchitosan-containing substrates for biomimetic coatings in tissue engineering.
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