The Transcriptional Regulation of the Human CYP2C Genes

Laboratory of Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.
Current Drug Metabolism (Impact Factor: 2.98). 10/2009; 10(6):567-78. DOI: 10.2174/138920009789375397
Source: PubMed


In humans, four members of the CYP2C subfamily (CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, and CYP2C19) metabolize more than 20% of all therapeutic drugs as well as a number of endogenous compounds. The CYP2C enzymes are found predominantly in the liver, where they comprise approximately 20% of the total cytochrome P450. A variety of xenobiotics such as phenobarbital, rifampicin, and hyperforin have been shown to induce the transcriptional expression of CYP2C genes in primary human hepatocytes and to increase the metabolism of CYP2C substrates in vivo in man. This induction can result in drug-drug interactions, drug tolerance, and therapeutic failure. Several drug-activated nuclear receptors including CAR, PXR, VDR, and GR recognize drug responsive elements within the 5' flanking promoter region of CYP2C genes to mediate the transcriptional upregulation of these genes in response to xenobiotics and steroids. Other nuclear receptors and transcriptional factors including HNF4alpha, HNF3gamma, C/EBPalpha and more recently RORs, have been reported to regulate the constitutive expression of CYP2C genes in liver. The maximum transcriptional induction of CYP2C genes appears to be achieved through a coordinative cross-talk between drug responsive nuclear receptors, hepatic factors, and coactivators. The transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of the expression of CYP2C genes in extrahepatic tissues has received less study, but these may be altered by perturbations from pathological conditions such as ischemia as well as some of the receptors mentioned above.

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    • "Thus, compared to other CYP2C genes, CYP2C8 appears to be less strongly affected by genetic variation and consequently regulatory events may have a more significant impact on variability. The transcriptional regulation of CYP2C genes has been thoroughly studied implying constitutive regulation by involving the liver-enriched receptor HNF4 (Jover et al., 2001; Ferguson et al., 2005; Rana et al., 2010; Yue et al., 2010) as well as inducible regulation with xenobiotic-sensing receptors CAR, PXR, and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) playing major roles (Pascussi et al., 2000; Ferguson et al., 2005; Chen and Goldstein, 2009; Rana et al., 2010). Interestingly, Prueksaritanont et al. (2005) observed pronounced induction of CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 in human hepatocytes by a series of fibrates including clofibric and fenofibric acids and gemfibrozil, but failed to link this to the fibrate receptor, PPARα. "
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    ABSTRACT: The cytochrome P450, CYP2C8, metabolizes more than 60 clinically used drugs as well as endogenous substances including retinoic acid and arachidonic acid. However, predictive factors for interindividual variability in the efficacy and toxicity of CYP2C8 drug substrates are essentially lacking. Recently we demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), a nuclear receptor primarily involved in control of lipid and energy homeostasis directly regulates the transcription of CYP3A4. Here we investigated the potential regulation of CYP2C8 by PPARα. Two linked intronic SNPs in PPARα (rs4253728, rs4823613) previously associated with hepatic CYP3A4 status showed significant association with CYP2C8 protein level in human liver samples (N = 150). Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knock-down of PPARα in HepaRG human hepatocyte cells resulted in up to ∼60 and ∼50% downregulation of CYP2C8 mRNA and activity, while treatment with the PPARα agonist WY14,643 lead to an induction by >150 and >100%, respectively. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation scanning assay we identified a specific upstream gene region that is occupied in vivo by PPARα. Electromobility shift assay demonstrated direct binding of PPARα to a DR-1 motif located at positions –2762/–2775 bp upstream of the CYP2C8 transcription start site. We further validated the functional activity of this element using luciferase reporter gene assays in HuH7 cells. Moreover, based on our previous studies we demonstrated that WNT/β-catenin acts as a functional inhibitor of PPARα-mediated inducibility of CYP2C8 expression. In conclusion, our data suggest direct involvement of PPARα in both constitutive and inducible regulation of CYP2C8 expression in human liver, which is further modulated by WNT/β-catenin pathway. PPARA gene polymorphism could have a modest influence on CYP2C8 phenotype.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Frontiers in Pharmacology
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    • "and a consensus element for HNF4α was found at −318 to −294. As previous studies demonstrated that HNF4α regulates CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 gene expression [29], we tested if this HNF4α consensus site plays a role in CYP2E1 expression. Site-directed mutagenesis was subsequently performed on the construct pGL3-CYP2E1-p7 and the corresponding mutant was designated as pGL3-mut- HNF4α (Fig. 3C). "
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    ABSTRACT: CYP2E1, one of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidases located predominantly in liver, plays a key role in metabolism of xenobiotics including ethanol and procarcinogens. Recently, down-expression of CYP2E1 was found in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with the majority to be chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HBx may inhibit CYP2E1 gene expression via hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α). By enforced HBx gene expression in cultured HepG2 cells, we determined the effect of HBx on CYP2E1 mRNA and protein expression. With a bioinformatics analysis, we found a consensus HNF-4α binding sequence located on -318 to -294 bp upstream of human CYP2E1 promoter. Using reporter gene assay and site-directed mutagenesis, we have shown that mutation of this site dramatically decreased CYP2E1 promoter activity. By silencing endogenous HNF-4α, we have further validated knockdown of HNF-4α significantly decreased CYP2E1expression. Ectopic overexpression of HBx in HepG2 cells inhibits HNF-4α expression, and HNF-4α levels were inversely correlated with viral proteins both in HBV-infected HepG2215 cells and as well as HBV positive HCC liver tissues. Moreover, the HBx-induced CYP2E1 reduction could be rescued by ectopic supplement of HNF4α protein expression. Furthermore, human hepatoma cells C34, which do not express CYP2E1, shows enhanced cell growth rate compared to E47, which constitutively expresses CYP2E1. In addition, the significantly altered liver proteins in CYP2E1 knockout mice were detected with proteomics analysis. Together, HBx inhibits human CYP2E1 gene expression via downregulating HNF4α which contributes to promotion of human hepatoma cell growth. The elucidation of a HBx-HNF4α-CYP2E1 pathway provides novel insight into the molecular mechanism underlining chronic HBV infection associated hepatocarcinogenesis.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "CYP2C9 is the most abundant CYP of the CYP2C sub-family in human liver microsomes, accounting for the metabolism of a large number of clinically important drugs, especially some with a narrow therapeutic index, such as warfarin. The expression of CYP2C9 is coordinated by nuclear receptors such as CAR and PXR in association with nuclear factors and coactivators such as hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha (HNF-4α) and PPARγ coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α), which is also involved in energy homeostasis (Chen and Goldstein, 2009). CYP2C9 has been closely associated with adverse drug reactions. "
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    ABSTRACT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, is a complex multifactorial disease characterized by metabolic deregulations that include accumulation of lipids in the liver, lipotoxicity, and insulin resistance. The progression of NAFLD to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis, and ultimately to carcinomas, is governed by interplay of pro-inflammatory pathways, oxidative stress, as well as fibrogenic and apoptotic cues. As the liver is the major organ of biotransformation, deregulations in hepatic signaling pathways have effects on both, xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism. Several major nuclear receptors involved in the transcription and regulation of phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters also have endobiotic ligands including several lipids. Hence, hepatic lipid accumulation in steatosis and NAFLD, which leads to deregulated activation patterns of nuclear receptors, may result in altered drug metabolism capacity in NAFLD patients. On the other hand, genetic and association studies have indicated that a malfunction in drug metabolism can affect the prevalence and severity of NAFLD. This review focuses on the complex interplay between NAFLD pathogenesis and drug metabolism. A better understanding of these relationships is a prerequisite for developing improved drug dosing algorithms for the pharmacotherapy of patients with different stages of NAFLD.
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