Conference Paper

Low Emission LNG Fuelled Ships for Environmental Friendly Operations in Arctic Areas

Conference Paper

Low Emission LNG Fuelled Ships for Environmental Friendly Operations in Arctic Areas

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Abstract

Environmental restrictions now favor cleaner fuels, and Natural gas (LNG) is one of the most promising alternative fuels. Highly efficient natural gas fuelled engines have been developed since around 1990. These engines are now entering maritime applications, offering significant emission reductions, both in a local and global perspective. Using LNG as fuel reduce NOx emissions by up to 90%, SOx and particulate matter (soot) are reduced by 95–100% and CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 25%, when compared to traditional marine fuels. These emission reductions are significant contribution especially in local and regional environments. Using LNG as a clean fuel also offers a significant increase in total energy efficiency. Combining power and heat generation, natural gas fuelled engines for on-shore power generation offer a total thermal efficiency of 80–90%, depending on the waste heat recovery rate. For liquid fuels exhaust heat recovery is limited due to the sulfur content, which may cause acid corrosion. Onboard ships, LNG fuelled engines have potential to utilize waste heat to obtain significant higher thermal efficiency than their diesel engine counterpart. LNG is mainly available from fossil sources, but now also increasingly from renewable sources as bio-gas. For storing and transportation LNG is preferred as less challenging compared to high pressure CNG. On the coast of Norway a LNG distribution system is now being built, supplying a fleet of more than 40 ships. LNG is transported by special designed small LNG carriers from the production plants to a series of main terminals along the coastline. From these main terminals the LNG is distributed by trucks to the local fuelling stations, or for direct fuelling of the ships. This paper will present the basic technology and experiences from this full scale LNG fuel system. The paper will discuss local and global environmental benefits, technical solutions, safety issues, and costs issues related to the distribution system and the on-board fuel installations.

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... Due to safety measures, and the fuel storage and processing plant itself, LNG systems have been costlier to install than traditional fuel systems [41,42]. They also require more space and are more complicated to operate than the traditional fuel systems. ...
... Both natural gas and hydrogen may be combusted in a direct combustion engine or by using a fuel cell [29,[40][41][42]. An LNG fuel cell was installed in the Eidesvik vessel "Viking Lady" in 2009 [43]. ...
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... Nielsen and Schack (2012) clarified the components of the scrubber system (the scrubber, a modified chimney, additional water tanks, additional pipes, scrubber auxiliary systems, and additional steel frames), pointing out that installing such a system could bring a maximum capacity loss of 0.3%, and a fuel consumption increment of 3%. AEsøy and Stenersen (2013) suggested that the LNG dual-fuel engines are more costly than traditional diesel engines, for the LNG fuel systems require high pressure and cold storage and may cause a 2.5% loss of capacity. Through an environmental and economic analysis of methanol dual-fuel engines, Ammar (2019) proposed to reduce the speed by 28% to lower the dual-fuel cost to the diesel fuel cost at the maximum continuous rating, and put the cost-effectiveness of the methanol dual-fuel engine in reducing NO x , CO and CO 2 emissions at USD 385.2, 6,548, and 39.9 per ton, respectively, in light of the benefits of slow-steaming and the saved SCR costs. ...
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Conference Paper
The use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a fuel is motivated by reduced emissions, availability and cost, compared to conventional fuels like heavy fuel oil (HFO) and marine diesel oil (MDO). Development of natural gas (NG) fuelled engines and fuel technology has been an ongoing research activity for more than 25 years. In Norway, more than 40 ships are now in operation on LNG either using dual fuel engines or pure gas engines. LNG is a low temperature, volatile fuel with very low flash point, and the main challenges are related to fuel storing and handling. The main components in the LNG fuel systems are the tanks, evaporators/heaters, pressure build-up units (PBU), and the gas regulating units. Control of the overall system performance during transient operations and ship motions is vital. For optimal design through better understanding of the behavior of the fuel system, simulation models are being developed and simulations performed. Operational experiences and full scale measurements are adapted to effectively contribute to more accurate models. This paper discusses the challenges of modeling such a system and presents relevant component models, performance simulation methods and operational experience. In particular, the liquid/gas phase transition dynamics in the LNG tank as well as simulations of the tank are addressed.
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The maritime transportation sector is facing new international restrictions on exhaust emissions. NOx and SOx emissions from traditional marine fuels are a major challenge, which make natural gas a promising new clean alternative. Since the late 1980s, new concepts for medium-speed natural gas-fuelled engines have been developed, primarily for stationary power generation. This technology is currently entering the mobile sector, where Spark Ignition engines, Dual-Fuel engines and High Pressure Gas engines offer advantages such as high efficiency, low emissions and fuel flexibility. The availability of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is increasing, not least via small-scale distribution systems. In Norway, 23 coastal traffic vessels operate on LNG supplied by a distribution system that also supplies city bus fleets. This paper discusses the development of natural gas engines and fuel system technology, and describes experiences from LNG-fuelled ships in operation in Norway. © Copyright 2011 Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Inc. and SAE International.
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This paper gives an insight into the present status in the world with regarding the use of natural gas as a fuel in ships, based on DNV's extensive experience and knowledge. In Norway, the number of LNG-fuelled ships in operation has grown from 0 to 14 ships in the last 9 years, and the basics of some of these ships will be presented. The gas engine fundamentals will be outlined, as well as the basic framework for safe installations and the status of international rules. The future potential of a fuel cell driven ship will also be included, with main emphasis on the research project FellowSHIP.
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Significant variations are apparent between the various reported regional and global ship SO2 emission inventories. Important parameters for SO2 emission modelling are sulphur contents and marine fuel consumption. Since 1993, the global average sulphur content for heavy fuel has shown an overall downward trend, while the bunker sale has increased. We present an improved bottom up approach to estimate marine sulphur emissions from ship transportation, including the geographical distribution. More than 53,000 individual bunker samples are used to establish regionally and globally (volume) weighted average sulphur contents for heavy and distillate marine fuels. We find that the year 2002 sulphur content in heavy fuels varies regionally from 1.90% (South America) to 3.07% (Asia), with a globally weighted average of 2.68% sulphur. The calculated globally weighted average content for heavy fuels is found to be 5% higher than the average (arithmetic mean) sulphur content commonly used. The reason for this is likely that larger bunker stems are mainly of high-viscosity heavy fuel, which tends to have higher sulphur values compared to lower viscosity fuels. The uncertainties in SO2 inventories are significantly reduced using our updated SO2 emission factors (volume-weighted sulphur content). Regional marine bunker sales figures are combined with volume-weighted sulphur contents for each region to give a global SO2 emission estimate in the range of 5.9–7.2 Tg (SO2) for international marine transportation. Also taking into account the domestic sales, the total emissions from all ocean-going transportation is estimated to be 7.0–8.5 Tg (SO2). Our estimate is significantly lower than recent global estimate reported by Corbett and Koehler [2003. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 108] (6.49 Tg S or about 13.0 Tg SO2). Endresen et al. [2004. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, D23302] claim that uncertainties in input data for the activity-based method will give too high emission estimates. We also indicate that this higher estimate will almost give doubling of regional emissions, compared to detailed movement-based estimates. The paper presents an alternative approach to estimate present overall SO2 ship emissions with improved accuracy.
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