Conference Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Steady and Unsteady Flow Field in a Single Stage Low Pressure Axial Compressor With a Circumferential Groove Casing Treatment

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This paper deals with the experimental investigation of the influence of a circumferential groove casing treatment on the performance and stability margin of a single stage low pressure axial compressor. The design of the compressor stage is representative of a booster stage for the new counter-rotating turbofan engine architecture and is characterized by unusually high loading and flow coefficients. The choice of the circumferential groove is described on the basis of a numerical parametric study on the number of grooves, the axial position, the depth and width of the groove. The experiments were performed at a Reynolds number corresponding to cruise conditions in the von Karman Institute closed loop high speed compressor test rig R4. The detailed performance characterization of the compressor stage with casing treatment was mapped at four operating points from choke to stall at design speed. The compressor stall limit was determined at several other off-design speeds. Detailed steady and unsteady measurements were performed to determine the flow field characteristics of the rotor and of the complete stage. Conventional pressure, temperature and directional probes were used along with fast response pressure sensors in the rotor casing and in the groove. Simultaneous traverses with a fast response total pressure probe were used to map the unsteady flow field at the rotor exit allowing an experimental capture of the tip leakage vortex path and extension through the rotor passage. A comparison of the flow features with and without casing treatment was performed and the results are discussed against 3D viscous computational predictions. The casing treatment did not present any improvement of the compressor stall margin but no significant performance degradation was observed either. The CFD predictions showed a good agreement with the measurements and their analysis supported the experimental results.

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... But recent research found that stability enhancement effect of circumferential groove was related with stall ways of compressors, groove position, groove depth, groove amount closely and can reduce efficiency of compressors under most situations. Van [2] reckoned that stall ways of compressors are essential to stability enhancement. Because loading blade roots caused stall, circumferential grooves were not able to improve stall margin of compressors at all. ...
... A long lasting topic in this area is to accomplish a proper CG configuration for real compressors. The most common approach is to establish a database of casing grooves through extensive experimentation and elaborate measurements in the tip region [4][5][6][7][8]. Another approach is to explore the complex flow mechanisms via advanced high-fidelity numerical simulations [9,10], which focus on the flow structure changed by the grooves prior to stall. ...
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Conference Paper
A new control volume analysis is developed in this paper aiming at assessing the circumferential grooves effectiveness on stability improvement. The underlying mechanism for this approach is based on the hypothesis that the spike stall precursors can be triggered by the forward spillage of the rotor tip leakage flow and the onset condition of such a spillage is determined by the axial momentum balance within the rotor tip region. Control volumes are defined to quantify the axial momentum balance of the whole region where the grooves influence the flow at the rotor tip. The distribution curve of the cumulative axial momentum along the axial chord indicates that the grooves change the rotor tip loading and increase the stability, which is useful to assess the different grooved casings. As an example, multiple-groove configurations for a transonic rotor are analyzed. The results verified the cumulative axial momentum distribution for different grooved casings are in accordance with the stall margin extension variations. Another example is to prescreen the best double-groove configurations for a low speed compressor. By using this current approach, a double-groove configuration was selected and validated by experiments. These examples demonstrate the current approach has great potential in helping pre-screen circumferential grooves. As an important issue, peak efficiency changed by the grooves is discussed in the last section. Entropy production is quantitatively compared with and without grooves.
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