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This study was carried out to determine the effects of microbial inoculation in breaking seed dormancy and on the germination of Rosa damascena Mill. Seeds of R. damascena Mill. are the most used scented rose species in rose oil production. The most important production centers around the world are Turkey and Bulgaria. The seeds were subjected to 4 weeks of warm stratification at 25°C, followed by 150 days of cold stratification at 4 ± 1°C. Before stratification, 4 different microbial fertilizers, EM • 1 ® , B:speel™, Bioplin TM and Phosfert™ were inoculated to the seeds. In the study, the microbial inoculation treatments significantly (p < 0.01) promoted the premature germination percentage during cold stratification. During the stratification, the highest premature germination percentage was obtained from the EM • 1 ® (69.3%). The highest germination percentage in terms of cumulative germination percentage was determined in EM • 1 ® (100.0%), followed by Phosfert™ (84.0%) and B: seepel™ (84.0%), whereas the lowest germination percentage was found in the control treatment (69.3%). The EM • 1 ® shortened the mean germination time by 1.7 days in comparison to the control. In conclusion, it was observed that with microbial inoculation (particularly EM • 1 ®) to oil rose seeds and a stratification time of 150 days, dormancy was broken and germination highly improved.
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African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9(39), pp. 6503-6508, 27 September, 2010
Available online at
ISSN 1684–5315 ©2010 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Breaking seed dormancy in oil rose (Rosa damascena
Mill.) by microbial inoculation
Soner Kazaz1*, Sabri Erba2 and Hasan Baydar2
1Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta 32260, Turkey.
2Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta 32260, Turkey.
Accepted 11 August, 2010
This study was carried out to determine the effects of microbial inoculation in breaking seed dormancy
and on the germination of Rosa damascena Mill. Seeds of R. damascena Mill. are the most used
scented rose species in rose oil production. The most important production centers around the world
are Turkey and Bulgaria. The seeds were subjected to 4 weeks of warm stratification at 25°C, followed
by 150 days of cold stratification at 4 ± 1°C. Before stratification, 4 different microbial fertilizers, EM•1®,
B:speel™, BioplinTM and Phosfert™ were inoculated to the seeds. In the study, the microbial
inoculation treatments significantly (p < 0.01) promoted the premature germination percentage during
cold stratification. During the stratification, the highest premature germination percentage was
obtained from the EM•1® (69.3%). The highest germination percentage in terms of cumulative
germination percentage was determined in EM•1® (100.0%), followed by Phosfert™ (84.0%) and B:
seepel™ (84.0%), whereas the lowest germination percentage was found in the control treatment
(69.3%). The EM•1® shortened the mean germination time by 1.7 days in comparison to the control. In
conclusion, it was observed that with microbial inoculation (particularly EM•1®) to oil rose seeds and a
stratification time of 150 days, dormancy was broken and germination highly improved.
Key words: Rosa damascena Mill, dormancy, germination, microbial inoculation, stratification.
The genus Rosa has over 130 species (Cairns, 2001)
that are native to the Northern Hemisphere (Krüssmann,
1981), and of these species, 25 are distributed in Turkey
(Kutbay and Kilinc, 1996; Ercisli, 2004). The primary
species used in rose oil production among rose species
are Rosa damascena Mill, Rosa gallica Linn., Rosa
centifolia Linn. and Rosa moschata Herm. (Tucker and
Maciarello, 1988). Among these species, R. damascena
is commonly used in oil production (Douglas, 1993).
Although oil rose is cultivated in many countries such as
*Corresponding author. E-mail: skazaz@ziraat. Tel:
+90 246 211 4656. Fax: +90 246 237 1693.
Abbreviations: ABA, Abscisic acid; PSB, phosphate
solubilizing bacteria; PGPR, plant growth promoting
rhizobacteria; GP, germination percentage; MGT, mean
germination time.
Turkey, Bulgaria, India, Iran, Egypt, Morocco and Syria
(Büttner, 2001), the most important production centers in
the world are Turkey and Bulgaria. R. damascena Mill., a
perennial shrub, produces pink flowers in May-June. Oil
rose is a temperate zone plant and has well adapted to
climate zones, which receive abundant light and
adequate rain, and do not experience negative climatic
factors such as drought, excessive rainfall and freezing
during the flowering period but in which dew occurs
during the early morning hours. The primary products that
are obtained from oil rose and that are greatly demanded
in cosmetics industries include rose oil, rose water, rose
concrete and rose absolute (Kaur et al., 2007; Kazaz et
al., 2009). Fruits, fruit flesh and seeds of R. damascena
contain ascorbic acid 332.0, 546.0 and 145.0 mg/100 g,
respectively. Also R. damascena fruits can be used as
food and food additive similarly as with dog rose fruits
(Rosa canina) (Kazaz et al., 2009).
Rose seeds show both endogenous (morphological
and/or physiological) and exogenous (physical and/or
6504 Afr. J. Biotechnol.
mechanical) dormancy (Gudin et al., 1990; Ueda, 2003).
Rose seeds are surrounded by a hard-coated pericarp,
and the pericarp prevents water absorption and air diffu-
sion of the seed and at the same time is a physical
barrier to embryo expansion (Ueda, 2003; Zlesak, 2007;
Meyer, 2008). In addition, it was stated that high
concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) in the pericarp and
testa of rose seeds was a major germination inhibitor in
roses (Jackson, 1968; Cornforth et al., 1966; Bo et al.,
1995; Hartmann et al., 2002). It was reported that the
amount of ABA in a rose seed was 10- to 1000-fold
higher than those in other plants (Ueda, 2003). Due to
the above-mentioned reasons, the germination of rose
seeds is generally difficult. Prolonged dormancy delays
germination and reduces germination percentage. This is
a serious problem particularly in rose breeding and seed
propagation (Yambe and Takeno, 1992; Bo et al., 1995;
Hosafci et al., 2005; Zlesak, 2007).
The degree of dormancy varies by the time and
temperature required to overcome dormancy as well as
by germplasm, maturity at hip collection, time of seed
extraction, temperatures during seed development and
temperature and duration of stratification (Semeniuk and
Stewart, 1962; Gudin et al., 1990). One of the most com-
monly used methods to break dormancy and stimulate
germination in rose seeds is stratification (Zlesak, 2007).
Various methods, such as gibberellic acid (Hosafci et al.,
2005), hot water treatment (Younis et al., 2007), scarifi-
cation with sulphuric acid (Bhanuprakash et al., 2004)
and macerating enzymes (Yambe and Takeno, 1992),
have also been tried besides stratification. Even though
these methods are used alone or as a combination, it has
been reported that the germination percentages in some
rose species are still low. It was reported that the
germination percentages ranged from 0 to 10% in the 1st
year and from 24.7 to 73.7% in the 2nd year (Hosafci et
al., 2005). Belletti et al. (2003) reported that they ranged
from 0.5 to 50.3% and that this percentage was 18.8% in
R. canina L. according to Alp et al. (2009), while the ger-
mination percentages were 13.8 and 13.5% in Rosa
pulverulenta Bieb. and Rosa dumalis Bechst., respec-
tively (Alp et al., 2009). In Rosa bracteata Wendl, they
ranged from 1.8 to 41.5% according to Anderson and
Byrne (2007).
One of the methods used to break dormancy in seeds
and promote germination percentage is microbial
inoculation to seeds or germination medium. It was
reported that microorganisms macerated the hard-coated
seed pericarp and facilitated germination (Morpeth and
Hall, 2000). The objective of this study is to determine the
effects of microbial inoculation in breaking seed dorman-
cy and on the germination of R. damascena Mill. seeds.
Seed origin and seed collection
The mature hips of the species R. damascena Mill. were collected
from the oil rose plantations in Isparta Province (Isparta, Turkey,
45' N latitude, 30°
33' E longitude and 997 m altitude) in October
2008. Rose hips contain 2.35 seeds per hip on average. The
annual mean temperature, relative humidity, total annual precipi-
tation, wind speed and sunshine duration per day in the area are
12.4°C, 55%, 524.4 mm, 2.4 m s-1 and 7.6 h, respectively
(Anonymous, 2003). With these climate characteristics, Isparta
features a semi-arid climatic characteristic (Ucar et al., 2009).
Experimental site
The research was conducted in a plastic covered greenhouse
located at the Agricultural Research and Application Center of
Agricultural Faculty at Süleyman Demirel University (latitude 37°
N, longitude 30°
32' E, altitude 1019 m).
Seed preparation and determination of moisture content and
1000 seeds weight
After the seeds had been manually extracted from hips, they were
cleaned in water and the unwanted materials were removed. Later,
the seeds were soaked in water for 24 h and then the floating seeds
were discarded and the seeds that sunk in water were used in the
treatment as they were assumed to be mature and viable (Zhou et
al., 2009). After the seeds had been dried in the open air for 3 days,
they were kept in polyethylene bags at room temperature (20 -
24°C) until the beginning of the treatments. Seed moisture content
(four replicates of 100 seeds) was determined at 103°C for 17 h
and 1000 seeds weight was determined based on 8 replications of
100 seeds (8 x 100 seeds) (ISTA, 1993).
Microbial treatments and warm plus cold stratification
Some 4 different microbial fertilizers (EM•1® EM Agriton and Kina-
gro Agriculture Inc, Turkey), B: speel™ (Bioglobal Inc. Turkey),
Bioplin™ (Bioglobal Inc, Turkey) and Phosfert™ (Bioglobal Inc,
Turkey) were used in the study. EM•1® primarily contains 3 types of
microorganisms, namely phototrophic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas
palustris), lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus
casei, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus delbrueckii) and
yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). B:seepel™ is a bioorganic
seed dresser and contains a mixture of microorganisms (1x107
cfu/g) fixing nitrogen in dormant form, a mixture of phosphate
solubilizing bacteria (PSB) (1x107 cfu/g), plant growth promoting
rhizobacteria (PGPR) and metabolic extracts of different microbes.
Bioplin™ contains efficient rhizosphere inhabiting, nitrogen fixing
and plant growth promoter producing strains of Azotobacter
(Azotobacter chroococcum and Azotobacter vinelandii 1 x 107
cfu/g). Phosfert™ contains plurality of strains of Azotobacter (A.
chroococcum, A. vinelandii, Bacillus polymyxa 1 x 107 cfu/g).
Firstly, the seeds were left in water for 24 h and then they were
left in Bioplin™ (15 ml/l), Phosfert™ (15 ml /l) and Phos-
fert™+Bioplin™ (1:1, v/v) solution for 15 min and in EM•1® solution
(300 ml /l) for 20 min. In the B:seepel™ treatment, B:speel™ (20
g/kg seed) was sprinkled over the seeds, and the seeds were
covered completely with B:speel™. On the other hand, no microbial
fertilizer treatments were performed on the seeds in the control
Stratification was applied to the seeds treated with microbial
fertilizer and to the seeds of the control group. Sphagnum moss
was used as the stratification medium. Those seeds that were
mixed with moistened sphagnum moss (1 part of seed and 4 parts
of sphagnum moss, v/v) were subjected first to 4 weeks of warm
stratification at 25°C and then to 150 days of cold stratification in
Kazaz et al. 6505
Table 1. Effects of microbial inoculations on seed germination percentage (%) and mean germination time (day).
Treatment Premature
germination1 (%) Greenhouse
germination2 (%) Cumulative
germination3 (%) Mean germination
time (days)
Phosfert™ 44.0 b 71.5 b 84.0 ab 7.8
B:seepel™ 52.0 b 66.7 b 84.0 ab 7.3
Bioplin™ 0.0 d 68.0 b 68.0 b 7.8
EM•1® 69.3 a 100.0 a 100.0 a 7.2
Phosfert™ + Bioplin™
14.7 c 63.9 b 69.3 b 9.3
Control 13.3 c 61.0 b 66.7 b 8.9
F value 129.40** 8.59** 14.34** 2.58 ns
1Germination during stratification; 2germination in greenhouse (seeds without premature germination); 3premature germination plus
greenhouse germination.
**Mean values in the same column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 0.01 level according to the Duncan’s test.
ns: not significant at p < 0.05.
refrigerator at 4 ± C in polyethylene bags. In order to keep spha-
gnum moss moist in the stratification medium and for aeration, the
polyethylene bags were opened once a week during the stratifi-
cation period, and water was added as needed.
Germination experiment
At the end of stratification, premature germination took place in all
treatments, except for Bioplin™. The number of prematurely germi-
nated seeds in each treatment was recorded, and the germination
percentages of these seeds were further analyzed in order to
determine the difference between the treatments. The prematurely
germinated seeds were not sown in the germination medium in the
greenhouse, and only those seeds that did not germinate at the end
of duration of stratification were sown. The seeds treated with warm
plus cold stratification were sown in peat-containing vials in the
plastic covered greenhouse on May 28, 2009. The misting irrigation
system was used with adequate moisture both in the greenhouse
and in the germination medium after the sowing of seeds.
Germination tests were carried out in greenhouse at 25°C day/15°C
night temperature and a relative humidity of 70%. A seed was
considered to have germinated when the cotyledons had emerged
above the soil surface, and it was recorded for up to 30 days.
Germinated seeds were counted and removed every 24 h for 30
days. Final germination percentage was calculated when no further
germination took place for several days. The germination percen-
tage (GP) was calculated for each experimental unit. Mean
germination time (MGT) was calculated using Equation (1) (Chuanren
et al., 2004)
MGT = nd/N
Where, n is the number of seeds that germinated between scoring
intervals; d the incubation period in days at that point in time and N
the total number of seeds that germinated in the treatment.
Experimental design and data analysis
A completely randomized plot design of 3 repetitions was used, and
each replication consisted of 25 seeds. The percentage of prema-
turely germinated seeds during cold stratification in the experiment,
the germination percentage of those seeds that were not
germinated at the end of the duration of cold stratification and sown
in the greenhouse immediately afterwards, the cumulative germina-
tion percentage of both prematurely germinated seeds and the
greenhouse-germinated seeds, and the MGT were analyzed using
SAS (1998) statistical analysis program. The germination percen-
tages were transformed into arcsine before analysis. After
evaluation, data were back transformed and original data presen-
ted. The mean values were compared by Duncan’s multiple range
test at the 0.01 probability level.
Germination percentages
In this study, moisture content of seeds was 11.15%, and
weight of 1000 seeds was 20.9 g. Microbial inoculation
treatments significantly (p < 0.01) stimulated premature
germination during cold stratification. At the end of this
period, premature germination was observed in all treat-
ments, except for the Bioplin™. The highest premature
germination percentage was determined in the EM•1®
(69.3%), followed by B:seepel™ (52.0%) and Phosfert™
(44.0%). However, premature germination was 13.3% in
the seeds treated only with warm plus cold stratification
(control) (Table 1).
The germination percentages of seeds sown in the
greenhouse after cold stratification are presented in
Table 1. Statistically significant differences were determi-
ned between the germination percentages of the
treatments (p < 0.01). Among the treatments, the highest
germination percentage was obtained in the EM•1®
(100.0%), whereas the other treatments were included in
the same statistical group.
When the germination percentages of prematurely
germinated seeds at the end of the duration of stratifi-
cation and of greenhouse-germinated seeds were
considered together (cumulative germination percentage),
microbial inoculation treatments statistically significantly
affected cumulative germination percentage. All seeds
germinated with the EM•1®. Furthermore, Phosfert™ and
B:seepel™, with their germination per-centage of 84%,
were included in the same group with EM•1®. 66.7%
germination occurred in the seeds (control) which were
6506 Afr. J. Biotechnol.
Phosfert™ B:seepel Bioplin™ EM• Phosfert™ +
Microbial treatments
Germination (%)
Figure 1. Effects of microbial inoculations on seed germination (%).
only stratified without any microbial inoculation treatments.
Mean germination time
No statistical difference in mean germination time was
found between microbial inoculation treatments and the
control treatment. Nevertheless, although no statistical
difference was found between treatments, the mean
germination time of the EM•1® (7.2 days) was 1.7 days
shorter than that of the control (Table 1).
This study showed that the germination percentage of oil
rose seeds was significantly affected by microbial
inoculation. During 150 days of cold stratification follo-
wing 4 weeks of warm stratification, premature germi-
nation was observed in seeds in all treatments, except for
the Bioplin™. This indicates that the stratification duration
of 150 days might be adequate to break dormancy of the
seeds of the species R. damascena. The most common
treatment to break dormancy of rose seeds is cold
stratification (Zlesak, 2007; Zhou et al., 2009), and the
degree of dormancy varies by species and duration of
stratification (Stewart and Semeniuk, 1965). For instance,
the species Rosa multiflora and Rosa setigera need 30
days of cold stratification; the species Rosa wichuraiana
needs 45 days of cold stratification; and R. setigera
'Serena' and Rosa x reverse need 90 days of cold
stratification to obtain maximum germination percentages
(Steward and Semeniuk, 1965). Moreover, it was
reported that a stratification duration longer than 150
days was needed to remove embryo dormancy of oil rose
seeds and that the germination percentage was over
80% through soaking seeds in 70 and 80% sulphuric acid
for 10 min followed by 150 to 180 days of stratifi-cation
(Hajian and Khosh-Khui, 2000). Higher germi-nation
percentages were obtained in this study. The higher
premature germination percentage of oil rose seeds in all
microbial inoculation treatments except for Bioplin™
during stratification than the control treatment might be
due to an increase in the number of microorganisms in
the seed pericarp during stratification and might be
because these microorganisms macerated the hard and
thick seed pericarp, thereby facilitating germination. A
similar case was reported by Morpeth et al. (1997) and
Morpeth and Hall (2000).
In this study, microbial inoculation treatments signifi-
cantly increased germination percentage in comparison
to the control. The results of the present study are also
supported by the findings of Morpeth and Hall (2000) in
Rosa corymbifera (95%) and of Belletti et al. (2003) in R.
canina (50.25%) that microbial inoculation to the seeds
increased germination percentage.
Among the treatments, the highest germination percen-
tages were obtained from the EM•1®, followed by the
Phosfert™ and B: speel™ (Figure 1). In both the prema-
turely germinated seeds during stratification and those
seeds that did not germinate during stratification but
germinated in the greenhouse immediately afterwards,
Kazaz et al. 6507
Phosfert™ B:seepel Bioplin™ EM•1® Phosfert™ +
Microbial treatments
Mean germination time (days)
Figure 2. Effects of microbial inoculation on mean germination time (days).
the lowest cumulative germination percentage was
obtained from the control treatment (66.7%). Although
there was no statistically significant difference between
the Phosfert™, B: speel™ and the control (which might
be because the EM•1® showed a very high germination
percentage), both treatments showed a 20.6% higher
germination percentage than that of the control treatment
in terms of cumulative germination percentages. It might
be stated that this percentage is quite high in commercial
The effect of treatments on the mean germination time
of oil rose seeds was statistically insignificant. However,
despite the statistically insignificant difference among
them, the mean germination times in EM•1® (7.2 days)
and B: speel™ (7.3 days) were 1.7 and 1.6 days shorter
than that of the control, respectively (Figure 2). Belletti et
al. (2003) reported that different doses of compost
activator treatments in R. canina further shortened the
mean germination time by 8.48 to 9.64 days in com-
parison to the control.
This study suggested that microbial inoculations greatly
increased the germination time and percentage of R.
damascena seeds and that all seeds particularly germi-
nated with the EM•1®. The observation of a high rate of
premature germination (69.3%) of the R. damascena
seeds during stratification with the EM•1® indicates that
the time required for stratification in this species might be
further reduced with the EM•1®. The inoculation of micro-
organisms to the seeds during preliminary treatment and
the development of microorganisms immediately after-
wards facilitated the germination of seeds. The study also
showed that 150 days of cold stratification (4 ± 1°C)
following 4 weeks of warm stratification (25oC) might be
enough to break dormancy. How long it takes for dorma-
ncy of the species R. damascena to be broken will be
clarified with further studies that we will be later
conducted on EM•1® and other microbial fertilizers with
different durations of stratification.
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... In particular, rose essential oils have wide applications in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals [1,2,13]. Although there are about 18,000 rose cultivars, only a few of them are used for fragrance applications [14][15][16]. This fragrance application was mainly distributed in France, China, Bulgaria, and India [17]. ...
... However, Babu et al. reported that long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons including nonadecane, heptadecane, 9-eicosene, and docosane accounted for about 21.23% of the volatiles, while alcohols made up as much as 68.13% of the total oil in the Himalayas rose [32]. Kazaz et al. reported that the main compound groups of rose oil are monoterpene alcohols and hydrocarbons [14]. The aliphatic hydrocarbon contents in the CR-S8 and CR-S9 mutants were about 10% higher than those in the original cultivar. ...
... Aliphatic esters and alcohols are important compounds in food, cosmetics, and medicinal products; examples include fragrances in shampoo, perfumes, soaps and creams, aromatherapy oil, and food supplements [16,33]. In addition, aliphatic ester and alcohol compounds can also have bioactive properties, and can be used as emollients, surfactants, and antioxidants [14,16,17,19]. The aliphatic ester contents of CR-S1, CR-S3, and CR-S4 mutants were higher than those of the original cultivar. ...
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Roses are one of the most important floricultural crops, and their essential oils have long been used for cosmetics and aromatherapy. We investigated the volatile compound compositions of 12 flower-color mutant variants and their original cultivars. Twelve rose mutant genotypes were developed by treatment with 70 Gy of 60Co gamma irradiation of six commercial rose cultivars. Essential oils from the flowers of the 18 genotypes were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy-seven volatile compounds were detected, which were categorized into six classes: Aliphatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic alcohols, aliphatic ester, aromatic compounds, terpene alcohols, and others. Aliphatic (hydrocarbons, alcohols, and esters) compounds were abundant categories in all rose flowers. The CR-S2 mutant had the highest terpene alcohols and oil content. Three (CR-S1, CR-S3, and CR-S4) mutant genotypes showed higher ester contents than their original cultivar. Nonacosane, 2-methylhexacosane, and 2-methyltricosane were major volatile compounds among all genotypes. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the rose genotypes gave four groups according to grouping among the 77 volatile compounds. In addition, the principal component analysis (PCA) model was successfully applied to distinguish most attractive rose lines. These findings will be useful for the selection of rose genotypes with improved volatile compounds.
... Applied microbial nutrition to the germination medium increased the germination percentage of Rosa omeienisis remarkably (Han et al., 2012). The promoting effect of microbial inoculation on germination has also been observed for Rosa damascena (Kazaz et al., 2010) and Crataegous pseudoheterophylla (Fatemeh et al., 2014). The benefit of bacteria on seed germination is attributed to production of metabolites, enzymes and phytohormones and other associated activities such as greater phosphate solubilization and competition in soil and root colonization (Kazaz et al., 2010). ...
... The promoting effect of microbial inoculation on germination has also been observed for Rosa damascena (Kazaz et al., 2010) and Crataegous pseudoheterophylla (Fatemeh et al., 2014). The benefit of bacteria on seed germination is attributed to production of metabolites, enzymes and phytohormones and other associated activities such as greater phosphate solubilization and competition in soil and root colonization (Kazaz et al., 2010). ...
... In comparison to the control, the EM•1 ® decreased the mean germination time by 1.7 days. In conclusion, it was found that dormancy was broken and germination was greatly enhanced with microbial inoculation (especially EM•1 ® ) of oil rose seeds and a stratification time of 150 days [81]. ...
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Seed germination is a crucial stage in the life cycle of plants, and understanding the factors influencing germination is essential for successful cultivation, plant breeding, and conservation efforts. The genus Rosa, commonly known as roses, encompasses a diverse group of flowering plants renowned for their beauty and fragrance. Rosa germination is influenced by a variety of factors, including seed dormancy, environmental conditions, and seed treatments. Many Rosa species exhibit different types of seed dormancy, such as physical dormancy caused by hard seed coats and physiological dormancy due to internal mechanisms. Overcoming seed dormancy often requires specific treatments, including cold stratification, scarification, or chemical treatments, to promote germination. Environmental factors, including temperature, moisture, light, and substrate, play vital roles in Rosa germination. Temperatures ranging from 15 to 25 °C, moisture, and exposure to light or darkness, depending on the species, constitute suitable conditions for seed germination. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the germination requirements of different Rosa species, thereby expanding our understanding of their propagation and conservation. Additionally, advancements in techniques such as in vitro germination and molecular approaches have further enhanced our understanding of Rosa germination biology.
... For decades, exploiting diverse microbes as PGPR in safe and ecofriendly methods for increasing growth and yield has become increasingly popular in sustainable agriculture [36]. Based on taxonomy, PGPR, isolated from the rhizosphere, belong to different bacterial families, including Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Micrococcus, Azotobacter, Erwinia, Flavobacterium, Serratia and Bacillus, among others [37][38][39]. Generally, PGPR have the abilities to produce phytohormones (auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins), organic acid, siderophore and ACC deaminase, dissolving phosphorus and potassium, as well as fixing nitrogen [39]. ...
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Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play an important role in promoting plant growth and increasing crop yield. Bacillus cereus DW019, which was previously isolated from an ion-absorbed rare-earth ore of Ganzhou in Southeastern China, has been considered as a PGPR due to its production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ammonia and siderophore, but its promoting effect on plants remains poorly understood. In this study, autoclaved dead cells and viable cells of Bacillus cereus DW019 at different concentrations were inoculated into pot-cultivated cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to investigate the promoting effect on plant growth and yield. A total of 70 days after inoculation, the plants and fruits of cherry tomato were harvested, and their growth indicators, yields, and nutrients were measured. The results showed that biomass, stem thickness, plant height and root length were significantly promoted and that the vitamin C, soluble sugar and soluble protein were significantly increased. Inoculation with Bacillus cereus also modulated the rhizospheric microbial community diversity and structure, especially the proportions of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteriota, which in turn improved the plant height, fresh weight, nutritional quality and rhizosphere soil bacterial diversity of cherry tomato. All the findings suggest that Bacillus cereus DW019 is beneficial to the growth of crops and improves the yield of cherry tomato, suggesting that Bacillus cereus DW019 could be developed into a potential biofertilizer to be used as an agricultural inoculant to increase crop yield and improve the soil ecosystem.
... However, the plants of oil-bearing rose produce no or few viable and nondormant seeds owing to high self-incompatibility, allogamous sexual reproduction, and complex allotetraploid nature (Rusanov et al., 2009). Nevertheless, it is possible to collect a few seeds and to break their dormancy despite all challenges (Kazaz et al., 2010). Many of the seedlings derived from the seeds of open-pollinated flowers may differ genetically due to the segregation of the alleles at heterozygous loci during meiosis (Gudin, 2003). ...
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Oil-bearing rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) is one of the most strongly scented rose species used in the perfumery and cosmetics industries. This research ultimately aimed to reveal the variation in and evaluate the breeding potential of plants whose seeds were derived from R. damascena, which has only been propagated vegetatively for centuries. The seeds extracted from the mature fruits of open-pollinated plants were stratified at 4 °C for 3 months and sown into vials. Seedlings in pots were grown under greenhouse conditions, and a total of 83 seed-derived plants were finally planted in the experimental field. The 3-year-old progenies were examined for floral characteristics and scent composition by using HS-SPME combined with GC-MS. A wide variation in flower characteristics was identified, e.g., with different petal colors from white to red and petal numbers from 5 to 115. Considerable variability in floral scent molecules such as phenylethyl alcohol (23.26%–74.54%), citronellol (5.57%–31.59%), and geraniol (3.09%–26.93%) was recorded among the seed-derived plants. As a result, the genetic variations resulting from the segregation of the alleles at heterozygous loci were appropriate for the clonal selection of novel oil-bearing rose varieties.
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Bu çalışmada yağ gülünde çoğaltım materyallerinin (kesme dikim ve fidan dikim metodu) verim ve kalite özelliklerine üzerine etkisinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bölünmüş parseller deneme desenine göre yürütülen çalışmada parsellerde çiçeklenme ile birlikte çiçeklenme başında, ortasında ve sonunda olmak üzere üç dönemde çiçek hasadı yapılmıştır. Hasat zamanlarına göre çiçeklenme başlangıcından sonuna kadar çiçek çapı, petal yaprak oranı ve 100 çiçek ağırlığı azalmıştır. Çiçek verimi en yüksek çiçeklenme ortası dönemde daha yüksek alınırken, çoğaltım materyallerine göre çiçek veriminde farklılık gözlenmemiştir. Uçucu yağ oranı çiçeklenme periyodu boyunca azalmış ve çoğaltım materyaline göre en yüksek kesme dikim metodundan elde edilmiştir. Uçucu yağ verimi kesme dikim metodunda daha yüksek bulunmuştur. Uçucu yağ bileşenleri incelendiğinde β-sitronellol oranı çiçeklenme başından sonuna doğru her iki çoğaltım materyalinde artarken, geraniol oranı ise çiçeklenme ortasına kadar artmış ve sonrasında azalmıştır. Sonuç olarak; yağ gülünde özellikle hastalık ve zararlıların yoğun olarak bulunduğu bölgelerde veya organik olarak planlanan üretimlerde fidan dikim yöntemi önerilebilir.
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Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) increase the germination percentage and the vigor of seeds, thus determining aspects for the efficient production of seedlings and the prompt establishment of crops in the field. In this study, the effect of the biopriming of rhizobacteria was evaluated: Bacillus cereus (KBEndo4P6), Acinetobacter radioresistens (KBEndo3P1), Pseudomonas paralactis (KBEndo6P7), and Sinorhizobium meliloti (KBEkto9P6) on some parameters such as the percentage of germination and vigor and the germination index, among others, as well as the synthesis of phytocompounds in the seeds of Cucumis sativus L. biopriming seeds significantly improved germination, the germination index, the vigor, the plumule and the radicle length, in addition to an increase in phytochemical compounds. The rhizobacteria KBEndo3P1 increased the germination percentage by 20%, the germination index by 50%, and the seed vigor by 60%, as well as the length of the radicle by 11%, and the plumule by 48% compared to the control, and the total phenols and antioxidants increased by 9% and 29%, respectively. Biopriming with plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria increases germination, which allows for the possibility of more outstanding production of seedlings and a greater length of the radicle, thus increasing the efficiency in the processes of water and nutrient absorption and improving its establishment in the field. In addition, the production of phytocompounds enhances their response against any type of stress, making them a viable alternative in sustainable agriculture to increase cucumber yield.
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Microbes are an integral component of the soil ecosystem but degraded soil has few native beneficial microbes. This necessitates the characterization of phytobeneficial bacteria having numerous features. The study was initiated to evaluate rhizobacteria enhancing Acacia (Acacia abyssinica) seed germination. Isolates were selected based primarily on phosphate solubilization activity and other traits hydrogen cyanide (hcn), phytohormone, hydrolytic enzyme, siderophore, ammonia. Among isolates, 45% each was categorized as high and medium phosphate solubilizers and the amount was found to range from 195 to 373 µg/mL. The highest solubilization index (SI) 7 was recorded for Acinetobacter BS-27 and 6 for Pantoea BS-38. The maximum P and iaa were produced by Pseudomonas FB-49 (373 and 659.07µg/mL), respectively. Isolates with multiple traits were chosen for seed germination. Accordingly, Agrobacterium RS-79 and Pseudomonas BS-26 showed 100% activity. A 100% seed germination and vigor index (343.33 and 306.67) were observed in Pseudomonas BS-26 and FB-49. Degraded soil is considered a source for phosphate solubilizing and other beneficial bacteria with many traits to be used for seed germination assay.
Rosehip (Rosa canina L.) is an important medicinal, and ornamental plant species with high commercial value. Its sugars, phenolics, organic acids, water-soluble vitamins, and mineral contents composition varies depending on environmental conditions and genetics. The plant is also used as a perfect rootstock for many rose cultivars. Seed proliferation is extremely difficult because of multiple endogenous and exogenous dormancy factors. There is a need to breed standard rosehip cultivars rootstock developments with desired characteristics and outperforming yields in fields. The study aimed to break the seed dormancy of rosehip under in vitro conditions by application of multiple strategies in an efficient manner. The seeds were treated with different doses of GA₃, scarified mechanically, stratified on agar solidified MS medium containing GA₃ singly or in combinations of the two each or three treatments, and subjecting them to the regulated physiological treatment of alternating warm/chilling and cold/dark treatments in parallel for 21 d ensued by 18 d warm/light treatments. It was noted that the rosehip seeds could be germinated variably if the scarified seeds were stratified on agar solidified MS medium with or without GA3. Optimum seed germination (80.00- 85.00%) was noted when the three treatments were combined and the seeds were subjected to regulated and alternating warm and chilling treatments for 21 d leaving them for 18 d in warm/light. These results are very important and could be utilized in breeding and multiplication programs to develop new rosehip fruit and rootstock cultivars.
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A Senna spectabilis (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae) é uma espécie arbórea que ocorre no norte de Minas Gerais e Nordeste brasileiro, presente em formações de caatinga com solos profundos e drenados. Possui importância econômica como madeireira, medicina caseira, planta ornamental, restauração florestal, sistemas agroflorestais e forrageira. O estudo objetivou-se conhecer o efeito dos Microrganismos Eficientes (EM) em diferentes diluições na quebra de dormência na germinação de sementes da Senna spectabilis. Para a execução do trabalho os frutos foram coletados no Bosque das Arapiracas, em Arapiraca, e em seguida foram levados para o Laboratório de Recursos Florestais no Polo Tecnológico Agroalimentar, onde realizou-se o teste de germinação. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado –DIC feito em quatro tratamentos e 5 repetições. Onde T1 é o controle/testemunha com 100% de água destilada; T2 – com 2% de bokashi+ água destilada; T3 – com 3% de bokashi + água destilada e T4 – com 4% de bokashi + água destilada. Após os tratamentos as sementes foram colocadas para germinar em câmara de germinação (BOD). Os dados foram coletados e registrados em uma planilha do Excel para análise de IE e IVE. As sementes de S. spectabilis semeadas em bokashi a 4% obtiveram um bom índice de germinação e de velocidade de germinação. O tratamento que obteve melhor resultado foi o T4, seguido pelo T2 e o Tratamento 3 com bokashi a 3% teve o maior índice de morte das sementes. O experimento confirmou que é possível quebrar a dormência das sementes utilizando método de quebra com EM.
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In this study, the effects of different warm stratification periods on the seed germination of some Rosa species such as Rosa heckellana ssp. vanheurckiana, Rosa canina, Rosa pulverelanta and Rosa dumalis naturally grown in the Van region were investigated. In 2007, seeds of these species were kept at 25 degrees C warm stratification for 10, 11 and 12 weeks, and then transferred to 5 degrees C for cold stratification till the initiation of germination. Germination response to treatments of R. heckellana ssp. vanheurckiana seeds was different compared to the other species. The seeds of R. heckellana ssp. vanheurckiana germinated in a short time ( when they kept in warm stratification followed by cold stratification between 1 - 3 weeks). The seeds of the other species required 5 months of cold stratification after warm stratification to overcome seed dormancy. The overall germination percentage were 18.80% in R. canina, 13.80% in R. pulverelanta and 13.53% in R. dumalis at 25 degrees C of warm stratification followed by 5 degrees C cold stratification. We determined that for these three taxa, the most appropriate method of stratification was 11 week warm stratification followed by cold stratification.
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Rose seeds exhibit difficulties in terms of germination due to strong dormancy. The aim of this investigation was to use different treatments such as hot water (98°C for 24 hours), 50% sulphuric acid for 30, 60 and 90 seconds, and 65% nitric acid for 30, 60 and 90 seconds to get the best treatment to allow the highest germination rate. The data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and means were compared by DMR test at 5% probability. The results showed that treating rose seeds with sulphuric acid for 30, 60 and 90 seconds broke the dormancy of rose seeds and enhanced the germination rate and duration as compared to other treatments. No significant effect of the nitric acid and hot water treatments was observed.
The addition of a compost activator, ‘Garotta’, to an otherwise ‘normal’ commercial stratification of Rosacorymbifera ‘Laxa’ has been found to greatly enhance the percentage germination at the end of this period. Germination in this study was seen to rise from 21 to % in the field and more markedly from 10 to 88% in the laboratory. Commercial stratification occurs over 24 weeks for this species, consisting of 12 weeks at 25°C followed by 12 weeks at 4°C. Studies have found that whilst-the cold period is critical, i.e. it cannot be shortened, the warm period can be reduced by at least 6 weeks. During this warm period microbes are encouraged by providing near ideal conditions for their growth, warmth, moisture and a food source (‘Garotta’). It is suspected that the combination of these conditions produces the enhanced germination.
Roses, Rosa, are native to diverse habitats within the Northern hemisphere and over 130 species are recognized. Only seven to ten species, however, are in the background of most modern rose cultivars, leaving vast untapped genetic resources. Cultivars are almost exclusively asexually propagated. Roses are cross-pollinating, woody shrubs, and progeny can segregate widely for traits due to heterozygosity. Most cultivars are tetraploid, while most species are diploid. Limited fertility, reproductive barriers, germination challenges, relatively few founding cultivars among elite germplasm, and the need for large progeny sizes often pose significant challenges to breeders. Increasing knowledge of the inheritance of traits and molecular genetics techniques are valuable tools aiding modern rose breeders. The need for new cultivars remains strong as divergence among rose market types increases, production systems become more specialized, and new markets develop. Breeding objectives with high priority include cut flower cultivars adapted to emerging production regions, blooming potted florist roses with long display life, and lower-maintenance landscape roses.