Article

The effect of sound on the growth of plants

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Abstract

This project is intended to show how the rate of growth of two different plant species was affected by sounds of varying frequencies. Two plant species, beans and impatiens, were selected because of their relatively fast growing rates. Ambient conditions were regulated by environmental chambers in which the plants were housed. One chamber was used as a control for the plants, and the plants in the other chambers were subjected to sounds of different frequencies at roughly the same sound intensity. Sounds of pure tones and random [wide band] noise were used. The changes in the growth of the plants were monitored every two days for twenty-eight days. Upon completion of the tests, it was observed that optimum plant growth occurred when the plant was exposed to pure tones in which the wavelength coincided with the average of major leaf dimensions. It is suggested that this was due to the "scrubbing" action of the traversing wave, causing air particle motion on the surface of the leaf; this movement removed the stagnant air layer adjacent to the leaf, thus increasing the transpiration of the plant. It was also noted that the plant growth was less when exposed to random noise.

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... Collins and Foreman used a specially designed environmental chambers with controlled growth conditions, coaxial speakers, measurements were taken from different positions of plants (impatiens and beans) (Collins and Foreman, 2001). Growth was affected when plants were in direct path of sound. ...
... They reasoned that there must be a relationship between wavelength of sound and leaf dimension. The compression and rarefaction wave generated by speaker diaphragm movement makes the air on the leaf surface to move and helps the plant to breath more easily only when the wavelength of sound generated coincides with leaf dimension (Collins and Foreman, 2001). However, authors suggested to carry such experiments with multiple species, extended durations, in acoustic chambers to draw generalized conclusions. ...
... In recent years, several studies have revealed the perception of sound by plants, the actual mechanism of how plants sense specific frequency and intensity of sound without the auditory system remain unanswered (Appel and Cocroft, 2014;Bhandawat et al., 2020;Bochu et al., 2004;Collins and Foreman, 2001;De Luca and Vallejo-Marin, 2013;Gagliano et al., 2012;Ghosh et al., 2017;Kim et al., 2015;Mishra et al., 2016). By investigating the change in protein structure, its interaction with other macromolecules, the protein biomarkers for specific sound frequency can be identified. ...
Article
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Sound plays a critical role in all life forms in one way or the other. Higher organism such as vertebrates have evolved sophisticated auditory organs to perceive as well as emit specific range of sound frequencies. Extensive studies have been done on implication of sound in animal kingdom. Plants at the other side lack specialized organs for the same, which makes them mysterious as well as interesting subjects. In recent years significant advancement has been made towards understanding of sound emission and perception in plants. Through this review an attempt is made to unveil the current advancements in plant acoustics, its significance in overcoming the environmental challenges, biotic threats, facilitating pollination, inter-kingdom communication for mutual benefits and learning by association. Along with this, the application of sound in boosting plant growth, yield, enhancing functional metabolite production, evading pests and postharvest management has been emphasized. In this respect, several examples are presented to strengthen our understanding of plant responses to sound at behavioural, physiological and molecular level. At last, in the light of existing knowledge, we discuss current challenges in plant acoustic research, ecological hazards associated with artificial sound wave treatments and plausible ways alleviate it.
... Although many known species in animals are known to communicate with each other through sounds and wave patterns, the involvement of plants with sound production or recognition has hardly been talked about. However, mounting scientific evidence does appear to suggest that plants could be capable of recognizing and responding to sound in nature and to sounds produced by human beings (Collins and Foreman, 2001). ...
... The studies on the effect of music on plants date back to1955 and the pioneers of sound experiments on plants, Singh and Ponniah (1955) played incomprehensible violin pieces intermittently to plants at certain times of the day and observed some responses of plants to sounds (Collins and Foreman, 2001). However, the results obtained from these experiments were vague since limited details are available on the abovementioned study. ...
... Thus, the metabolism of the plants increased when they were exposed to music. Collins and Foreman (2001) too obtained the similar results for the increment of plant height and yield of beans and impatiens. In the present study also, the hospitable environment for the increment of growth and yield performance of plants would have been facilitated through Pirith chanting rather than pop music. ...
... In the last few decades, there have been an increasing number of studies dealing with the emission and perception of sound by plants both in audio acoustic (10-240 Hz) and ultrasonic ranges (20-300 kHz) (Laschimke et al. 2006;Gagliano et al. 2012a;Gagliano 2013). However, apart from very early studies (Measures and Weinberger 1968, 1969, reviewed in Telewski 2006 only limited studies are available regarding the effects of sound on plant growth and development and the physiological responses of plants to sound signals of different frequencies (Collins and Foreman 2001;Jia et al. 2003;Creath and Schwartz 2004;Telewski 2006;Qi et al. 2010;Gagliano and Renton 2013). ...
... The musical sound was a musical selection from albums of Horn and Nakai (1992;Horn and Nakai 1997) and was chosen, as the authors stated, because it consisted of natural sounds, such as birds, echoes, and was a gentle music (Creath and Schwartz 2004). Collins and Foreman (2001) reported that common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and impatiens (Impatiens sp.) exposed to sound irradiation of random noise and different frequencies (500, 5,000, 6,000, 12,000, 14,000 Hz) with the same sound pressure level (91-94 dB) changed the growth of seedlings with an optimum wavelength of the irradiated sound coinciding with the leaf dimension of each plant species. The tallest plants were formed in beans when 5,000 Hz was applied, because the average dimension of bean leaf (2.4 in. 2 ) and a wavelength of 2.4 in. ...
... Our knowledge is limited regarding this aspect of sonication simply because only few plant species have been studied. However, the study of Collins and Foreman (2001) on beans and impatiens clearly showed its importance when the growth-promoting effect of sound was examined. Moreover, the responsiveness of plants might be further altered by their age and developmental state. ...
Article
Plant biotechnology, and plant tissue culture in particular, could benefit from new means to stimulate plant growth and development. Although the number of studies is still limited, there is evidence that sonication using low frequencies of sound (as little as a few dozen Hz) to as high as ultrasound (several dozen kHz) may increase organogenesis. In this brief review, we look at those examples in detail and explore how sound influences growth and development. Where available, we try to offer a mechanism by which sound affects or influences plant growth.
... The literature abounds with half-baked efforts to study this, with well-known early studies of the effects of music on plants mechanosensors. Hypotheses include that of Collins [16] suggests that scrubbing of traverse waves against the leaf increase transpiration from the plant. Wang et al. [18] hypothesize that sound transduction accelerates RNA synthesis and concentrations of soluble proteins. ...
... The first vibrational mode, in the vicinity of 6 kHz (Fig. 4), was well within the audible range (∼20-20,000 Hz), and well within the range for which Pieris feeding noises present substantial power (below ∼8 kHz, [20]). The 6 kHz range is on the order of primary frequencies reported for mechanotransduction in several other plants as well [15,16]. As is evident from Fig. 4, the natural frequencies of the higher modes were very sensitive to trichome size over the range of smaller characteristic trichome lengths, and were inversely proportional to the size of trichomes (Fig. 4), consistent with the scaling laws we derived (i.e., Eqs. ...
Article
Selective sensation of sound by the plant Arabidopsis thaliana may enable the timely upregulation of defensive compounds to protect against caterpillars of the plant’s primary insect herbivore. Vibration of leaf trichomes has been shown to occur over frequency ranges that are appropriate for responding to these caterpillars, but the distribution of trichome shapes and sizes over a leaf means that a range of sounds could possibly be transduced. To assess how the diversity of trichomes on a leaf may affect sound transduction, we characterized the distribution of trichome sizes on a mature plant of A. thaliana and calculated the ensemble responses of entire leaves. Trichome sizes followed a normal distribution. Modal peaks in single trichome response spectra were at lower frequencies those of larger trichomes, roughly consistent with an inverse relationship between modal frequencies and trichome size. Ensemble response spectra for entire leaves showed frequency bands of responsiveness separated by defined band gaps, suggesting a possible mechanism for collective identification of the sounds of specific caterpillars.
... However, we have done this work using soilless agriculture, which is an alternative way of agriculture that has emerged in recent years as a result of erosion-ineffective soils, drought and diminishing agricultural areas [6]. It has been found that playing the appropriate melodies promotes the synthesis of the favour able protein of the plant [7]. ...
... This suggests that the plants enjoy music and respond to different music genres and wavelengths. Optimal plant growth occurs when the plant is exposed to pure tones according to wave tones [7]. ...
Article
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The experiment was carried out in the Department of Horticulture of Cukurova University in 2014 using the bean genotype in two different climate controlled plant breeding chambers and by growing the plants with hydroponics and vermicu-lite. It was performed until the young plant stage in hydroponics and vermiculite medium. In the study, classical music (Yann Tiersen-comtine D'un Autre Ete) was played for beans. In addition, every day between 11.00-15.00 hours music was played to the plants. Photosynthesis rate CO2, leaf stomatal conductance, respiration rate, leaf temperature, plant height, leaf number, stem diameter, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight, root length were investigated. Plant height, leaf number, and stem diameter were determined every four days and by 5 separate measurements for each day. The rate of photosynthesis CO2, leaf stoma conductivity, respiration rate and leaf temperature in bean plant was measured after 22 days than sowing. The root length, root fresh, the fresh and dry weight of the green component and dry weight of the plants were measured after finished testing the bean plant. In this study, according to their own controls, differences were observed of the effect of music in the hydroponics and vermiculite tests. In addition, the effect of music was also different between the two trials (hydroponics and vermicu-lite) in different environments. Music, Yann tiersen-comtine D'un AutreEte, bean, Pho-tosynthesis, Hydroponics, Stomatal The influence of music on creatures has been a spoken topic for many years. Dr. T. C Singh showed the interaction between music and plants is harmonic sound waves which affect the development , flowering, fruit and seed yield of plants. He indicated that the most suitable music for the plants was classical music [1]. Later studies showed that plants were not indifferent to music and gave positive responses [2, 3, 4, 5]. From this point, we decided to examine the effect of the classical music on plants. However, we have done this work using soilless agriculture, which is an alternative way of agriculture that has emerged in recent years as a result of erosion-ineffective soils, drought and diminishing agricultural areas [6]. It has been found that playing the appropriate melodies promotes the synthesis of the favour able protein of the plant [7]. Soilless agriculture is an hydroponics technique used mostly in the greenhouses. It is bifurcat-ed as hydroponics and substrate culture. We studied the effect of music on plants for a bean plant growing in a dead water culture which is a kind of hy-droponics, and for a bean plant growing in vermicu-lite which is a kind of substrate culture. The reason of choosing the bean plant is that the bean is a fast growing plant, besides that it is the traditional food of the Turks (dry bean) and the production of 514,000 tons of beans annually in our country. With this production, our country is in 2nd place in the production of beans in the world ranking after China [8]. The experiment was carried out in two separate 9 square meter climate controlled plant breeding chambers at Cukurova University Faculty of Agriculture Department of horticulture and by cultivating plants hydroponics and vermiculite technique. Have bean genotypes used name is spir and origin Erzurum province, Turkey. Music was played in one room, and control application without music was performed in the other room. Characteristics of climate chambers: 16 hours light 8 hours dark, Temperature was 25 o C ± 2 in the daytime and 18 o C ± 2 at night, Humidity: 60-70 % RH. First, the bean seeds were planted into the violes and after the beans germinated the transfer process was performed. After this process, Nutrient Solution containing nutrients that plants need was given in hydroponics and vermiculite test. Leaf temperatures of bean plants were measured using a Min-isight brand infrared thermometer. Photosynthesis rate, respiratory rate and in bean plants were measured by (LI-6400XT system brand) and leaf stoma conductivity by (Delta T Devices marka AP4) devices. Root fresh weight fresh green parts of plants
... 2,3 Depending on the frequency and intensity of SV and US, they can positively or negatively affect different biological functions of plants, such as germination, the cell cycle, shoot, root and callus growth and development, signal transduction systems, activities of various enzymes and plant hormones, and gene expression. [4][5][6][7] Natural SVs produced by birds (chirping), bees (buzzing) and other animals cause different changes in plant gene expression patterns 8,9 and accelerate seed germination rates, 10 Collins and Foreman (2001) 11 using different frequencies (500, 5,000, 6,000, 12,000 and 14,000 Hz) of sound vibration on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) observed frequency-specific responses in which beans showed maximum growth at 5000 Hz. Qin et al. (2003) 12 found improved growth in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in response to 20,000 Hz. ...
... 2,3 Depending on the frequency and intensity of SV and US, they can positively or negatively affect different biological functions of plants, such as germination, the cell cycle, shoot, root and callus growth and development, signal transduction systems, activities of various enzymes and plant hormones, and gene expression. [4][5][6][7] Natural SVs produced by birds (chirping), bees (buzzing) and other animals cause different changes in plant gene expression patterns 8,9 and accelerate seed germination rates, 10 Collins and Foreman (2001) 11 using different frequencies (500, 5,000, 6,000, 12,000 and 14,000 Hz) of sound vibration on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) observed frequency-specific responses in which beans showed maximum growth at 5000 Hz. Qin et al. (2003) 12 found improved growth in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in response to 20,000 Hz. ...
Article
The xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. form part of a group of mechano-stimulated genes and play an important role in abiotic stress tolerance. Mining the RNAseq transcriptomic database of 40,430 potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) genes based on functional annotation and homology search, our objective was to discover potentially homologous XTH genes. A Gene Ontology-based XTH homology search and functional annotation discovered, from among the 33 A. thaliana (AtXTH) and 25 tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) (SlXTH) XTH genes, 35 gene sequences corresponding to 20 AtXTH genes and 40 gene sequences corresponding to 21 SlXTH genes, respectively. Thirteen sequences corresponding to 11 putative XTH genes in potato, named as StXTH after SlXTH genes, were significantly up- or down-regulated in response to ultrasound. These putative StXTH genes in potato can serve for future functional genetic analyses.
... This suggests an ecological and environmental relevance of plant-acoustic interaction. Nowadays, it is in vogue to use SV in abiotic stress response, as an elicitor that improves growth conditions, energy metabolism, stress related gene expression, increase in secondary metabolites production and resistance to diseases (Collins and Foreman, 2001, Hongbo et al., 2008, Choi et al., 2017 [27,135,50,79,23] . Studies using highly sensitive sound receivers have surprisingly demonstrated that plants indeed make spontaneous sounds and even release sound emissions from their xylem (Borghetti et al., 1989;Ritman and Milburn, 1990;Laschimke et al., 2006) [12,104,78] . ...
... This suggests an ecological and environmental relevance of plant-acoustic interaction. Nowadays, it is in vogue to use SV in abiotic stress response, as an elicitor that improves growth conditions, energy metabolism, stress related gene expression, increase in secondary metabolites production and resistance to diseases (Collins and Foreman, 2001, Hongbo et al., 2008, Choi et al., 2017 [27,135,50,79,23] . Studies using highly sensitive sound receivers have surprisingly demonstrated that plants indeed make spontaneous sounds and even release sound emissions from their xylem (Borghetti et al., 1989;Ritman and Milburn, 1990;Laschimke et al., 2006) [12,104,78] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Like other environmental factors, Sound vibrations also reported to greatly influence the plants at physical, biochemical and gene level. Based on relevant literature, this manuscript discusses the influence of Sound vibration in stimulating various growth and developmental parameters in plants like seed germination, root elongation, photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, yield, post harvest shelf-life, and also highlights various researches carried out to support influence of acoustic frequencies in defense, metabolism, cell cycle, and production of secondary metabolites, hormones and enzymes. Application of wide range of sound frequencies, infrasonic to ultrasonic, could provide myriad possibilities in advancement of future agriculture; however, a more comprehensive knowledge on signalling and regulation mechanisms is required to exploit the full potential.
... For instance, such vibrations are known to be used for communicating and mating in numerous insects, fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals [3]. As the environment baseline level of vibrations could be greatly increased in anthropogenicaly disturbed environments, there is growing concerns about the effects of those "artificial" vibrations/sounds on animals' (including insects') and plants' physiology and ethology [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. Very recently, Barton and coauthors [13] have studied experimentally the effect of noise pollution on a model ecosystem, showing negative effects of noise pollution through trophic cascades. ...
... Numerous examples exist: e.g. plants [7], fishes [37], birds [5], and marine mammals [38] among others. Dogs and cats can nowadays be calmed thanks to recorded natural calming noise [39]. ...
... In their experiment they played incomprehensible violin pieces intermittently to plants at certain times of the day and observed responses of plants to sounds. However, the results obtained from these experiments are unclear and limited details are available on their study (Collins and Foreman, 2001). Weinberger and Measures (1969) carried out a research on sound for spring wheat [Marquis] and winter wheat [Rideau]. ...
... Though number of leaves is not significant, the hospitable environment for the production of more chlorophylls and leaflets would have facilitated through Pirith chanting rather than western pop music, thus Pirith chanting becoming the appropriate musical phrase accompanied by vocals. The same results were obtained by Collins and Foreman (2001) for the increment of plant height and leaves of Bean species. However, there are no details available on effect of Pirith and sermon chanting for plants including Codariocalyx motorius. ...
Article
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Response of Codariocalyx motorius to Western pop music and Pirith chanting was examined by conducting an experiment with three months old C. motorius saplings, kept in a sound proof confined chamber. Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was used with five replicates. One week after planting, plants were exposed to three treatments; Western pop music, Pirith and silence. Music and Pirith were played separately for an hour, 30 cm distance away from plants with a sound level of 58 – 63 dB for two months continuously, maintaining equal environmental conditions. Measurements on growth performance were taken once in a fortnight. Percentage difference of parameters was calculated and data were analysed using ANOVA. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between the treatment of Pirith and Western pop music were observed for plant height, leaf width, leaf area, and chlorophyll content and leaflet length. However,thin layer chromatographic profiles observed under UV light and Anisaldehyde spray reagent exhibited no difference in chemical components. Magnitudes of the percentage difference between measured parameters of C. motorius under Pirith chanting and Western pop music indicated that there was discernible effect of Pirith chanting on the measured plant parameters in the study implying that rhythmic chanting of Pirith is the most appropriate type of music which improved the growth performance of C. motorius.
... Therefore, there is a necessity of having alternatives less harmful to environment that decrease the use of chemical pesticides and permit the generation of safer food. Nowadays, it has emerged the usage of acoustic vibrations to generate a controlled abiotic stress in plants, this kind of elicitor improves growth conditions (Collins and Foreman, 2001), energy metabolism , gene expression related with stress (Hongbo et al., 2008), increase secondary metabolites (Li et al., 2008) and resistance to diseases (Choi et al., 2017). The understanding of the plant mechanism to detect and transmit sounds as consequence of stress will allow giving to plants a controlled stress, causing an activation of defense against a particular disease or pest; this will permit the generation of non-environmental-damage pesticides or the generation of specific metabolic compounds, per example those of interest to human health. ...
... Two decades ago it was studied how the SV promotes the growth of plants. However, rushing to assume that plants can "hear" is risky, especially when it was observed that acoustic waves cause the movement of air particles on the leaves surface increasing the transpiration rate of plants (Collins and Foreman, 2001). In order to verify that plants use acoustic signals for communication, it is essential to demonstrate that plants produce and capture sounds, and they obtain benefits from this communication, this could support the evolutionary advantage of this skill. ...
Article
Plants are sessile organisms that need to face threats presented in its surrounding; consequently, they have developed mechanisms to perceive the signals of the ambient and to process them in order to detect threats or advantageous circumstances that could increase their chances of survival. One of the mechanisms is dedicated to detect sound vibrations (SV) or acoustic waves (AW). The SV has the ability of modifying the behavior of plant cells through Ca²⁺ and ROS cues linked to signaling process of stressed plants. These signals cause behavior changes in the cell, regulate gene expression and/or modify its biochemical activity in order to face the biotic and abiotic factors that could provoke damage in the plants. The plants face threats through the generation of compounds or substances that cause a signaling cascade and provoke a modification in its behavior. The signaling cascade caused by sound perturbations generally results in the generations of secondary metabolites that are beneficial to human health, principally, against the chronic diseases. Nowadays, reliable mechanism that could explain precisely the ability of plants to perceive, process or emit acoustic waves have not been proposed; however, there are several compounds that are generated when the plant is stressed by biotic and abiotic factors and coincide with compounds that are produced by the plants when they are under a treatment of specific SV. This allows infer that acoustic waves could serve as elicitor, sometimes, cheaper and friendlier with environment compared with the commonly used biotic or abiotic elicitors.
... Studies on plant acoustics commenced back in 1950s with several controversial reports claiming the effect of musical sound on plants (Ekici et al., 2007). Though controversial, these claims attracted increasingly widespread scientific attention towards plant acoustics (Miller, 1983;Collins and Foreman, 2001;Ekici et al., 2007;Jeong et al., 2008;Gagliano, 2013b;Chowdhury et al., 2014;Mescher and De Moraes, 2015). In subsequent studies, to examine the acoustic responses in plants further, scientists adopted the use of natural SVs produced by bird's chirping, cricket's stridulating, bee's buzzing, etc. and obtained compelling results. ...
... As a further refinement, several researchers have started using SVs of variable single frequencies. Collins and Foreman (2001) applied different frequencies (500, 5000, 6000, 12 000, 14 000 Hz) of SV with the same pressure level (91-94 decibel, dB) to common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and impatiens (Impatiens sp.) and noted frequency-specific responses. Although growth was enhanced in both cases, beans showed maximum growth at 5000 Hz whereas impatiens responded best at 12 000 Hz. Similar results were found in Chinese cabbage and cucumber, where sound stimulation resulted in increased oxygen uptake and levels of polyamines, with Chinese cabbage being more responsive towards natural SVs whereas cucumber responded better to 20 000 Hz (Qin et al., 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Being sessile, plants continuously deal with their dynamic and complex surroundings, identifying important cues and reacting with appropriate responses. Consequently, the sensitivity of plants has evolved to perceive a myriad of external stimuli, which ultimately ensures their successful survival. Research over past centuries has established that plants respond to environmental factors such as light, temperature, moisture, and mechanical perturbations (e.g. wind, rain, touch, etc.) by suitably modulating their growth and development. However, sound vibrations (SVs) as a stimulus have only started receiving attention relatively recently. SVs have been shown to increase the yields of several crops and strengthen plant immunity against pathogens. These vibrations can also prime the plants so as to make them more tolerant to impending drought. Plants can recognize the chewing sounds of insect larvae and the buzz of a pollinating bee, and respond accordingly. It is thus plausible that SVs may serve as a long-range stimulus that evokes ecologically relevant signaling mechanisms in plants. Studies have suggested that SVs increase the transcription of certain genes, soluble protein content, and support enhanced growth and development in plants. At the cellular level, SVs can change the secondary structure of plasma membrane proteins, affect microfilament rearrangements, produce Ca2+ signatures, cause increases in protein kinases, protective enzymes, peroxidases, antioxidant enzymes, amylase, H+-ATPase / K+ channel activities, and enhance levels of polyamines, soluble sugars and auxin. In this paper, we propose a signaling model to account for the molecular episodes that SVs induce within the cell, and in so doing we uncover a number of interesting questions that need to be addressed by future research in plant acoustics.
... Many researchers have used sound wave frequencies as external stimuli and studied their effect on plants. Collins and Foreman [22] subjected beans and impatiens plants to sounds of different frequencies (5000 Hz, 6000 Hz, 12000 Hz, and 14000 Hz). Under similar environmental conditions favourable for plant growth, the plants were kept inside a chamber and the sound waves were directed towards them. ...
... This helped in removal of the moisture film and facilitated the leaf to breathe or transpire better. Most favorable growth was observed in both beans and the impatiens plants when the wavelength of the sound played matched with the dimension of the leaf of the plant [22]. Xiujuan and team reported that sound wave accelerated the synthesis of RNA and soluble protein that increased the level of transcription and in turn promoted better growth [23]. ...
... According to Carlson (2008) sound frequencies resonate with the stomatal cavity, thereby increasing water uptake. Collins and Foreman (2001) reported that the sound frequencies resonate with cell organelles. A certain sound frequency resonate increases movement inside the cell cytoplasm. ...
... Thus, it stimulates the movement of molecules such as diffusion processes. Collins and Foreman (2001) reported that the resonant sound can affect protein biosynthesis. ...
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... According to Carlson (2008) sound frequencies resonate with the stomatal cavity, thereby increasing water uptake. Collins and Foreman (2001) reported that the sound frequencies resonate with cell organelles. A certain sound frequency resonate increases movement inside the cell cytoplasm. ...
... Thus, it stimulates the movement of molecules such as diffusion processes. Collins and Foreman (2001) reported that the resonant sound can affect protein biosynthesis. ...
Article
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Since the productivity of soybean in Indonesia is still low, a new innovation is needed to improve it. The objectives of this study are to determine a pattern of the stomatal opening of soybean's leaves which exposed by high-frequency sound waves with different duration time and age of soybean plants. This study was carried out at the Experimental Farm Agriculture Faculty and Biology Laboratory of Science Faculty of the Islamic University of Malang, East Java in April to August 2013.The first factor was duration time of the exposure which consist of three levels: 20 minutes (D 1), 40 minutes (D 2) and 60 minute (D 3).The second factor was the age of the soybean which consist of three levels: 15 days after planting (dap) (A 1), 25 dap (A 2) and 35 dap (A 3). The soybean plants were exposure by the 5000 hertz frequency. The variables measured consisted of stomatal opening width, plant height, leaf area, fresh weight of pods, fresh weight of seed, oven dry weight of beans and harvest index. Increase of the duration time of exposure of high frequency sound waves by 20 to 60 minutes, tends to decrease the width of stomatal opening. The treatment of duration of exposure by 40 minutes at the age of 15 dap had the highest soybean grain yield by 24.10 g.plant-1 , equivalent to 3.93 ton.ha-1. The relationship between the widths of the stomatal opening with soybean production showed no significant correlation. The results of this study suggest that maintaining stomatal opening at optimum width through the manipulation of high-frequency sound waves will increase the yield of soybean plants.
... According to Carlson (2008) sound frequencies resonate with the stomatal cavity, thereby increasing water uptake. Collins and Foreman (2001) reported that the sound frequencies resonate with cell organelles. A certain sound frequency resonate increases movement inside the cell cytoplasm. ...
... Thus, it stimulates the movement of molecules such as diffusion processes. Collins and Foreman (2001) reported that the resonant sound can affect protein biosynthesis. ...
Article
Full-text available
Since the productivity of soybean in Indonesia is still low, a new innovation is needed to improve it. The objectives of this study are to determine a pattern of the stomatal opening of soybean's leaves which exposed by high-frequency sound waves with different duration time and age of soybean plants. This study was carried out at the Experimental Farm Agriculture Faculty and Biology Laboratory of Science Faculty of the Islamic University of Malang, East Java in April to August 2013.The first factor was duration time of the exposure which consist of three levels: 20 minutes (D 1), 40 minutes (D 2) and 60 minute (D 3).The second factor was the age of the soybean which consist of three levels: 15 days after planting (dap) (A 1), 25 dap (A 2) and 35 dap (A 3). The soybean plants were exposure by the 5000 hertz frequency. The variables measured consisted of stomatal opening width, plant height, leaf area, fresh weight of pods, fresh weight of seed, oven dry weight of beans and harvest index. Increase of the duration time of exposure of high frequency sound waves by 20 to 60 minutes, tends to decrease the width of stomatal opening. The treatment of duration of exposure by 40 minutes at the age of 15 dap had the highest soybean grain yield by 24.10 g.plant-1 , equivalent to 3.93 ton.ha-1. The relationship between the widths of the stomatal opening with soybean production showed no significant correlation. The results of this study suggest that maintaining stomatal opening at optimum width through the manipulation of high-frequency sound waves will increase the yield of soybean plants.
... Audible sound, as a sort of sound waves, whose frequency is between 20Hz and 20,000Hz, widely exists in natural environment. In recent years, there have been studies relating to sound and the growth and health of plants or animals, including human beings (Chabris, 1999;Creath and Schwartz, 2004;Collins and Foreman, 2001). It has been hypothesized that sound increases growth in plants, and some companies even use a growth system that incorporates sound to try to increase growth. ...
... Ministry (Grant Number: 588040*172210214 [2]) is acknowledged. ...
Conference Paper
There are studies indicate that audible sound wave could have effects on propagation growth through catalyzing hearing sense organs, which would bring a series of physiological and biological chemistry reaction. The sound-pressure level and frequency are important factors in propagation growth. In this study, an experimental system of audio generator was developed for investigating sound wave effect on propagation growth promotion, and an embedded development platform based on ARM+DSP+FPGA was built for the system. The DDFS(Direct Digital Frequency Synthesis) method was used to make various waveforms in the system. A feedback analysis networks was added in the system for reliable output of sound waves. Results show that the audio generator system can produce sound waves with frequency of 20 Hz~20,000Hz accurately and make octave analysis of the sound in experimental environments. The new-type audio generator system will facilitate scientific researches on the field of acoustic biology.
... The study reveals that as the frequency, amplitude and time of vibration were increasing the length of sprout, number of leaves, weight of roots, weight of sprout, number of sprout on the yam tuber were decreasing which was similar to the report of James et al. (2012) on the effect of irradiation of gamma ray on water yam. Collins (2001) indicates that pleasant music increases the sprouting rate and growth of plant but noise and unpleasant sound decreases sprouting rate, number of leaves produced by plants. ...
Article
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Early sprouting of yam tuber is a typical problem during storage resulting into weight losses, deterioration, shrinkage and reduction in quality. This research work therefore carried out investigation on the application of vibration technique for the control of physical properties of yam (Dioscorea spp.) sprouts during storage in FUNAAB, Nigeria environment. The physical properties (length, number and weight of sprout, number of leaves and weight of roots) of the yam sprouts were determined for 140 white yam tubers. The yam tubers were divided into 108 experiment and 32 as control. The factors of the experimental design examined were frequency, amplitude and time of vibration of low (1 – 5 Hz, 5 mm and 3 minutes), medium (60 – 100 Hz, 10 mm and 10 minutes) and high (150 – 200 Hz, 20 mm and 15 minutes) respectively; weight of yam tuber of two levels of small (0.1 – 2.9 kg) and big (3.0 – 5.0 kg) were also considered. The tubers were stored for ten weeks after vibration, the physical properties of the yam sprouts were observed and records were taken every week. All the physical properties of yam sprouts examined followed the same trend. It was discovered that as the frequency, amplitude and time of vibration were increasing, the physical properties of the yam sprouts studied were decreasing significantly at p < 0.05 for both weight of yams between 0.1 – 2.9 kg and between 3.0 – 5.0 kg. The results revealed that mechanical vibration significantly help in slowing down sprouting in yam tubers.
... In another study supporting this, the best results obtained from impatiens seedlings (Impatiens sp.) at the same sound pressure level (91-94 dB) exposed to sound vibrations of different frequencies (500, 5.000, 6.000, 12.000, 14.000 Hz) were found in plants exposed to 12.000 Hz frequency, especially in terms of leaf sizes (Collins and Foreman, 2001). Russowski et al. (2013) have said that the production yield of valepotriate, which is a secondary metabolite, and the growth of cultivated plants without any change could double when Valeriana glechomifolia (FGMey.) ...
... It was effective for 28 days, but this effect was not observed for 16 days. 9 Hou et al. showed that sound waves with different frequencies, sound pressure level (SPL), stages of exposure and distance from the source, could affect plant growth. 10 The experiments were performed in open media as well as under glasshouse growth conditions with different levels of audio frequency range, and a SPL about 80 dB. ...
Article
Introduction: Plant acoustic frequency technology (PAFT) is the effect or treatment of a plant with a specific frequency sound wave. Objective: The sound waves with different frequencies and a sound pressure level 77 dB were emitted on the saffron corms in a controlled environment using aeroponic cultivation and the contents of crocin, picrocrocin and safranal in their produced stigmas were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. For this purpose, the corms were divided into two groups. In group 1, sound waves with the frequencies of 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz were emitted on saffron corms in different stages of sprouting, flowering and the whole stage of sprouting and flowering. In group 2, sonication was performed on the corms during the flowering stage at 4, 8, 12 and 16 kHz frequencies. Results: The changes in the contents of crocin, picrocrocin and safranal were not significantly compared to the control at 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz frequencies in the stages of sprouting and flowering of corms. While the higher frequencies (4, 8, 12 and 16 kHz) in flowering stage were affected significantly, the crocin and picrocrocin content increased 8.5% and 30%, applying the frequency of 12 and 8 kHz, respectively. Also, the effect of sound exposure time per day with the frequency of 16 kHz at 15, 30 and 60 min were investigated. Conclusion: The findings showed that the corms could be affected by sounding in the different stages of growth of the corm and also in the content of secondary metabolites.
... Sound waves increased the yield of various species by over 10% and reduced pest and virus diseases in greenhouses by 8.0% (Hassanien et al., 2014). Collins & Foreman (2001) observed that optimal plant growth occurred when the plant was exposed to pure tones and decreased with random noise. It is believed that this was due to the "scrubbing" effect of the passing wave, which caused a movement of air particles on the leaf surface; this movement removed the stagnant layer of air next to the leaf, thus increasing the transpiration of the plant. ...
... Vibrations transfer energy (Hewitt, 2002) to nearby objects or organisms, and in extreme cases, cause considerable damage to organisms (Felt, Cowan, Luong, & Green, 2012;Jarimopas, Singh, & Saengnil, 2005;Van Zeebroeck, Ramon, De Baerdemaeker, Nicolaï, & Tijskens, 2007). Subtle effects of vibroacoustic energy from machines and electronic devices can affect the development and growth of plants and microbes (Aggio, Obolonkin, & Villas-Bôas, 2012;Collins & Foreman, 2001;Creath & Schwartz, 2004). In the natural world, organisms respond to vibrations in their environment; plants undergo morphogenetic alternations in response to vibrations by visiting organisms (Appel & Cocroft, 2014;Chehab, Eich, & Braam, 2009;Khait, Obolski, Yovel, & Hardany, 2019), change the direction of root growth upon presence of sound of water (da Silva & Dobránszki, 2014;Gagliano, Grimonprez, Depczynski, & Renton, 2017), increase plant height growth rate in response to particular frequencies (Klein, Edsall, & Gentile, 1965;Mohanta, 2018), and for some plants, flowers exhibit adaptive movement patterns and changes in production of nectar in response to vibroacoustics from pollinating insects (Braam, 2005;Jung, Kim, Kim, Jeong, & Ryu, 2018;Veits et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Botrytis rot (Botrytis cinerea) is a serious disease of fruit and vegetables around the globe. Botrytis rot is a problem not only in the field, but during storage, transit, and marketing, due to onset of severe rot on ripe produce. Fungal growth is promoted by warm temperatures and high humidity although other factors could play a role. Mechanical stimulation via vibroacoustic energy is known to affect the growth of organisms but is little studied in food safety of crop transportation and storage. We test whether mechanical energy in the form of vibrations and acoustic frequencies from in‐store refrigerators and cold‐storage units affect the growth rate of botrytis rot. We also test a broad range of single tones (frequency, Hz) and dyads (2‐tone chords) from 110 to 25,088 Hz to determine if particular frequencies have differential effects on the growth of botrytis rot. Playback of vibroacoustic recordings of refrigerator units increased the growth of botrytis rot by 13–18%, on average, suggesting that acoustic output from storage units could promote the mold during transport, storage or within grocery stores. Increased fungal growth rate appears to be stimulated by high frequencies, above 5,000 Hz. Additionally, low frequencies below 165 Hz can reduce botrytis rot growth rate suggesting that exposure to very low frequency ranges could be used to control the fungus. Results of this study open new perspectives on how vibroacoustic output from electronic devices and machines may affect food quality and fungal contamination on fruit, flowers, and vegetable produce.
... Various variations of research on sound waves that differ in frequency, sound pressure level (SPL), exposure period, and distance from sound sources can affect the growth of the plant. An example of a part of a plant that can be affected by sound is seed germination and stomata (Margaret E. Collins and John E.K. Foreman, 2001;Tapar Kumar Mohanta, 2018). ...
Article
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Cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutescens L) is one of Indonesian most favorite chili called cabai rawit while Murai Batu (Copsychus malabaricus) is one of the Indonesian bird which has a distinctive sound. This bird is widely found in the territory of Indonesia, therefore, it is exciting to combine cayenne pepper and Murai Batu into a study. This study aims to determine the effect of Murai Batu's sound toward stomatal pores of the cayenne pepper leaves. Two months old cayenne was used in this study. The sound of Murai Batu was obtained by directly recording it using a recording device. The sound recorded was then inserted into the sound analyzer software. The recording of Murai Batu's sound was exposed to the cayenne pepper plant, particularly its leaves. The stomatal pores area of cayenne leaves were observed under a computer-connected microscope. The results of the study show that Murai Batu's sound affects the area of the stomatal pores. The benefit of this study is to provide information regarding the potential of the Murai Batu's sound to increase the photosynthesis process of cayenne leaves by looking at the sound effects of birds' chirping on the stomatal pores leaves the area.
... It has also been found, that the radiation has direct effect on the production of enzymes, mainly alpha amylase in the plant system. Playing an appropriate tune has been found to stimulate the plants synthesis of its appropriate protein [21] . Different metabolic activities including enzyme activation and hormonal changes occur during seed germination and sound is known to directly affect biological systems including seed germination. ...
... Sound or US waves, which are one form of information transfer from the environment, are faster and have a lower energy investment than chemical stimuli (Gagliano 2013;Telewski 2006). Sound and US, which plants perceive as an external mechanical force or as an abiotic stressor, can modify growth and development as a way to adjust to their environment, including the effect of US with low frequency (≤ 60 kHz) in seed germination (Creath and Schwartz 2004), seedling and plant growth (Collins and Foreman 2001;Qi et al. 2010). Plantlets that are irradiated in vitro by US waves may experience increased growth, or organogenesis may be triggered, but the response depends on the plant species as well as the frequency and period of exposure to US (Teixeira da Silva and Dobránszki 2014a). ...
Article
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Key message In response to an ultrasound pulse, several hundred DEGs, including in response to stress, were up- or down-regulated in in vitro potato plantlets. Despite this abiotic stress, plantlets survived. Abstract Ultrasound (US) can influence plant growth and development. To better understand the genetic mechanism underlying the physiological response of potato to US, single-node segments of four-week-old in vitro plantlets were subjected to US at 35 kHz for 20 min. Following mRNA purification, 10 cDNA libraries were assessed by RNA-seq. Significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were categorized by gene ontology or Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes identifiers. The expression intensity of 40,430 genes was studied. Several hundred DEGs associated with biosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and catabolism, cellular protein modification, and response to stress, and which were expressed mainly in the extracellular region, nucleus, and plasma membrane, were either up- or down-regulated in response to US. RT-qPCR was used to validate RNA-seq data of 10 highly up- or down-regulated DEGs, and both Spearman and Pearson correlations between SeqMonk LFC and RT-qPCR LFC were highly positive (0.97). This study examines how some processes evolved over time (0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 1 week and 4 weeks) after an abiotic stress (US) was imposed on in vitro potato explants, and provides clues to the temporal dynamics in DEG-based enzyme functions in response to this stress. Despite this abiotic stress, plantlets survived.
... However, the exact mechanism of this effect and the stimulus is not clear yet (Gagliano et al. 2012;Gagliano and Renton 2013). In recent years, studies have been conducted in which audible sound waves were used in various physiological stages of plant growth like germination of the seeds, callus growth, endogenous hormones, photosynthesis mechanism, and the transcription of certain genes (Collins and Foreman 2001;Creath and Schwartz 2004;Telewski 2006;Gagliano and Renton 2013). In actual fact, sound waves and ultrasound waves are among the abiotic stress factors on plants. ...
Article
Sound stress is an abiotic stress factor wherein the sound wave form affects the growth and development of plants as an alternative mechanical stress. To explore this, 10-week-old tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were used in this experiment. The tomato plants were exposed to three different frequency values consecutively: 600 Hz in the first week, 1240 Hz in the second week and 1600 Hz in the third week. The decibel (dB) value was adjusted to 90 dB in the sound amplifier. At the end of the experiment, lycopene, vitamin C, total sugar, total acid and total phenol levels were analysed and pH and ⁰Brix were measured in tomato fruits. As a result, it was determined that as the sound frequency intensity level increased, the concentration of fruit parameters also increased: lycopene, vitamin C, total sugar, total acid and total phenol. The total phenol content, lycopene content and ascorbic acid of the tomato plants that were exposed to sound waves at different frequencies increased at a rate of 70%, 20% and 14%, respectively. According to the results of all measured parameters in tomato fruits, 1600 Hz has been determined the best of sound wave frequency value.
... Furthermore, Pujiwati and Djuhari (2014) found that the 15-day old Anjasmoro soybean variety when exposed to sound waves with a duration of 40 minutes produced the best results with seed production reaching 3.93 t/ha, or increased by 71%, compared with the average production of 2.25 to 2.30 t/ha. Exposure to high frequency sound waves is proven to optimise the stomatal opening of plant leaves (Collins & Foreman, 2001;Haryanti & Meirina, 2009). Rohmah (2012) reported that the stomata of soybean plant leaves opened wider when exposed to noise. ...
Article
Seventy percent of Indonesia's soybean demands and consumption are met from imports, and therefore, it is necessary to increase its local production. This study assessed the effects of harmonic frequency and sound intensity levels on the opening of stomata, the growth and yield of soybean. Experiments were conducted in a split plot design, with frequency harmony (F 4 : 4 kHz, F 8 : 8 kHz, F 12 : 12 kHz) being the main plots and sound intensity (A 50 : 50 decibels (dB), A 80 : 80 dB and A 110 : 110 dB) used as sub plots. The results showed there was no significant effect of frequency and intensity on the measured response (stomata opening). However, if they were compared with those at 0 frequency and 0 intensity, the stomata openings were significantly different based on t-test at p = 0.05. This means the opening of stomata was affected by resonance. In general, the sound level pressure attempted in the range of 50-110 dB had no effect on the width of stomata opening, but it affected to the growth and yield of soybean. The best growth of the leaf area and relative growth rate were in the presence of sound waves at a frequency of 4 kHz. Likewise, the best result of the average fresh weight of seed, dry weight of seed and harvest index were at a frequency of 4 kHz sound waves. The leaf area, seeds fresh and dry weight, and harvest index were also significantly highest at sound intensity of 50 dB. Therefore, to improve the productivity Istirochah Pujiwati, Nurul Aini, Setyawan P. Sakti and Bambang Guritno 964 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sc. 41 (3): 963-974 (2018) of soybean plants, exposure at a frequency of 4 kHz and sound intensity of 50 dB, followed by an application of leaf fertiliser according to recommended dosage is the best combination of treatment in growing soybean in Indonesia.
... Plants in nature are subjected to a combination of stress factors such as, for example, gravity [20,21], wind [22,23], electrostatic fields [24][25][26], sound in the air [27,28], and the atmosphere with varying temperature and moisture [29,30]; these external stimuli can affect morphology, growth, and thus cell cycles of plants. Collins et al. [31] reported that the maximal growth rate of plants is achieved when they are exposed to sound whose wavelength is similar to the dimension of their leaves. Moreover, the experiment of Tabaru et al. [32] in which Japanese radish sprouts' roots were exposed to ultrasound suggested a possibility of underwater ultrasound as a growth inhibitor; however, the effect of the underwater ultrasound intensity has not been studied very well, to our knowledge. ...
... While the effects of sound pollution on these species have not been specifically investigated, some research has been conducted on related taxa. Collins and Foreman (2001) showed that beans (Phaseolus sp.) grew less when exposed to random sound as compared to pure tones, suggesting noise pollution could negatively affect plants directly. Acoustic stimuli across a broad range of frequencies (100-10,000 Hz) have been shown to decrease feeding rates of green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Lee, Kim, Kang, & Jang, 2012). ...
Article
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Anthropogenic sound is increasingly considered a major environmental issue, but its effects are relatively unstudied. Organisms may be directly affected by anthropogenic sound in many ways, including interference with their ability to detect mates, predators, or food, and disturbances that directly affect one organism may in turn have indirect effects on others. Thus, to fully appreciate the net effect of anthropogenic sound, it may be important to consider both direct and indirect effects. We report here on a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that anthropogenic sound can generate cascading indirect effects within a community. We used a study system of lady beetles, soybean aphids, and soybean plants, which are a useful model for studying the direct and indirect effects of global change on food webs. For sound treatments, we used several types of music, as well as a mix of urban sounds (e.g., sirens, vehicles, and construction equipment), each at volumes comparable to a busy city street or farm tractor. In 18‐hr feeding trials, rock music and urban sounds caused lady beetles to consume fewer aphids, but other types of music had no effect even at the same volume. We then tested the effect of rock music on the strength of trophic cascades in a 2‐week experiment in plant growth chambers. When exposed to music by AC/DC, who articulated the null hypothesis that “rock and roll ain't noise pollution” in a song of the same name, lady beetles were less effective predators, resulting in higher aphid density and reduced final plant biomass relative to control (no music) treatments. While it is unclear what characteristics of sound generate these effects, our results reject the AC/DC hypothesis and demonstrate that altered interspecific interactions can transmit the indirect effects of anthropogenic noise through a community.
... Few records on the adverse effects of noise show that it has negative effects on seedling recruitment, survival, and establishment (Francis, Kleist, Ortega, & Cruz, 2012). Random noise has been reported to affect plant growth negatively (Collins & Foreman, 2001). Similarly, in a recent study, noise has been reported to have profound effects on seed germination, plant height, and number of leaves of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba grown in India (Vanol & Vaidya, 2014 Generally, in most oil-producing countries of the world, the major causes of oil spillages include pipeline leakages, hose failures of loading tankers, malfunctioning of the vehicular-hose manifold, blowouts, oil wells and flow-lines sabotage, and over-pressure failures/overflow of process equipment components (Awobajo, 1981;Okpokwasili & Amanchukwu, 1988). ...
Chapter
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Oil exploration and exploitation, the major anthropogenic activities in the Niger Delta region since the discovery of crude oil in 1956, have caused the spill of at least 9-13 million barrels of crude oil, making the region one among the five most severely damaged ecosystems in the world. The biodiversity richness of the Niger Delta, which was described as being "extraordinary" with diverse species of terrestrial and aquatic flora and fauna, formed one among the ten most important wetland and tropical rainforest ecosystems in the world. Oil spillage and gas flaring have deleteriously affected the ecosystems and humans inhabiting the region. This has led to soil compaction, poor seed germination and retarded plant growth, and loss of mangrove and tropical forest species. Decreased biodiversity, mutation of the wild genetic strains, and eventual death of most species have characterized the Niger Delta region in recent time. This invariably impacted on the humans whose livelihood is tied to the ecosystem services provided by the Niger Delta wetlands.
... Sound wave can accelerate growth of plants. It also shows obvious effect on the development of the plant [5]. ...
Conference Paper
Mushrooms are famous for their use as source of nutrient and medicinal purposes. Wild mushrooms grew in a large number in the nature after a heavy down pour. Some believes that the thunderstorm and lightning can have effects on the growth of mushrooms. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the impact of different acoustic sound treatment intervals towards the growth of grey oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju). Five different sound treatment intervals involved which were; no treatment (control), 5-day, 10-day, 15-day and 20 day. The variables investigated were mycelium growth rate, growth stage performance (durations for mycelium filling up the bags, pinhead emergence and fruiting bodies formation), yield (number of fruiting bodies, total weight of fruiting bodies and percentage of biological efficiency) and physical analyses (pileus size, colour and texture). There were significant differences (P<0.05) observed in the mycelium growth rate, mycelium filling up the bags and number of fruiting bodies formation among different treatment intervals. As conclusion, the sound treated at different intervals have significant impact on the growth and yield of mushroom production where treatment at 5-day intervals was found to be the best treatment interval.
... Plant Acoustic Frequency Technology (PAFT) an acoustic biology study which used sound technique through sound wave generator produces sound that complements the frequency of a certain resonance of a plant to stimulates plant growth, boost crop production, upgrade the quality of plants and improves disease endurance [1,2]. Studies conducted by Qingwu et al. [2] have shown that flowering, fruiting and chlorophyll content of pot-bred strawberry can be increased by using the PAFT technique. ...
... Reports indicate that plants enjoy music, and they respond to the different types of music and their wave-length. Optimum plant growth occurs when the plant is exposed to pure tones in which the wavelength coincides with the average of major leaf dimensions [16]. ...
Article
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Music influences the growth of plants and can either promote or restrict the growth of plants (depending on the type of music being played). The present experiment is aimed to study the effect of music on 30 Rose (Rosa chinensis) plants taken in separate pots. The plants were divided into five groups and each group was subjected to one of the following types of music, Indian Classical music, Vedic chants, Western Classical music, and Rock music while one group was kept in silence as the control group. The elongation of shoot, internode elongation, the number of flowers and the diameter of the flowers were recorded and changed studied over a period of 60 days. Significant differences have been noted. It was seen that the plants exposed to Vedic chants showed the maximum elongation of shoot, maximum number of flowers and highest diameter of flowers. The internode elongation was highest in plants exposed to Indian classical music. This clearly shows that the subjecting the plants to Vedic chants or Indian classical music promotes the growth of plants as compared to the control group or subjecting them to Western classical or Rock music.
... The authors reported that optimum plant growth occurred when the plant was exposed to pure tone sound in which the wavelength coincided with the average of major leaf dimensions. The plant growth was decreased when exposed to random noise (Collins and Foreman, 2001). ...
Article
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Plant growth is considered the sum of cell proliferation and subsequent elongation of the cells. The continuous proliferation and elongation of plant cells are vital to the production of new organs, which have a significant impact on overall plant growth. Accordingly, the relationship between environmental stimuli, such as temperature, light, wind, and sound waves to plant growth is of great interest in studies of plant development. Sound waves can have negative or positive effects on plant growth. In this review paper we have summarized the relationship between sound waves and plant growth response. Sound waves with specific frequencies and intensities can have positive effects on various plant biological indices including seed germination, root elongation, plant height, callus growth, cell cycling, signaling transduction systems, enzymatic and hormonal activities, and gene expression.
... This could be due to incompatibility on type of rhytm for this particular orchid species and interruption during the growing process. Several studies reported that, slight stress could cause damage or promote the division on plant cells [26][27][8]. The different musical elements used gave different sound wave frequencies and produce various stimulations towards the plants [25]. ...
Conference Paper
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It had been found that sound plays it own role in influencing plant growth by better development and even positive genetic characters. However, only several researches are being conducted to date on determining type of sounds that effect the plants growth. Therefore, the objective of this study is to compare the in vitro growth rate of 3 different types of orchids exposed to 5 genres of rhythm. The 3 species of orchid seeds were from Bulbophyllum longisepalum, Dendrobium anosmum and Dendrobium tanii. The types of genre used were Instrumental group, Ballad group, Yasin group, Hiphop and Rock group. Each seeds was exposed to the different rhythm for 8 hours per day for 3 months and in vitro cultured under 25±2 o C in dark condition for 8 weeks and further cultivated under light for 4 weeks. The seeds were cultured with sterile technique on half strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 30g/L sucrose, 1 g/L activated charcoal, 2 g/L agar and 2 g/L peptone. At the end of our analysis, we found that music gave positive influence on exposed plant as compared to the non-exposed. The highest seed germination, D. anosmum showed at 95% growth rate when exposed to Yasin rhythm, while D. tanii and B. longisepalum showed highest growth rate when exposed to Ballad and Rock rhythm at 90%, respectively. As the result, it is assured that plants definitely showed some effects when exposed to the music. The findings from this research showed that, different plant species required different rhythm for their best growth.
... Studies in the audible frequency range have examined effects on seed germination (Gnanam, 1960;Measures and Weinberger, 1973). They have focused on single frequencies in an attempt to map responses as a function of frequency (Collins and Foreman, 2001;Hageseth 1974;Measures and Weinberger, 1970;Weinberger and Das, 1972;Weinberger and Measures, 1978). However, these studies did not look at dynamically organized sound with the complexities of musical sound. ...
Article
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To measure biologic effects of music, noise, and healing energy without human preferences or placebo effects using seed germination as an objective biomarker. A series of five experiments were performed utilizing okra and zucchini seeds germinated in acoustically shielded, thermally insulated, dark, humid growth chambers. Conditions compared were an untreated control, musical sound, pink noise, and healing energy. Healing energy was administered for 15-20 minutes every 12 hours with the intention that the treated seeds would germinate faster than the untreated seeds. The objective marker was the number of seeds sprouted out of groups of 25 seeds counted at 12-hour intervals over a 72-hour growing period. Temperature and relative humidity were monitored every 15 minutes inside the seed germination containers. A total of 14 trials were run testing a total of 4600 seeds. Musical sound had a highly statistically significant effect on the number of seeds sprouted compared to the untreated control over all five experiments for the main condition (p < 0.002) and over time (p < 0.000002). This effect was independent of temperature, seed type, position in room, specific petri dish, and person doing the scoring. Musical sound had a significant effect compared to noise and an untreated control as a function of time (p < 0.03) while there was no significant difference between seeds exposed to noise and an untreated control. Healing energy also had a significant effect compared to an untreated control (main condition, p < 0.0006) and over time (p < 0.0001) with a magnitude of effect comparable to that of musical sound. This study suggests that sound vibrations (music and noise) as well as biofields (bioelectromagnetic and healing intention) both directly affect living biologic systems, and that a seed germination bioassay has the sensitivity to enable detection of effects caused by various applied energetic conditions.
Article
This research was conducted to determine the effect of classical music, hard rock and murottal against to vegetative growing of red spinach plants. The research used a completely randomizes design with 4 treatments and 5 replicates. ANOVA result showed that music exposure had significant effect on plant growth. Murottal exposure gave optimal result on plant height 35,70 cm, leaf area 43,40 cm2, root length 9,40 cm, stomata porous length 23,00 µm, wet weigh 15,59 g, and dry weight of the plant 11,25 g. Exposure to hard rock music gives optimal results on the amount of leaf chlorophyll is worth 34,52 spad unit.
Article
The function of roots is exceedingly important for crops and the observation of root growth is essential for understanding the plant physiology and for the improvement of crops productivity. The current study focused on the use of sound waves which can propagate in water and soil and are expected to interact with roots. In order to monitor the growth of roots non-invasively, a prototype sound-based root growth detection system was developed, and its performance was evaluated on Komatsuna. The attenuation amount of transmitted sound intensity increased during the cultivation period, and a positive correlation between the attenuation amount and roots growth was observed. Based on this observation, a sound-based root growth detection system has the possibility to indirectly detect root growth by an extremely low-cost and simple method.
Conference Paper
In the recent years music therapy is becoming popular even though it is known from ages that music has an impact on our physical and physiological conditions. Soothing and rhythmic music has an impact on physical and physiological conditions of living organisms plants, animals, especially human plays his flute with melodies, all are drawn towards the music as a magnetic attraction. Especially Secret of the Power is hidden in Indian vedic mantras. We have presented the experimental setup to study the effect of music on plant growth. It was notice that plant which is exposed to vedic chanting has a tremendous effect on growth, leaf size and inter-node. This experiment clearly indicate the vedic chanting (Mantras) having higher frequency which affect the ability of plants to perform their functions, resulting in greater growth.
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Sound waves research in Indonesia has been carried on the tea crop, peanuts, soybeans and potatoes. The result showed that there was an increase in the effectiveness of nutrient uptake and significant growth rate. This research used manipulated frequency of insect sounds, called “Garengpung”, is known as Audio Bioharmony (ABH). However, application of this technology has not been done in rubber, therefore the aim of the study was to find out effect of ABH toward rubber nursery and to find optimum frequency for rubber nursery. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design, with a frequency of 0 Hz, 3000 Hz, 3500Hz, 4000 Hz, 4500 Hz and 5000 Hz. The second factor was levels of fertilizer 50%, 75% and 100%. The results showed that the application of sound wave significantly influence growth rate of rubber in the nursery, while the level of fertilizer application had no significant effect. There was no significant interaction between sound wave frequency and fertilizer levels. The best plant height growth rate observed in treatment with 3500 Hz and 75% fertilizer level. The largest stem diameter growth rate was observed in treatment with 4000 Hz and 50% fertilizer level. Based on the regression curves the best frequency to obtain optimal growth of stem diameter was 4271.9 Hz.
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