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Antibacterial Properties of Hemp Hurd Powder Against E. coli

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Abstract

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is an eco-friendly and multifunctional plant. Hemp hurd is a by-product of hemp plant during hemp fiber separation. Although hemp hurd is repeatedly announced owing antibacterial activity, it has never been systematically investigated and reported. In this study, the antibacterial activity of hemp hurd powder against Escherichia coli is investigated. This article reveals antibacterial activity of hemp hurd where hemp hurd powder inhibits the growth of E. coli. Meanwhile, the self-contamination (forming during retting process) inside hemp hurd has dramatic impact on the antibacterial performance. To achieve better antibacterial activity, hemp hurd was heat treated to eliminate self-contaminations. The impact of the particle sizes and heat treatment on the antibacterial effectiveness was evaluated. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2015, 132, 41588.

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... Exposing the more extractives on surface should increase the antimicrobial activity of LNFC films. Also, since only Khan et al. (2015) confirmed the antimicrobial activity of hemp hurd powder without extraction, hemp hurds extractives were also extracted from hemp hurd powder and tested for their antimicrobial activity . Figure 2 schematically depicts the steps taken in the process of using hemp hurds for testing its potential for antimicrobial activity. ...
... Each test sample was prepared in triplicates for antimicrobial testing. The antimicrobial activity of extractives from hemp-P, hemp-A, hemp-C, hemp-UK and hemp-BK extractives was also confirmed using the ASTM E2149 method, which is the same as that discussed by Khan et al. (2015) (National Cheng Kung University 2010; Khan et al. 2015). For comparison, CBD oil was used as a positive control for antimicrobial testing. ...
... Each test sample was prepared in triplicates for antimicrobial testing. The antimicrobial activity of extractives from hemp-P, hemp-A, hemp-C, hemp-UK and hemp-BK extractives was also confirmed using the ASTM E2149 method, which is the same as that discussed by Khan et al. (2015) (National Cheng Kung University 2010; Khan et al. 2015). For comparison, CBD oil was used as a positive control for antimicrobial testing. ...
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Antimicrobial activity is one of the most well-studied properties of hemp, with numerous contradictions and anecdotal information. However, most of the studies on antimicrobial activity of hemp have been focused on extractives, obtained by use of polar or nonpolar solvents such as petroleum ether, acetone, methanol, and ethanol, etc. This work compared the antimicrobial activity of unprocessed hemp hurds powder, processed hemp hurds-lignin containing nano-fibrillated cellulose (LNFC), and their ethanol extractives. The hemp hurd shives were pulped (defibrillated) to obtain fibers by employing a hydrothermal, carbonate and kraft pulping process. The obtained cellulose fibers were further processed into LNFC using intensive mechanical processing. LNFC films were prepared using a solvent casting method. The extractives of hemp hurd powder and differently treated pulps were obtained using ethanol and benzene. The obtained extractives were used to treat selected sterilized paper discs and hydrothermal pulped LNFC films. Extractives from the hemp hurds were characterized for the presence of antimicrobial active compounds using GC–MS. The LNFC films and extractives-treated paper substrate were tested against E. coli for their antimicrobial activity. The extractives-treated paper showed a significant reduction in bacterial growth and resulted in a zone of bacterial inhibition up to 1.85 mm in disk diffusion assays. The antimicrobial activity of extractives was confirmed by doing a colony-forming assay, which showed a bacterial inhibition by 98% colony forming units (CFU). However, no significant antimicrobial activity of unprocessed hemp hurd powder or LNFC films was observed. On the contrary, treating LNFC films with obtained extractives led to a reduction of CFU by 99.7%. These results of using hemp extractives and LNFC as antimicrobial coatings creates great potential for valorizing the industrial hemp residues for sustainable antimicrobial applications. Graphical Abstract
... Beyond the applications in the construction and automotive industries, hemp fibers are attractive also in the light of their natural antibacterial property. Hemp bast fibers have been indeed described as antibacterial (Hao et al., 2014;Khan et al., 2015) and their use for the manufacture of an antibacterial finishing agent (Bao et al., 2014), surgical devices (Gu, 2006) or functionalized textiles (Cassano et al., 2013) has been reported. This property is linked to the chemical composition of hemp bast fibers: both free and esterified sterols and triterpenes have been identified, among which β-sitosterol and β-amyrin (Gutiérrez and del Río, 2005). ...
... Hemp bast fibers were also found to contain cannabinoids (2% of the total metabolite extract) (Bouloc et al., 2013 and references therein). More recently hemp hurd powder showed antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (Khan et al., 2015). Since the hurd has a higher lignin content than the bast fibers, its antibacterial property may be linked to lignin-related compounds such phenolic compounds, as well as alkaloids and cannabinoids (Appendino et al., 2008;Khan et al., 2015). ...
... More recently hemp hurd powder showed antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (Khan et al., 2015). Since the hurd has a higher lignin content than the bast fibers, its antibacterial property may be linked to lignin-related compounds such phenolic compounds, as well as alkaloids and cannabinoids (Appendino et al., 2008;Khan et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fibre since the dawn of times. This fast-growing plant has recently seen a resurgence of interest because of its multi-purpose applications: it is indeed a treasure trove of phytochemicals and a rich source of both cellulosic and woody fibres. Equally highly interested in this plant are the pharmaceutical and construction sectors, since its metabolites show potent bioactivities on human health and its outer and inner stem tissues can be used to make bioplastics and concrete-like material, respectively. In this review, the rich spectrum of hemp phytochemicals is discussed by putting a special emphasis on molecules of industrial interest, including cannabinoids, terpenoids and phenolic compounds, and their biosynthetic routes. Cannabinoids represent the most studied group of compounds, mainly due to their wide range of pharmaceutical effects in humans, including psychotropic activities. The therapeutic and commercial interests of some terpenoids and phenolic compounds, and in particular stilbenoids and lignans, are also highlighted in view of the most recent literature data. Biotechnological avenues to enhance the production and bioactivity of hemp secondary metabolites are proposed by discussing the power of plant genetic engineering and tissue culture. In particular two systems are reviewed, i.e. cell suspension and hairy root cultures. Additionally, an entire section is devoted to hemp trichomes, in the light of their importance as phytochemical factories. Ultimately, prospects on the benefits linked to the use of the -omics technologies, such as metabolomics and transcriptomics to speed up the identification and the large-scale production of lead agents from bioengineered Cannabis cell culture, are presented.
... There are new developments towards the discovery of new cannabinoids and among these 7 compounds are reported to have significant antifungal properties especiallyin the treatment of the Candida species [131]. ...
... CB1 receptors-mostly expressed through the central nervous system-can profoundly impact the capability of a virus to infect neuronal cells [134]. Cannabinoids can alter the release of Ca 2+ ions from intracellular or intercellular stores (which is necessary for many proteins' activation), thus hampering the activities of many viruses [131]. CB2 can also alter the mode of viral infection indirectly by altering immune responses of the host. ...
... The most common mechanism for altering host response to viral infection is inflammation. It is decided by the type of virus whether CB2 activity is useful or harmful for a virus; viruses which are favored by inflammation will be favored by the activity of CB2 and vice versa [131]. Studies shows that cannabinoids are a double-edged sword for viruses' pathogenesis; in some cases in can decrease the course of viral infection by inflammation for example in the case of TMEV [135], BDV [136], Influenza and SIVE [137]. ...
Article
Cannabis sativa is a well-known plant which has been of benefit since ancient times in several medicinal systems, including Chinese, Indian, Greek and Egyptian ones. Although C. sativa is one of the most investigated medicinal plants in the world, it faces the most controversial of issues for its legalization as a medication. C. sativa contains several hundreds of phytoconstituents including the infamous «cannabinoid." It is necessary to properly understand the medicinal importance of these phytochemicals and spread awareness among the countries where it's still facing legal complexities. The current review is focusing on most recent literature pertaining to the various applications of cannabinoids with a special focus on medicinal aspect of the phytochemicals. Peer reviewed articles focusing on the importance of cannabis and cannabinoids were the target of this review. Articles were selected based on the relevance to the general scope of the work i.e. application of cannabinoids. Cannabinoids can truly be regarded as wonder drug keeping their immense diversity of usage but unfortunately, many of the mares never researched biologically or pharmacologically due to their low yield in the plant. However, the approval of some cannabinoids by the FDA (along with other recognized national medical health systems) has opened the horizons for the explicit use of these natural drugs in medicines such as Epidiolex ® (cannabidiol used for the treatment of severe forms of epilepsy) and Sativex ® ('Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol' used for the treatment of spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis, aka: MS.) Many pharmacological properties of C. sativa are attributed to cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive component, along with Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9-THC), a psychoactive component. This review addresses the most important application or current utilization of cannabinoids in a variety of treatments such as: chronic pain, cancer, emesis, anorexia, irritable bowel syndrome, communicative diseases, glaucoma and central nervous system disorders. The biosynthetic pathway of cannabinoids is also discussed. In short, this plant has a myriad of bioactive compounds which have the potential to increase the list of approved cannabinoids suitable for therapy.
... On the other hand, cannabigerovaric acid (CBGVA), ∆9-tetrahydrocannabivaric acid (∆9-THCVA), cannabidivaric acid (CBDVA), and cannabichromevarinic acid (CBCVA) are formed from geranyl diphosphate and divaric acid [20]. Nonacidic forms of cannabinoids (CBD, THC, CBG, etc.) are credited with many healing effects on the human body [1,21]. The extraction of raw material results in the acidic form of cannabinoid compounds and decarboxylation is required to obtain nonacidic forms [22]. ...
... The content of other cannabinoid compounds was much lower (CBC = 1.40%, CBN = 0.15%, THC = 4.47%), but they have many therapeutic effects on the body, such as anticancer and antimicrobial effects [21,23,39,40]. ...
Article
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Natural medicines and products are becoming increasingly important in the pharmaceutical and food industries. The most important step in obtaining a natural remedy is the processing of the natural material. This study offers the separation of the industrial hemp plant into fractions by mechanical treatment, which has a significant impact on the selectivity of the obtained fractions. This study also offers a solution to reduce waste by fractionating industrial hemp, focusing on the fraction with the highest cannabinoid content (49.5% of CBD). The study confirmed the anticancer potential of the extract, which prevents further division of WM-266-4 melanoma cells at a concentration of 10−3 mg/mL. However, application of the extract (c = 10−3 mg/mL) to normal human epidermal melanocytes proved to be insignificant, as the metabolic activity of the cells was the same as in the control cell group.
... The antibacterial traits of hemp hurd powder are associated with retting and microbial contamination and are independent of particle size. The activity is enhanced by heat treatment of an appropriate time and temperature [210]. ...
... The antimicrobial efficacy of hemp fiber and hurd has been demonstrated too. Hemp fiber possesses antimicrobial traits against C. albicans, S. aureus, and E. coli [209], whereas hurd is active against E. coli [210]. The solid fiber of C. sativa had 85% inhibition of mycelium growth against C. albicans [209]. ...
Article
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Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a global health crisis and, therefore, new drug discovery is a paramount need. Cannabis sativa contains hundreds of chemical constituents produced by secondary metabolism, exerting outstanding antimicrobial, antiviral, and therapeutic properties. This paper comprehensively reviews the antimicrobial and antiviral (particularly against SARS-CoV-2) properties of C. sativa with the potential for new antibiotic drug and/or natural antimicrobial agents for industrial or agricultural use, and their therapeutic potential against the newly emerged coron-avirus disease (COVID-19). Cannabis compounds have good potential as drug candidates for new antibiotics, even for some of the WHO's current priority list of resistant pathogens. Recent studies revealed that cannabinoids seem to have stable conformations with the binding pocket of the M pro enzyme of SARS-CoV-2, which has a pivotal role in viral replication and transcription. They are found to be suppressive of viral entry and viral activation by downregulating the ACE2 receptor and TMPRSS2 enzymes in the host cellular system. The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids as anti-inflammatory compounds is hypothesized for the treatment of COVID-19. However, more systemic investigations are warranted to establish the best efficacy and their toxic effects, followed by preclinical trials on a large number of participants.
... Diğer lif bitkilerinden daha az su gereksinimine sahiptir, oldukça hızlı büyür ve pek çok coğrafyada yaygın bir şekilde kültürü yapılabilmektedir. Lignoselülozik lifleri en kaliteli lifler arasındadır ve aynı zamanda antibakteriyel özelliğe sahiptir [5,6]. Bu sebeple antibakteriyel tekstil ürünleri [7] ve cerrahi malzeme üretimine [8] oldukça elverişlidir. ...
... A previous study by the authors indicated that HH exhibits antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) [24]. However, the performance of HH as a constituent in PLA-based biocomposites is relatively unknown, and often overshadowed by hemp, sisal, jute and kenaf bast fibers, whose utilization has increased in the recent past [25], reaching pilot/commercial scales. ...
Article
The use of silver nanoparticles in providing effective antibacterial resistance in glycidyl methacrylate-compatibilized hemp hurd-filled poly(lactic acid) biocomposite is presented. The thermal and mechanical properties, and antibacterial resistance against gram negative E. Coli was investigated, and characterized using X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The inclusion of glycidyl methacrylate assisted in elastic moduli and strength increases at 10–30 wt % fraction of silver nanoparticle-loaded hemp hurd in poly(lactic acid), with 20 wt % hemp hurd-filled biocomposite exhibiting the highest range of properties within the biocomposites investigated. The inherent antibacterial property of hemp hurd was further enhanced using silver nanoparticle loading to achieve a safe level of heavy metal migration at 0.20–3.08 mg/kg. Effective antibacterial activity was achieved with distinct decreases of 85% and 89% in bacterial growth at 0.025 wt % and 0.05 wt % loading of silver nanoparticle in the biocomposite. Overall, the properties of these novel biocomposites demonstrated discernible potential in further development of food packaging applications.
... The use of hemp hurd as a filler in polymer matrix composites is not entirely new and previous research has shown that properties comparable to the ones obtained using wood flour as a filler (Cigasova et al., n.d.;Khan et al., 2015;Kidalova et al., 2015;Stevulova et al., 2015) can be achieved. As shown in Table 1, the chemical composition of hemp hurd is comparable to wood four. ...
... The hemp by-products are both used as animal bedding as main application thanks to their high absorption capacity (Karus and Vogt, 2004). Hemp hurds could also be integrated as filler in plastic composites (Terzopoulou et al., 2016;Li et al., 2017), used in buildings (Shea et al., 2012) or in antibacterial applications (Khan et al., 2015). It can also be considered as raw material for a fractionation process into Organosolv lignin (Gandolfi et al., 2014), sugar streams to produce L-lactic acid (Gandolfi et al., 2015) or for a Formosolv process to produce pulp (De Vega and Ligero, 2017). ...
Article
This work aims at developing a continuous intensified green process to extract high-value added molecules from industrial hemp by-products. Hemp hurds and hemp dust were studied as potential sources for the production of two hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA): ferulic (FA) and p-coumaric acids (p-CA). Prior to pilot scale extraction, FA and p-CA analytical contents were evaluated to 0.3 and 3.5 g/kg dry matter (DM) for hemp hurds and 0.1 and 0.8 g/kg DM for hemp dust as potentials of reference. The continuous pilot scale extraction was then carried out using twin-screw extrusion. Mild conditions were developed: 50 °C, alkaline aqueous or hydroalcoholic solvent (less than 0.5 M NaOH) and low liquid to solid ratios. The mechanical effect helps the diffusion of the solvent, promotes the hydrolysis of the ester and ether bonds and favors the extraction of HCA in a short time. Yields in p-CA and FA reached 50% and 33% of the free and bound contents for hemp hurds. For hemp dust, all of p-CA was extracted whereas 60% of FA was recovered. The solid residue may be submitted to a second extraction stage with a polar solvent in order to increase HCA recovery. Extraction by extrusion could be seen as an alternative green processing technique as it is responsible for a reduction of extraction time and energy and a decrease in solvent and reagent consumptions.
... The plant is also active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and help to prevent urinary tract infections (UTI), cholecystitis, sepsis and food poisoning (Monika et al., 2014). Researchers have found that the baste fibers of this plant have antibacterial potential (Hao et al., 2014;Khan et al., 2015b). In a more recent study, plant powder has shown antibacterial effects against E. coli (Khan et al., 2015a,b), and this antibacterial effect is attributed to lignan and related compounds such as phenolics, alkaloids and cannabinoids (Appendino et al., 2008;Khan et al., 2015a,b). ...
Article
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Medicinal plants play a vital role in the human health care system of tribal communities and in the treatment of various gynecological problems. This study is an effort to document important medicinal flora used for the treatment of gynecological problems by indigenous people living in a tribal region near the Pak-Afghan border. The main objective of the study was to establish a clear profile of indigenous knowledge and practices from the unexplored tribal territory. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and group discussions. The data were analyzed through Use Value and Factor of Informant Consensus. A total of 52 medicinal plants were recorded from the area; the most widely accepted were Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (94 Use Value), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (93 Use Value), Prunus domestica L. (91 Use Value), Myrtus communis L. (91 Use Value), Cannabis sativa L. (91 Use Value) and Nigella sativa L. (90 Use Value). A high consensus factor was recorded for menses-related problems (0.95). The root was the main part used (23% plants), followed by the leaves (20% plants), whole plant (18% plants), fruit (18% plants), and seed (13% plants). A total of 21 plants were used to treat menses-related problems, followed by sexual problems (ten plants), leucorrhea (nine plants), gastric problems (seven plants) and amenorrhea (seven plants). Knowledge related to ethnogynecological treatments is restricted to midwives and traditional healers. In conclusion, the documented flora that is particularly important to medicinal plants may be researched in the future to discover new pharmaceutical, neutraceutical and other pharmacological agents against gynecological complaints.
... Currently, hemp hurd is used in low-value applications, such as animal bedding, because of its good absorbency and lightweight. 28 Moreover, a large amount of hemp hurd ends up in landfills or being combusted to provide heat. The ability to use hemp hurd for high-value applications will bring considerable economic benefits to hemp growers and biorefineries. ...
Article
Full-text available
Levulinic acid, a versatile platform chemical from renewable lignocellulose, can be used for the production of fuels, solvents, and pharmaceuticals. The complex chemical bonds of lignocellulose necessitate reaction conditions at high acid loading, low lignocellulose loading, and high temperature and/or pressure. These harsh reaction conditions degrade the intermediates (HMF and glucose), resulting in a low yield of levulinic acid. Here we show that combined lignocellulose dissolution in ionic liquids (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) and acid hydrolysis by HCl enables the conversion of hemp hurds to a high yield of levulinic acid (59%) in one-pot under a mild reaction condition (120°C and atmospheric pressure) without additional acid catalysts. The presence of HCl (BrØnsted acid) catalyzed cellulose hydrolysis, glucose dehydration, and HMF rehydration in ionic liquid. The addition of Lewis acid catalysts (CrCl3, AlCl3, ZrCl4, and SnCl4) was not necessary. Compared with conventional processes for levulinic acid production, our approach has additional key advantages such as high solid loading (18 wt.%) and no need to separate intermediate products (glucose and HMF). Furthermore, the incorporation of a lignocellulose dissolution step in ionic liquids makes this one-pot strategy customizable for different types of lignocellulose.
... Hemp has been divided into fiber type (industrial hemp), intermediate type, and drug type (known as marijuana). Industrial hemp is a kind of yearly harvested plant where hemp fiber is the main product of its cultivation [4]. Currently cotton fiber has prominent market share among all other natural fibers, but production of the same requires substantial amount of water and chemicals, whereas the amount of water and pesticides required by hemp plant is considerably less [5]. ...
Article
In this study, a comparison between alkaline and enzymatic degumming process of hemp fibers has been carried out. Degumming of hemp fibers is essential to remove the lignin content and to segregate the individual fibers for textile grade applications. In this research, optimization of degumming process parameters was carried out to reduce the strength loss in fibers. The percentage weight loss of hemp fibers after the degumming process was studied. Two approaches comprising alkaline and enzymatic methods were used. Hemp fiber diameter was determined along with the single fiber strength before and after the degumming process. Stiffness is directly linked to fiber diameter. Therefore, the fiber diameter was also taken into consideration for optimization of the degumming process. The chemicals used in alkali degumming were sodium hydroxide, magnesium sulfate, hydrogen peroxide, and magnesium chloride. Alkali degumming was the best-suited degumming method for segregating the individual hemp fibers. The optimized parameters obtained for alkali degumming method were heating time 50 min and heating temperature 75 °C. Enzymatic degumming is an eco-friendly method, but the result obtained does not provide a better separation of fibers and fine fiber diameter.
... In packaging, the rising demand for safe, minimally processed materials that can resist foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and listeria monocytogenes is a major driving factor for innovations in food quality, freshness, and safety (Khan et al., 2015, Khan et al., 2014, Appendini and Hotchkiss, 2002. ...
Conference Paper
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Biocomposites produced from renewable biomass were investigated for suitability in food packaging applications. Poly(lactic acid) was compounded with 10 – 30 wt. % hemp hurd through extrusion and injection moulding to produce rigid plastic biocomposites. In addition to their cost-effectiveness and equivalent mechanical properties, the biocomposites were particularly effective as antimicrobial materials with the inclusion of silver nanoparticles. A 16% cost margin was achieved in the biocomposites with additional antimicrobial capabilities. Through further research, development, and supply chain management, economic and environmental sustainability can be achieved in production.
... Interestingly, the antimicrobial properties of hemp hurd have attracted attention in animal bedding applications that might result from cannabinoids, alkaloids, and other lignin-derived bioactive compounds (Khan et al., 2014;Lone and Lone, 2012). It has been already proved that hemp hurd powder retards the growth of E. coli (Khan et al., 2015). ...
Chapter
This chapter presents various aspects of industrial hemp valorization with a focus on biorefinery and bioproducts applications. In the biorefinery pathway, the fractionation of hurd is presented first, followed by thermochemical and biochemical conversions of industrial hemp for biofuels and bio-chemicals. The chapter has discussed various industrial applications of hemp bast fiber, including construction and insulation material, biocomposite, and paper production. Besides, the chapter includes high-value bioproducts development from industrial hemp hurd, including building materials, bioplastics, carbonaceous materials, and paper products. In addition to the valorization, the economic feasibility of industrial hemp biomass for biofuel (ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas) has been highlighted. Considering the present challenges associated with the biorefinery of industrial hemp, future research approaches are also summarized at the end of the chapter.
... ZoI for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria for HHC, HFN1, and HFN2 samples were found to be around 15, 16, and 19 mm, respectively. It was noticed from Figure 6 that the ZoI was significantly smaller for HHC vs HHC-stabilized AgNPs as expected though pharmacological properties of HHC were reported [32], no antibacterial activity was detected from the HHC control solution in the present work. In order to understand the antipathogenic effects of HHC stabilized AgNPs, the results from our work were compared with various plant extract stabilized AgNPs from the literature. ...
... Recently it was found that cannabis powder contains a high amount of cannabinoid content which possesses antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli. Interestingly, phytocannabinoids have high pharmacological, antibacterial, and antimicrobial activities [65,78,105,118,119]. ...
Article
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Phytocannabinoids are a structurally diverse class of bioactive naturally occurring compounds found in angiosperms, fungi, and liverworts and produced in several plant organs such as the flower and glandular trichrome of Cannabis sativa, the scales in Rhododendron, and oil bodies of liverworts such as Radula species; they show a diverse role in humans and plants. Moreover, phytocannabinoids are prenylated polyketides, i.e., terpenophenolics, which are derived from isoprenoid and fatty acid precursors. Additionally, targeted productions of active phytocannabinoids have beneficial properties via the genes involved and their expression in a heterologous host. Bioactive compounds show a remarkable non-hallucinogenic biological property that is determined by the variable nature of the side chain and prenyl group defined by the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis. Phytocannabinoids possess therapeutic, antibacterial, and antimicrobial properties; thus, they are used in treating several human diseases. This review gives the latest knowledge on their role in the amelioration of abiotic (heat, cold, and radiation) stress in plants. It also aims to provide synthetic and biotechnological approaches based on combinatorial biochemical and protein engineering to synthesize phytocannabinoids with enhanced properties.
Chapter
Hempseed is a well-known source of highly digestible protein (edestin and albumin). It has significant amounts of all essential amino acids, bioactive compounds along with dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals. The hempseed oil extracted from the achenes of cannabis usually has more than 80% of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Particularly, it is a rich source of α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid and has been used as a replacement for fish oil. Moreover, various clinical trials carried out on hempseed oil have signified its importance as a functional food and are often used for the treatment of disorders. The moisture content present in the seed at various stages such as harvest and pressing is typically around 15 and 10%, respectively. The presence of excess moisture content during processing would favour mould growth and is a possible reason for reduced shelf life. This article covers the challenges and adverse effects associated with the use of hempseed that include long-term stability issues and toxicity. One among the significant adverse effects includes the presence of a psychoactive compound such as Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Thus, the scope of this review is to highlight and focus on the significant findings that will contribute to broadening the application of hempseed for food applications and related health benefits.
Article
In order to develop a green and efficient hemp degumming process, an ammonium oxalate-enzyme combined process was proposed and the pectin was extracted from the degumming solution. Pectin can be used as a stabilizer, gel, emulsifier, and thickener in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. The results showed that the residual gum rate of hemp fibers treated by the ammonium oxalate-enzyme process was 2.34%, which was lower than that of the hemp fibers treated by alkali degumming process (12.875%) and alkali-enzyme degumming process (8.433%). The antibacterial property of hemp fibers treated by the ammonium oxalate-enzyme process was better than those of hemp fibers treated by alkali and alkali-enzyme combined process. After degumming with ammonium oxalate-enzyme, the lignin content of hemp fibers decreased from 8.1% (raw hemp) to 0.94%, and hemp fibers had good breaking strength. The optimum extraction process of pectin from the degumming solution of hemp was pH 4.5, concentration ratio 15%, and ethanol concentration 95%. The extraction rate of pectin could reach 10.46%.
Chapter
Currently, the use of natural fibres as a reinforcement in composites presents many attractive benefits, including the reduction of materials from non-renewable sources and reduction of environmental impact. Intensive research is being carried out to develop biocomposites which combine natural fibres with biodegradable polymers. One major advantages of these biocomposites is that they are totally degradable and sustainable
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Despite the increased use of hemp fiber, negligible attention has been given to upgrade the hemp hurd, which constitutes up to 70 wt % of the hemp stalk and is currently considered a low-value byproduct. In this work, valorization of hemp hurd was performed by reductive catalytic fractionation (RCF) in the presence of a metal catalyst. We found an unexpectedly high yield of monophenolic compounds (38.3 wt %) corresponding to above 95% of the theoretical maximum yield. The high yield is explained by both a thin cell wall and high S-lignin content. In addition, organosolv pulping was performed to generate a pulp that was bleached to produce dissolving-grade pulp suitable for textile fiber production (viscosity, 898 mL/g; ISO-brightness, 90.2%) and nanocellulose. Thus, we have demonstrated a novel value chain from a low-value side stream of hemp fiber manufacture that has the potential to increase textile fiber production with 100% yield and also give bio-oil for green chemicals.
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Aristoteles’e göre erdemler, iç iyiler ve dış iyiler olmak üzere ikiye ayrılır. İç iyilerin en değerlisi bilgidir. Dış iyilerin en değerlisi ise dostluktur. Aristoteles’e göre dostluk bir erdemdir. Çünkü dostluk sosyal yaşam için zorunlu bir unsurdur. Bütün öteki iyilere sahip olsa bile hiç kimse dostlardan uzak bir yaşamı düşünemez. Çünkü doğası gereği insan ister zengin olsun ister fakir her durumunu paylaşacağı dostlara ihtiyaç duyan sosyal bir canlıdır. Sosyal yaşam ise ancak iyilik üzerine kurulabilir. İyilik düzeni de ancak iyilerin birlik ve beraberliği ile mümkündür ki bu da dostluğu erdem kılan temel nedendir. Birlik ve beraberlik hem kendileri iyiliktir hem de iyilikleri daha iyi ve daha çok yapmanın; çoğaltmanın yegâne yoludur. O halde, yalnızca bireyleri birbirine yakınlaştırıp bir arada tutmakla kalmayan dostluk olgusu, devletlerin de ayakta kalmasını sağlayan temel bir dinamiktir. Bu nedenle yasa koyucular adaletten daha çok dostluk üzerinde dururlar. Çünkü dostluk fikir birliği demektir, uzlaşım ve uylaşım sanatı demektir. Bu nedenle dostlar arasında adalete dahi gerek duyulmayabilir ama adil olanlar dostluğa her zaman gereksinim duyarlar. Çünkü, dostluk birbirinden uzak kuvvetler, farklı dünyalar; boyutlar ve perspektifler arasında bir denge sanatı demektir. Aristoteles’e göre dostluk ne yarara ne hazza dayanır; aslolan erdeme dayalı dostluklardır. Çünkü, bir toplumda ancak böylesi dostluklar sayesinde iyilik, fazilet, onur, eleştirel düşünce ve felsefe gibi yüksek değerler yerleşebilir. Ne yazık ki böylesi yüksek ve ulvi düşüncelere sahip insan sayısı her zaman azınlıkta kalmaktadır. Çünkü bu bilgiyi araştırıp uygulayabilecek erdem sahibi insan sayısı son derece azdır. Bu bulgu ayrıca şu hususu da göstermektedir ki, genel bir dostluk anlayışından söz etmek mümkün değildir. O halde, öncelikle yapılması gereken gerçek dostluğun ne olduğunu ortaya koymaktan geçmektedir.
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This study presents an investigation of the anticancer and antimicrobial ability of a combination of ginger and cannabis extracts in different ratios (1:1, 7:3 and 3:7). Extracts were obtained using various methods (Soxhlet extractions, cold macerations, ultrasonic extractions and supercritical fluid extractions). The antioxidant activity and the presence of total phenols were measured in the extracts, and the effect of the application extracts in various concentrations (c = 50, 20, 10, 5, 1, 0.1, 0.01 mg/mL) on cells was investigated. Higher values of antioxidants were measured at the ratio where ginger was predominant, which is reflected in a higher concentration of total phenols. Depending on the polyphenol content, the extracts were most effective when prepared supercritically and ultrasonically. However, with respect to cell response, the ratio was shown to have no effect on inhibiting cancer cell division. The minimum concentration required to inhibit cancer cell growth was found to be 1 mg/mL. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis also confirmed the effectiveness of ultrasonic and supercritical fluid extraction, as their extracts reached higher cannabinoid contents. In both extractions, the cannabidiol (CBD) content was above 30% and the cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) content was above 45%. In the case of ultrasonic extraction, a higher quantity of cannabigerol (CBG) (5.75 ± 0.18) was detected, and in the case of supercritical fluid extraction, higher cannabichromene (CBC) (5.48 ± 0.13) content was detected, when compared to other extraction methods. The antimicrobial potential of extracts prepared with ultrasonic and supercritical extractions on three microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans) was checked. Ginger and cannabis extract show better growth inhibition of microorganisms in cannabis-dominated ratios for gram-positive bacterium S. aureus, MIC = 9.38 mg/mL, for gram-negative bacterium E. coli, MIC > 37.5 mg/mL and for the C. albicans fungus MIC = 4.69 mg/mL. This suggests guidelines for further work: a 1: 1 ratio of ginger and hemp will be chosen in a combination with supercritical and ultrasonic extraction.
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Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has long been known to contain antibacterial cannabinoids, whose potential to address antibiotic resistance has not yet been investigated. All five major cannabinoids (cannabidiol (1b), cannabichromene (2), cannabigerol (3b), Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (4b), and cannabinol (5)) showed potent activity against a variety of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains of current clinical relevance. Activity was remarkably tolerant to the nature of the prenyl moiety, to its relative position compared to the n-pentyl moiety (abnormal cannabinoids), and to carboxylation of the resorcinyl moiety (pre-cannabinoids). Conversely, methylation and acetylation of the phenolic hydroxyls, esterification of the carboxylic group of pre-cannabinoids, and introduction of a second prenyl moiety were all detrimental for antibacterial activity. Taken together, these observations suggest that the prenyl moiety of cannabinoids serves mainly as a modulator of lipid affinity for the olivetol core, a per se poorly active antibacterial pharmacophore, while their high potency definitely suggests a specific, but yet elusive, mechanism of activity.
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Intervention against pathogenic bacteria using natural plant material has a long history. Plant materials also have been widely used as fillers and/or reinforcers in polymer composites. Some natural fibre plants, such as hemp, are regarded to possess antibacterial activity against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria. Innovative applications can be explored if they are incorporated in polymer composites. This review aims to compile the relevant investigations on antibacterial activity of hemp and other fibre plants such as jute, flax, kenaf, sisal, and bamboo. The antibacterial character might be contributed from cannabinoids, alkaloids, other bioactive compounds, or phenolic compounds of lignin. This review is intended to encourage utilization of hemp and other natural fibre plants in value-added diversified products. Some potential applications are also discussed.
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The aim of this study was to synthesize a new antibacterial and chelating biopolymer and to evaluate its germicidal activity and its ability in metal ions removal from aqueous solutions. The material was prepared via esterification of hemp with 2-benzyl-4-chlorophenol, a germicide agent, that was covalently coupled to cellulose backbone of hydrophilic fibers by a heterogeneous synthesis, to produce a functionalized biopolymer with a satisfactory degree of substitution. The obtained biopolymer was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Its antibacterial activity in inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth in Petri dishes, was evaluated. The results suggested that this biomaterial possesses an excellent in vitro antibacterial activity and so it can be efficiently employed in biomedical fields to ensure a protection against contaminations. On the other hand, the functionalized biopolymer interacts with metal ions thanks to its chelating functional groups. The absorption capacity for a selected metal ion such as Cd(II), was investigated in aqueous solution at pH 0.65, 4.1 and 7.0 by optical emission spectroscopy. This study showed that the new system is very effective in chelating cadmium ions showing the maximum efficiency at pH 4.1. This feature makes the synthesized biomaterial a potential candidate for metal ions removal. Graphical Abstract Hemp fiber (Cannabis sativa L.) derivatives with antibacterial and chelating properties. Roberta Cassano, Sonia Trombino, Teresa Ferrarelli, Fiore Pasquale Nicoletta, Maria Vittoria Mauro, Cristina Giraldi, Nevio Picci
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Wool powder may be utilized in advanced applications, notably composite materials, biomedical and cosmetics depending on the development of a suitable powder fabrication process and understanding of powder properties. This paper discusses a novel approach to mill viscoelastic wool fibres using a combined wet attritor and air jet milling (AJM) process. Results show that 5 h attritor milling followed by spray drying can produce wool powder with a BET surface area of 14.89 m(2)/g and volume based d(0.5) of 4 mu m. Despite absence of any milling pre-treatments, the particles are much smaller than previously prepared wool particles using other methods. Subsequent AJM further reduces d(.5) to 1.5 mu m, but creates loose aggregates which results in their low bulk density. The aggregates can be disintegrated using a strong consolidating force and such AJM powder can be compressed to 45% of the original volume. Rheological measurements suggest strong cohesion and poor flowability of wool powders. Consolidated AJM powder is even more cohesive with a flow function of 1.64 compared to spray dried powder without AJM which has a flow function of 3.74. The results are important for processing and applications of these novel organic fibre powders, where ultrafine particles are needed and understanding of powder packing and flow behaviour is important. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR) composites filled with hemp hurd powder (HP) were prepared with bis(3-triethoxysilylpropyl) tetrasulfide (Si69) as a coupling agent. The effects of the filler content and coupling agent on the curing characteristics and dynamic mechanical properties of the composites were studied. The results indicate that with increasing filler loading, the torque values increased and the curing time decreased. The mechanical properties improved with increasing filled HP content up to 60 phr. Usually, long fibers led to a sharp decrease in the toughness of the composites, whereas short fibers, such as HP, had a positive effect on the elongation at break within the loading range studied. The extent of the filler–matrix interaction and the scanning electron micrographs of the fractured surfaces confirmed that the addition of Si69 improved the interfacial interaction between HP and the SBR matrix, which led to an increase in the maximum torque and the mechanical properties. Moreover, the coupling agent was helpful in dispersing the filler in the rubber matrix. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2011
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Ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOH) were prepared by the conventional saponification of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) using a solution of potassium hydroxide in ethanol. An organic fungicide, consisting of a 2-benzimidazole carbamoyl (CBZ) group supported on EVOH (EVOH-CBZ), was prepared by the transesterification reaction of methyl 2-benzimidazole cabamate (carbendazim) with EVOH. The antifungal activity of the synthesized polymers was examined by the halo zone test against Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium pinophilum. The synthesized EVOH-CBZ complex showed a strong antifungal activity. The bound CBZ units were susceptible to hydrolysis. CBZ bonded to an epoxy resin precursor, diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA-CBZ), retained its antifungal activity, which was somewhat weaker in comparison with that of EVOH-CBZ. When the DGEBA-CBZ complex was crosslinked by isophoronediamine, the antifungal activity disappeared almost completely, indicating that it is necessary for the CBZ units to release from their polymer supports to have the antifungal effects. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 80: 728–736, 2001
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The primary method to eliminate, or significantly reduce, pathogens on produce is strict adherence to Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs), Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP), and other relevant strategies that prevent contamination from occurring. This includes the concept of "good management practices" as described in the Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables (FDA 1998). Although the frequency of produce contamination by pathogens is thought to be very small, there are no known mitigation strategies that will completely remove pathogens after contamination has occurred while maintaining produce freshness. A variety of mitigation regimens and sanitizers are available to reduce microbial populations depending upon the type of produce involved. Washing and sanitizing efficiencies depend on several factors, including characteristics of the produce surface, water quality, cleaner/sanitizer used, contact time, and presence and type of scrubbing action. Based on reported data, it is likely that different sanitation mitigation strategies are needed for different produce items.
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Two fibre plants are under cultivation in the European Union – flax on approximately 125,000 ha and hemp on approximately 15,500 ha in the year 2004. Seeds, hurds and especially fibres of hemp are used for further processing. The most important markets for hemp fibres produced in the EU are pulp and paper and the automotive industry. Just under 5% of the EU hemp fibres were used in the construction sector. Approximately 95% the whole production of 40,000 t of the hemp hurds are used as animal bedding and 95% of the estimated 6000 t per year hemp seeds are sold for animal feed, mainly as bird feed.
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The effect of HP loading on the curing characteristics and mechanical properties of filled SBR and EPDM composites was investigated using bis-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl) tetrasulfide (Si69) as coupling agent. For all composites, 20 phr (part per one hundred parts of rubber) silica was used. The addition of HP enhances the vulcanization process of composites filled with silica. The hybrid reinforcement of HP and silica imparts good stiffness and toughness to filled rubber composites. An excess of HP will tend to form agglomerates in the rubber matrix, which adversely affects the silica-rubber matrix interfacial interaction, and consequently lowers the overall mechanical properties. The HP distribution and filler-rubber matrix interaction, which were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and equilibrium swelling, explained well the changes in mechanical properties of composites filled with hybrid fillers. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicated that the composites exhibited higher Payne effect and storage modulus, and lower tanδmax value with an increase of HP loading. KeywordsHemp hurd powder–Hybrid reinforcement–Rubber composites–Interfacial interaction–Dynamic mechanical property
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The antimicrobial properties of pure phenolic compounds and polyphenols of different wines against pathogens were investigated. It was observed that bacterial species exhibited different sensitivities towards the different concentrations of phenolic compounds. Escherichia coli was the most sensitive bacterium and Flavobacterium sp. was resistant against all phenolic compounds tested. All wine samples showed antimicrobial properties and the inhibition increased when the polyphenols concentration of wines increased. Clarified wines were inactive against all bacteria, indicating that polyphenolic compounds present in red wines, are responsible for the antimicrobial effects observed. The different concentrations of polyphenols in wines could have an important impact on consumers with the consequent increase in wine commercialization.
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The use of rapid prototyping (RP) technology for rapid tooling and rapid manufacturing has given rise to the development of application-oriented composites. The present paper furnishes succinct notes of the composites formed using main rapid prototyping processes such as Selective Laser Sintering/Melting, Laser Engineered Net Shaping, Laminated Object Manufacturing, Stereolithography, Fused Deposition Modeling, Three Dimensional Printing and Ultrasonic Consolidation. The emphasis of the present work is on the methodology of composite formation and the reporting of various materials used.
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An overview of various biomedical applications of polymer-composite materials reported in the literature over the last 30 years is presented in this paper. For the benefit of the readers, general information regarding structure and function of tissues, types and purpose of implants/medical devices, and various other materials used, are also briefly presented. Different types of polymer composite that are already in use or are investigated for various biomedical applications are presented. Specific advantages of using polymer-composite biomaterials in selected applications are also highlighted. The paper also examines the critical issues and scientific challenges that require further research and development of polymer composite materials for their increased acceptance in the biomedical industry.
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Fibre damages by the decortication process have to be avoided to achieve high quality of hemp fibres (Cannabis sativa L.) for industrial use. In addition, a well-defined separation of the single fibres by the subsequent degumming process is required. The objective of the present study is to determine the growth stage at which bark and shives can be separated from unretted industrial hemp (variety ‘Kompolti’) with as little fibre damage as possible. Furthermore, the chemical composition of the bark and the molecular weight of fibre cellulose have been analysed to estimate the fibre quality that can be achieved after a degumming process. For this, the fibres have been extracted by a standardised chemical degumming process. The investigations were carried out at nine growth stages of the plants reaching from vegetative stages to senescence. Considering only the mechanical decortication of green dry stems without degumming of the bark, the results reveal that a harvest time at the beginning of seed maturity leads to easier decortication without any effect on the tensile strength of the bast. For decortication of fresh stems including a subsequent degumming process, a harvest after the flowering of the male plants results in fibre losses during decortication and to fibres of reduced fineness.
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Recently, non-equilibrium, atmospheric pressure air plasmas have been shown to possess excellent germicidal properties. A number of studies have shown that air plasmas are capable of inactivating a wide range of microorganisms in the matter of few seconds to few minutes. However, until now little information regarding quantitative measurements of the various plasma agents that can potentially participate in the inactivation process has been published. In this paper, emission spectroscopy and gas detection are used to evaluate important plasma inactivation factors such as UV radiation and reactive species. Our measurements show that for non-equilibrium, atmospheric pressure air plasmas, it is the oxygen-based and nitrogen-based reactive species that play the most important role in the inactivation process.
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Hemp fibers are very interesting natural material for textile and technical applications now. Applying hemp fibers to the apparel sector requires improved quality fibers. In this paper, hemp fibers were modified with sodium hydroxide solutions (5% and 18% w/v), at room and boiling temperature, for different periods of time, and both under tension and slack, in order to partially extract noncellulosic substances, and separate the fiber bundles. The quality of hemp fibers was characterised by determining their chemical composition, fineness, mechanical and sorption properties. The modified hemp fibers were finer, with lower content of lignin, increased flexibility, and in some cases tensile properties were improved. An original method for evaluation of tensile properties of hemp fibers was developed.
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Eleven new cannabinoid esters, together with three known cannabinoid acids and Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol ( Delta9-THC ), were isolated from a high-potency variety of Cannabis sativa. The structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses to be beta-fenchyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 1), epi-bornyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 2), alpha-terpenyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 3), 4-terpenyl Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 4), alpha-cadinyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 5), gamma-eudesmyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 6), gamma-eudesmyl cannabigerolate ( 7), 4-terpenyl cannabinolate ( 8), bornyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 9), alpha-fenchyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 10), alpha-cadinyl cannabigerolate ( 11), Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol ( Delta9-THC ), Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A ( Delta9-THCA ), cannabinolic acid A ( CBNA), and cannabigerolic acid ( CBGA). Compound 8 showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans ATCC 90028 with an IC 50 value of 8.5 microg/mL. The isolated acids and the ester-containing fractions showed low affinity to the CB-1 receptor. [corrected]
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Hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections (HAIs) increase morbidity, mortality and medical costs. In the USA alone, nosocomial infections cause about 1.7 million infections and 99 000 deaths per year. HAIs are spread by numerous routes including surfaces (especially hands), air, water, intravenous routes, oral routes and through surgery. Interventions such as proper hand and surface cleaning, better nutrition, sufficient numbers of nurses, better ventilator management, use of coated urinary and central venous catheters and use of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters have all been associated with significantly lower nosocomial infection rates. Multiple infection control techniques and strategies simultaneously ('bundling') may offer the best opportunity to reduce the morbidity and mortality toll of HAIs. Most of these infection control strategies will more than pay for themselves by saving the medical costs associated with nosocomial infections. Many non-pharmacological interventions to prevent many HAIs will also reduce the need for long or multiple-drug antibiotic courses for patients. Lower antibiotic drug usage will reduce risk of antibiotic-resistant organisms and should improve efficacy of antibiotics given to patients who do acquire infections.
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