Article

Anti-ulcer Effect of Cinnamon and Chamomile Aqueous Extracts in Rat Models

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Abstract

Peptic ulcer disease is a problem of the gastrointestinal tract. Nowadays, drugs are expensive and have many side effects during treatment of any disorders. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate and compare antiulcer effect of cinnamon and chamomile aqueous extracts at doses of 100, 200 , 300, 400mg/kg of body weight (b.wt) with antiulcer drug (Zantac ™ Ranitidine). Fifty male rats weighing 160±5g were distributed into ten groups. Group I serves as a positive group. Group II serves as control group (treated with drug). Groups III, IV, V and VI were administered orally the different doses of cinnamon aqueous extract (CIAE). Groups VII, VIII, IX and X were administered orally the different doses of chamomile aqueous extract (CHAE). Values of pH and volume of gastric juice, ulcer area and curative ratio were estimated as well as histopathological examination of stomach. Results revealed that treatment with Zantac and CIAE or CHAE was associated with significant increase in pH values compared to the respective value of the positive group. CHAE was superior to that of CIAE. Oral administration of CIAE or CHAE was associated with significant reduction in the volume of gastric juice compared to positive and control groups. A curative ratio of gastric ulcer was better in rats given CIAE or CHAE over those given Zantac. Furthermore, CHAE was superior over CIAE in its curative ratios of gastric ulcer. Histological study showed necrosis of gastric mucosa associated with congestion of submucosal blood vessels, submucosal edema and hemorrhage in the stomachs of positive rats. The stomachs of group receiving Zantac showed necrosis of gastric mucosa associated with hemorrhage. Whereas, higher dosages of CIAE (300 or 400 mg/kg of b. wt and CHAE dosages i.e., 200, 300 or 400 mg/kg of b.wt were efficient to arrest histopathological changes in the stomachs. In conclusion: results revealed that CHAE and CHAE had potential antiulcer effect, which was superior to the respective effect observed with Zantac. Chamomile extracts were more superior to cinnamon in its protection of the stomach. The antiulcer effect was dose dependent with no adverse effects. [Journal of American Science. 2010 ;6(12):209-216]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

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... The methods described by Rezq and Elmallh (2010) were employed in these studies. ...
... The methods described byRezq and Elmallh (2010)were employed in these studies. ...
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The effects of cinnamon bark and olive leaf have been investigated on streptozotocin-induced tissue injury, and some biochemical and haematological changes in rats. The effects on glycaemia were also evaluated. Long-term administration of olive leaf caused significant improvement in tissue injury induced by streptozotocin treatment; the effect of cinnamon bark was less extent. No effects on blood glucose levels were detected. However, significant decreases in some increased biochemical and haematological parameters of streptozotocin-treated rats were observed. Aspartate aminotransferase, urea and cholesterol levels were significantly decreased by treatment with both plant materials, and alanine aminotransferase by treatment with olive leaf. Cinnamon bark also caused a significant decrease in platelet counts. In addition, any visible toxicity, except decrease in body weight gain, attributable to the long-term use of plant materials was not established in normal rats. The data indicate that long-term use of olive leaf and cinnamon bark may provide benefit against diabetic conditions. Determination of underlying mechanism(s) of beneficial effects, toxicity to other systems and clinical assessments of related plant materials are major topics requiring further studies.
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The hydro-distilled volatile oil of the Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) buds was analyzed using GC and GC-MS for the first time. Thirty-four compounds representing approximately 98% of the oil was characterized. It consists of terpene hydrocarbons (78%) and oxygenated terpenoids (9%). alpha-Bergamotene (27.38%) and alpha-copaene (23.05%) are found to be the major compounds. A comparison of the chemical composition of the oil was made with that of flowers and fruits.
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The objective of this study was to determine whether cinnamon improves blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol levels in people with type 2 diabetes. A total of 60 people with type 2 diabetes, 30 men and 30 women aged 52.2 +/- 6.32 years, were divided randomly into six groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 consumed 1, 3, or 6 g of cinnamon daily, respectively, and groups 4, 5, and 6 were given placebo capsules corresponding to the number of capsules consumed for the three levels of cinnamon. The cinnamon was consumed for 40 days followed by a 20-day washout period. After 40 days, all three levels of cinnamon reduced the mean fasting serum glucose (18-29%), triglyceride (23-30%), LDL cholesterol (7-27%), and total cholesterol (12-26%) levels; no significant changes were noted in the placebo groups. Changes in HDL cholesterol were not significant. The results of this study demonstrate that intake of 1, 3, or 6 g of cinnamon per day reduces serum glucose, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol in people with type 2 diabetes and suggest that the inclusion of cinnamon in the diet of people with type 2 diabetes will reduce risk factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
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The intraperitoneal administration of an aqueous extract of Chinese cinnamon ( CINNAMOMUM CASSIA) to rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight prevented the occurrence of stress ulcers under exposure to a cold atmosphere (3-5 degrees C) or on restraint in water (22-24 degrees C). This extract, which was administered to rats orally or intraperitoneally, also strongly inhibited gastric ulcers induced by a subcutaneous injection of serotonin in rats. Pharmacological studies have shown that the aqueous extract not only inhibits gastric secretion, but also promotes gastric mucosal blood flow. These results suggest that the antiulcerogenic effect of Chinese cinnamon is due to both the inhibition of aggressive factors and the potentiation of a defensive factor.
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Botanical products are frequently used for treatment of nasal allergy. Three of these substances, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Malpighia glabra, and Bidens pilosa, have been shown to have a number of anti-allergic properties in-vitro. The current study was conducted to determine the effects of these combined ingredients upon the nasal response to allergen challenge in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Twenty subjects were randomized to receive the combination botanical product, (CBP) 2 tablets three times a day, loratadine, 10 mg once a day in the morning, or placebo, using a randomized, double-blinded crossover design. Following 2 days of each treatment and during the third day of treatment, subjects underwent a nasal allergen challenge (NAC), in which nasal symptoms were assessed after each challenge dose and every 2 hours for 8 hours. Nasal lavage fluid was assessed for tryptase, prostaglandin D2, and leukotriene E4 concentrations and inflammatory cells. Loratadine significantly reduced the total nasal symptom score during the NAC compared with placebo (P = 0.04) while the CBP did not. During the 8 hour period following NAC, loratadine and the CBP both reduced NSS compared with placebo (P = 0.034 and P = 0.029, respectively). Analysis of nasal lavage fluid demonstrated that the CBP prevented the increase in prostaglandin D2 release following NAC, while neither loratadine nor placebo had this effect. None of the treatments significantly affected tryptase or leukotriene E4 release or inflammatory cell infiltration. The CBP significantly reduced NSS during the 8 hours following NAC and marginally inhibited the release of prostaglandin D2 into nasal lavage fluid, suggesting potential clinical utility in patients with allergic rhinitis.
Article
Using standard disk diffusion method the antibacterial activity of aqueous infusion, decoction and essential oil of Cinnamomum cassia (Cinnamon bark) were investigated against 178 bacterial strains belonging to 12 different genera of bacterial population isolated from oral cavity of 250 specimens of apparently healthy individuals aged between 2-85 years. Overall, the oil of Cinnamomum cassia inhibited all type of tested bacterial strains except Salmonella para typhi B exhibiting 99.4% antibacterial effect as compared to aqueous decoction (70.2%) and aqueous infusion (52.2%).
Article
Large cardamom (fruit of Amomum subulatum Roxb, N.O. Zingiberaceae) commonly known as ‘Heel kalan’ or ‘Bari Ilaichi’ is used in Unani system of medicine in gastrointestinal disorders. A crude methanolic extract and its different fractions, viz. essential oil, petroleum ether (60–80°), ethyl acetate and methanolic fractions, were studied in rats for their ability to inhibit the gastric lesions induced by aspirin, ethanol and pylorus ligature. In addition their effects on wall mucus, output of gastric acid and pepsin concentration were recorded. The crude methanolic extract of A. subulatum and its fractions, viz. essential oil, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate, inhibited gastric lesions induced by ethanol significantly, but not those which were induced by pylorus ligation and aspirin. However, ethyl acetate fraction increased the wall mucus in pylorus ligated rats. The results suggest a direct protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction on gastric mucosal barrier. While the observation of decrease in gastric motility by essential oil and petroleum ether fractions suggests the gastroprotective action of the test drug. These investigations validate the use of ‘Heel kalan’ in gastrointestinal disorders by Unani physicians.
Article
Seaweed extracts have recently been found to have antioxidant and antitumor activities. Capsosiphon fulvescens (Cf) is a green alga and nutrient-dense food source. In a previous study, we extracted polysaccharide from Cf (Cf-PS) and demonstrated its antitumor effect in gastric cancer cells. In this report, we describe the protective effect of Cf-PS against alcohol-induced gastric injury in rats and adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells. In vivo assay revealed stomach damage in rats treated with alcohol alone; however, the stomach condition of rats co-treated with Cf-PS and alcohol matched that of the control group. Cf-PS also inhibited alcohol-induced cell death in AGS cells. Compared with alcohol treatment alone, Cf-PS and alcohol co-treatment increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Akt but inhibited poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Thus, ERK1/2 and Akt activation are instrumental in the protective effect of Cf-PS against alcohol-induced cell death in AGS cells. Moreover, Cf-PS treatment reduced the expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the inducible form of nitric oxide (iNOS), proteins related to ulcers. These results suggest that Cf-PS could help protect against alcohol-induced peptic ulcers.
Article
Background: There is extensive variety of chemical compoundswith antiulcer activity, which are isolated from medicinalplants. Matricaria chamomilla or Matricaria recutita orGerman chamomile, also spelled chamomile (MC), is one ofthe most widely used medicinal plants. In the present study,the extract of MC flowers was evaluated for antiulcerogenicactivity and acute toxicity profile.Methods: To evaluate antiulcer effect of MC extract, 15 femalebulb-c mice were divided into three groups (five mice ineach group). The first and second groups received 400 mg/kgsucralfate and 400 mg/kg MC extract respectively by the intragastricroute. The control group received 1.0 ml distilledwater. After 30 min, gastric ulceration was induced by oraladministration of 1.0 ml of a 0.3 M solution of HCl in 60%ethanol in all animals. One hour later, the area of the gastriclesions and hemorrhage was measured by stereologicalmethod. To evaluate the toxicity of MC extract, 10 male and10 female mice were divided into control and experimentalgroups (5 mice in each group). The experimental and controlgroups received by the intragastric route a single dose of5000 mg/kg MC extract and water respectively. After 14 daysthe mice’s liver, kidneys, lung, and heart were examined macroscopicallyand the relative weights (organ/body) were determined.Statistical comparisons between the groups wereperformed by Mann-Whitney U test.Results: Oral administration of MC extract at 400 mg/kg canbe effective in preventing gastric ulceration in mice and doesnot produce toxic effects in doses up to 5000 mg/kg.Conclusion: Matricaria chamomilla can prevent experimentalgastric ulcer in mice.
Sucralfate has a complex effect on the luminal and mucosal environment of the stomach and duodenum. Some of the actions are important in ulcer healing whilst others are important in preventing subsequent ulcer relapse. Although sucralfate has little direct effect on acid secretion, there is evidence that after ulcer healing with this drug, parietal cell responsiveness is reduced. This may in part be mediated by increased somatostatin release from gastric D cells and may be important in reducing ulcer relapse. Sucralfate has been shown to increase mucosal resistance to damaging agents, such as ethanol and aspirin. Studies have shown that this protective action may be related to the drugs effect on various protective zones such as the 'mucous-bicarbonate' barrier, mucosal hydrophobicity, epithelial cell function and morphology, and mucosal blood flow. These complex actions of sucralfate are in part related to direct interaction between the drug or its components and gastroduodenal tissues, and in part related to effects on various mediators of tissue injury and repair.
Article
An unidentified factor that potentiates the action of insulin in glucose metabolism was investigated in selected foods and spices. Chromium content of these foods and spices was also determined. Foods and spices were extracted with 0.1N NH4OH (1:20, w/v) and the supernatants assayed for insulin potentiation activity in the rat epididymal fat cell assay. Among the selected foods, tuna fish, peanut butter, and vanilla ice cream had some insulin potentiating activity. Among the spices, apple pie spice, cinnamon, cloves, bay leaves, and turmeric potentiated insulin activity more than three-fold. Chromium concentration of foods ranged from 1 to 145 ng/g, and spices ranged from 4 to 1818 ng/g. Insulin potentiating activity of foods and spices did not correlate with total chromium. Spices are generally used for flavor and taste in food preparations, but cinnamon, cloves, bay leaves, and turmeric may have an additional role in glucose metabolism.
Article
In a double-blind trial, the therapeutic efficacy of chamomile extract was tested on 14 patients. As objective parameters served the epithelial and drying effect on weeping wound area after dermabrasion of tattoos. The period of the healing and drying process was judged by the doctor. The decrease of the weeping wound area as well as the drying tendency was statistically significant.
Article
Histologic or ultrastructural evidence of the ability of sucralfate to protect the gastric mucosa against ethanol injury is lacking. Therefore we analyzed morphologic and functional changes in the mucosa of 120 rats receiving, intragastrically, 2 ml of either sucralfate 500 mg/kg body wt or a control solution and 1 h later 2 ml of 100% ethanol. At 15 min, 1, 4, 6, and 24 h after ethanol instillation, mucosal changes were assessed by macroscopic examination, quantitative histology, scanning electron microscopy, recordings of gastric potential difference, and measurements of volume, pH, and electrolytes in the gastric contents. Between 15 min and 24 h after ethanol instillation, macroscopic necrotic lesions in controls involved greater than 33% of mucosal area and in the sucralfate-treated group less than 4% (p less than 0.001 for each period). In controls, ethanol instillation produced surface epithelial cell disruption and deep (greater than 0.2 mm) mucosal necrosis involving greater than 55% +/- 3% of the mucosal length. In sucralfate-pretreated animals, disruption of the surface epithelium was present at 15 min, 1 h, and 4 h after ethanol instillation, but deep necrotic lesions were virtually absent (0%-2%; p less than 0.001 vs. controls) during the entire study period. The surface epithelium was mostly reestablished by 6 h after ethanol instillation in the sucralfate group but not in the controls. We concluded that sucralfate protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced injury by preventing deep mucosal necrosis and as a consequence the mucosal proliferative zone cells rapidly restitute mucosal integrity.
Article
This study deals with the antiulcer effect of water extract and ether extract of Cinnamomum cassia on four types of experimental gastric ulcer and with the antidiarrhea effect on two types of medicine-induced diarrhea in mice. These extracts have choleretic effect in anesthetized rats, and are analgesic as well. This is the pharmacologic basis of spleen-stomach warming and analgesic action of Cinnamomum cassia.
Article
A substance that inhibits the activity of bacterial endotoxin (LPS) was found in cinnamon bark. The inhibitor, extracted from dry cinnamon bark with 67% ethanol/water, was purified by using Limulus gelation activity as an indicator of endotoxin activity. The inhibitor suppressed the activity of the LPS when it was mixed with the inhibitor prior to the assay. The reduction of the LPS activity depended on the concentration of both the inhibitor and LPS when mixed, and also on the incubation time. The inhibitor suppressed the activity of all LPS and lipid A preparations tested regardless of the origin of the bacteria. The inhibitor alone did not affect the Limulus system. These results indicate that the inhibition was caused by direct interaction of the inhibitor with the LPS molecule. Furthermore the inhibitor abrogated the pyrogenicity of the LPS. Although it is uncertain whether the inhibitor actually plays a role in the defense mechanism in cinnamon bark, this is the first report that an inhibitor of bacterial endotoxin exists in a plant.
Article
In a prospective, double-blind, randomised, multicentre, parallel group study, children (6 months to 5.5 years of age) with acute, non-complicated diarrhea received either a preparation containing apple pectin and chamomile extract (Diarrhoesan, n = 39) or placebo (n = 40) in addition to the usual rehydration and realimentation diet. At the end of three days of treatment, the diarrhea had ended significantly (p < 0.05) more frequently in the pectin/chamomile (33/39) than in the placebo group (23/40). Pectin/chamomile reduced the duration of diarrhea significantly (p < 0.05) by at least 5.2 h. The parents documented the well-being in a diary twice daily; in contrast to placebo, a trend of continuous improvement was observed in the pectin/chamomile group. The parents expressed their contentment more frequently (82%) with pectin/chamomile than with placebo (60%, not significant). There were no further differences between the treatment groups.
Article
The adhesion of microbes on host cells is of decisive importance in the development of Gram-negative microbe-induced infections and can be influenced by the surface hydrophobicity of the microbial cell. The hydrophobicity of 155 Escherichia coli strains of different origin was determined by the salt aggregation test (SAT). Among the strains isolated from faecal samples of healthy persons only 16.7% showed aggregative properties, whereas among the strains isolated from the urine of patients with pyelonephritis and the faecal samples of calves and pigs with diarrhoea some 40.0%-60.0% were aggregative. The influence of aqueous extracts prepared from bearberry leaves, St. John's wort herbs, wild camomile and marigold flowers on hydrophobicity of 40 E. coli and 20 Acinetobacter baumannii strains was investigated. The decoctions of bearberry and St. John's wort increased remarkably the hydrophobicity of both microbial species. The infusions of wild camomile and marigold completely blocked the aggregative properties of the investigated strains. Bactericidal action was relatively low in the case of bearberry and St. John's wort and completely lacking in the case of wild camomile and marigold. Thus, one of the probable and potentially important action mechanisms of the four medicinal plants studied is their ability to influence the surface characteristics of the microbial cells and thereby their putative virulence properties.
Article
Effects on aqueous extracts of medicinal plants on ten Helicobacter pylori strains were studied by the salt aggregation test to determine the possibility to modulate their cell surface hydrophobicity and by an agar diffusion assay for detection of antimicrobial activity. It was established that aqueous extracts of bearberry and cowberry leaves enhance cell aggregation of all H. pylori strains tested by the salt aggregation test, and the extract of bearberry possessed a remarkable bacteriostatic activity. Pure tannic acid showed a result similar to that of bearberry and cowberry extracts which contained a large amount of tannins. In contrast, extracts of wild camomile and pineapple-weed, which blocked aggregation of H. pylori, contained small amounts of tannins and did not reveal any antimicrobial activity. Tannic acid seems to be the component of bearberry and cowberry aqueous extracts with the highest activity to decrease cell surface hydrophobicity as well as in antibacterial activity against H. pylori.
Article
Herbs have been used as food and for medicinal purposes for centuries. Research interest has focused on various herbs that possess hypolipidemic, antiplatelet, antitumor, or immune-stimulating properties that may be useful adjuncts in helping reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. In different herbs, a wide variety of active phytochemicals, including the flavonoids, terpenoids, lignans, sulfides, polyphenolics, carotenoids, coumarins, saponins, plant sterols, curcumins, and phthalides have been identified. Several of these phytochemicals either inhibit nitrosation or the formation of DNA adducts or stimulate the activity of protective enzymes such as the Phase II enzyme glutathione transferase (EC 2.5.1.18). Research has centered around the biochemical activity of the Allium sp. and the Labiatae, Umbelliferae, and Zingiberaceae families, as well as flaxseed, licorice root, and green tea. Many of these herbs contain potent antioxidant compounds that provide significant protection against chronic diseases. These compounds may protect LDL cholesterol from oxidation, inhibit cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes, inhibit lipid peroxidation, or have antiviral or antitumor activity. The volatile essential oils of commonly used culinary herbs, spices, and herbal teas inhibit mevalonate synthesis and thereby suppress cholesterol synthesis and tumor growth.
Article
To evaluate the possible effects on insulin function, 49 herb, spice, and medicinal plant extracts were tested in the insulin-dependent utilization of glucose using a rat epididymal adipocyte assay. Cinnamon was the most bioactive product followed by witch hazel, green and black teas, allspice, bay leaves, nutmeg, cloves, mushrooms, and brewer's yeast. The glucose oxidation enhancing bioactivity was lost from cinnamon, tea, witch hazel, cloves, bay leaf and allspice by poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) treatment, indicating that the active phytochemicals are likely to be phenolic in nature. The activity of sage, mushrooms, and brewers's yeast was not removed by PVP. Some products such as Korean ginseng, flaxseed meal, and basil have been reported to be effective antidiabetic agents; however, they were only marginally active in our assay. Our technique measures direct stimulation of cellular glucose metabolism, so it may be that the active phytochemicals in these plants improve glucose metabolism via other mechanisms or that this in vitro screening is not a reliable predictor of hypoglycemic effects in vivo for some products. In summary, the positive effects of specific plant extracts on insulin activity suggest a possible role of these plants in improving glucose and insulin metabolism.
Article
Antiulzerogene Wirkung von im Magen-Darm-Trakt wirksamen Pflanzenextrakten und ihrer Kombination Auszüge aus den Pflanzen Iberis amara, Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Carum carvi, Mentha × piperita, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Angelica archangelica, Sily-bum marianum und Chelidonium majus, einzeln und in Kombination, wurden an Indometacin-induzierten Magenulzera der Ratte auf ihre antiulzerogene Wirkung sowie auf ihre antisekretorischen und zytoprotektiven Eigenschaften geprüft. Die geprüften Kombinationen wa-ren das Handelspräparat STW 5 (Ibero-gast®) und eine modifizierte Formulierung, STW 5-II, bei der die oben zuletzt genannten drei Pflanzen fehlen. Alle Extrakte hatten eine dosisabhängige antiulzerogene Wirkung in Verbindung mit einer reduzierten Säuresekretion sowie einer erhöhten Mucin- (Schleim-) Produktion, einer Zunahme der Prostaglandin E2-Freisetzung und einer Abnahme der Leukotrien-Konzentration. Der Einfluß auf die Pepsin-Konzentration war variabel und scheint keine Beziehung zur anti-ulzerogenen Wirkung zu haben. Die besten Effekte wurden mit den fixen Kombinationen STW 5 und STW 5-II, 10 ml/kg KG, erzielt, vergleichbar mit Cimetidin 100 mg/kg KG. Die antiulzerogene Wir-kung der Extrakte wurde auch durch die histologischen Untersuchungen bestätigt. Die zytoprotektive Wirkung der Extrakte dürfte teilweise auf ihren Flavonoid-Gehalt und ihre Radikalfänger-Eigenschaft zurückzuführen sein.
Article
Different preparations of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) are used to treat various diseases, including inflammation and cancer; however, no studies on the plant's antigenotoxic capacity have been made. The aim of the present work was to determine the inhibitory effect of the chamomile essential oil (CO), on the sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) produced by daunorubicin and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in mouse bone marrow cells. CO was analyzed and was found to contain 13 compounds, mainly bisabolol and its oxides, chamazulene, farnesene, germacrene and other sesquiterpenes. Initially, a toxic and a genotoxic analysis of CO were made; both showed negative results. To determine whether CO can inhibit the mutagenic effects induced by daunorubicin, one group of mice was administered corn oil, another group was treated with the mutagen (10 mg/kg), a third group was treated with 500 mg/kg of CO; three other groups were treated first with CO (5, 50 and 500 mg/kg) and then with 10 mg/kg of daunorubicin. In the case of MMS, the experimental groups consisted of the following: the negative control group which was administered corn oil, a group treated with 25 mg/kg of MMS, a group treated with 1000 mg/kg of CO, and three groups treated first with CO (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) and then with MMS (25 mg/kg). The results indicated a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the SCEs formed by both mutagens. In the case of daunorubicin, a statistically significant result was observed in the three tested doses: from the lowest to the highest dose, the inhibitory values corresponded to 25.7, 63.1 and 75.5%. No alterations were found with respect to the cellular proliferation kinetics, but a reduction in the mitotic index was detected. As regards MMS, the inhibitory values were 24.8, 45.8 and 60.6%; no alterations were found in either the cellular proliferation kinetics or in the mitotic indices. Our results suggest that CO may be an effective antimutagen that could be considered for further study.
Article
Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L., Chamomilla recutita L., Matricaria chamomilla) is one of the most popular single ingredient herbal teas, or tisanes. Chamomile tea, brewed from dried flower heads, has been used traditionally for medicinal purposes. Evidence-based information regarding the bioactivity of this herb is presented. The main constituents of the flowers include several phenolic compounds, primarily the flavonoids apigenin, quercetin, patuletin, luteolin and their glucosides. The principal components of the essential oil extracted from the flowers are the terpenoids alpha-bisabolol and its oxides and azulenes, including chamazulene. Chamomile has moderate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and significant antiplatelet activity in vitro. Animal model studies indicate potent antiinflammatory action, some antimutagenic and cholesterol-lowering activities, as well as antispasmotic and anxiolytic effects. However, human studies are limited, and clinical trials examining the purported sedative properties of chamomile tea are absent. Adverse reactions to chamomile, consumed as a tisane or applied topically, have been reported among those with allergies to other plants in the daisy family, i.e. Asteraceae or Compositae.
Article
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is a difficult to treat and quite common chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa. This study evaluates the fluid extract from Chamomilla recutita's safety and effectiveness in pain relief from aphthous stomatitis and other painful ulcers of the oral mucous membrane. The analgesic effect was considered excellent by 82% and good by 18% of the patients, as demonstrated with the Analogical Visual Scale for chronic and experimental pains after 5, 10, and 15 minutes. Tolerance was evaluated as excellent by 97% and good by 1% of the subjects. The fluid extract from Chamomilla recutita, due to its analgesic effect, may give these patients a better quality of life.
Article
The antibacterial activity of an oil extract of Chamomilla recutita flowers against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was evaluated by the agar dilution method using Colombia agar with 10% sheep blood, an inoculum of McFarland 0.5 and incubation in an anaerobic atmosphere at 37 degrees C for 3 days. The oil extract was prepared by olive oil extraction of Chamomilla recutita flowers using rotary pulsation. The MIC(90) (minimal inhibitory concentration) and MIC(50) were 125 mg/mL and 62.5 mg/mL, respectively. It was shown that the Chamomilla recutita oil extract inhibited the production of urease by H. pylori. In addition, it was found that the morphological and fermentative properties of H. pylori were affected by application of the Chamomilla recutita oil extract.
Article
Peptic ulcer disease usually occurs in the stomach and proximal duodenum. The predominant causes in the United States are infection with Helicobacter pylori and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Symptoms of peptic ulcer disease include epigastric discomfort (specifically, pain relieved by food intake or antacids and pain that causes awakening at night or that occurs between meals), loss of appetite, and weight loss. Older patients and patients with alarm symptoms indicating a complication or malignancy should have prompt endoscopy. Patients taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should discontinue their use. For younger patients with no alarm symptoms, a test-and-treat strategy based on the results of H. pylori testing is recommended. If H. pylori infection is diagnosed, the infection should be eradicated and antisecretory therapy (preferably with a proton pump inhibitor) given for four weeks. Patients with persistent symptoms should be referred for endoscopy. Surgery is indicated if complications develop or if the ulcer is unresponsive to medications. Bleeding is the most common indication for surgery. Administration of proton pump inhibitors and endoscopic therapy control most bleeds. Perforation and gastric outlet obstruction are rare but serious complications. Peritonitis is a surgical emergency requiring patient resuscitation; laparotomy and peritoneal toilet; omental patch placement; and, in selected patients, surgery for ulcer control.
Effect of piper longgum linn, zingiber officinal is linn and ferule species n gasric ulceration and secretion in rats
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