Article

Ectoparasites : PPart 2: Bed bugs, Demodex, sand fleas and cutaneous larva migrans

Haut- und Laborarzt/Allergologie, Andrologie, Laboratorium für medizinische Mikrobiologie, Strasse des Friedens 8, 04579, Mölbis.
Der Hautarzt (Impact Factor: 0.56). 09/2009; 60(9):749-57; quiz 758-9. DOI: 10.1007/s00105-009-1821-2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Ectoparasites or epidermal parasites include a very heterogenous group of infections of the outer layers of the skin. Worldwide the most common are scabies, lice, tungiasis, and hookworm-induced cutaneous larva migrans. In recent years, bed bug infestations in hotels or vacation homes seem to have become more frequent. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are found in the facial and scalp hair follicles in 95% of individuals. Classic Demodex folliculitis is often overlooked in differential diagnostic considerations. This inflammatory sebaceous gland disease as well as Demodex blepharitis both provide a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Permethrin can be used topically against demodicosis. Vacationers who go barefoot on beaches in tropical Africa, South America and subtropical Asia risk infestations from female sand fleas. The lesions can be curetted or removed with a punch biopsy, then treated with antiseptics or even systemic antibiotics if a secondary infection develops. Cutaneous larva migrans is one of the most common imported ectoparasite infections from the tropics. Topical treatment measures include thiabendazole or cryotherapy. If the infestation is severe, systemic antihelminthics or ivermectin can be employed.

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