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Farm Land Use Consolidation-a Home Grown Solution for Food Security in Rwanda

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1. Background Rwanda's economy is largely agrarian. More than 80% of the Rwanda's projected population of 10.5 million 1 depends on farming. The total land area of the country measures 24,700 square kilometers. Although about 79% of the country's land is classified as agricultural, only 11% of the land represents permanent crop land 2 . The remaining agricultural lands are covered with forests, marshlands and marginal lands in the hillsides where permanent and routine cultivation of crops are not tenable. Of the total arable land of 2,294,380 ha, 1,735,025 ha is cultivated with food and cash crops 3 and the remaining represents pastures and bushes. Over 80% of the population live in rural areas and subsist on smallholder farming. With an average of 407 persons per square Km, Rwanda represents the most densely populated nation in the continent. Hence the land distribution is highly fragmented and skewed in Rwanda. Land in Rwanda is the most valuable, productive and contested asset. Proper management of land is therefore a must. However, most of the laws governing land administration and management in the country had been formulated by the colonialist and have remained the same till 90's. Several reforms and policies are under implementation in Rwanda, among these, the Land Use Consolidation policy is key for agricultural transformation. The overarching strategies of economic development and poverty reduction in Rwanda that envisions social transformation through agriculture require shifting from such subsistence farming to commercial oriented agriculture. In Rwanda, the growing demographic pressure on land and continued fragmentation of households plots by inheritance forced the land use patterns to be inevitably re-organised. Volume of food crop production is a function of physical land area and the productivity of land under cultivation. Crop productivity, often measured as the ratio of farm outputs to inputs, reflects the efficiency of usage of inputs. However the efficiency of the inputs depends on the size of the farm land. Land fragmentation thus affects productivity and competitiveness of smallholder farms. Furthermore, the inherent difficulties in mechanizing farm chores in small farms also impede public and private investments 4
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Farm Land Use Consolidation- a Home Grown Solution for Food Security
in Rwanda
J.J. Mbonigaba Muhinda & Leonidas Dusengemungu
Rwanda Agriculture Board (RAB)
1. Background
Rwanda’s economy is largely agrarian. More than 80% of the Rwanda’s projected population of
10.5 million1 depends on farming. The total land area of the country measures 24,700 square
kilometers. Although about 79% of the country’s land is classified as agricultural, only 11% of
the land represents permanent crop land2. The remaining agricultural lands are covered with
forests, marshlands and marginal lands in the hillsides where permanent and routine cultivation
of crops are not tenable. Of the total arable land of 2,294,380 ha, 1,735,025 ha is cultivated with
food and cash crops3 and the remaining represents pastures and bushes.
Over 80% of the population live in rural areas and subsist on smallholder farming. With an
average of 407 persons per square Km, Rwanda represents the most densely populated nation in
the continent. Hence the land distribution is highly fragmented and skewed in Rwanda. Land in
Rwanda is the most valuable, productive and contested asset. Proper management of land is
therefore a must. However, most of the laws governing land administration and management in
the country had been formulated by the colonialist and have remained the same till 90's. Several
reforms and policies are under implementation in Rwanda, among these, the Land Use
Consolidation policy is key for agricultural transformation.
The overarching strategies of economic development and poverty reduction in Rwanda that
envisions social transformation through agriculture require shifting from such subsistence
farming to commercial oriented agriculture. In Rwanda, the growing demographic pressure on
land and continued fragmentation of households plots by inheritance forced the land use
patterns to be inevitably re-organised. Volume of food crop production is a function of physical
land area and the productivity of land under cultivation. Crop productivity, often measured as
the ratio of farm outputs to inputs, reflects the efficiency of usage of inputs. However the
efficiency of the inputs depends on the size of the farm land. Land fragmentation thus affects
productivity and competitiveness of smallholder farms. Furthermore, the inherent difficulties in
mechanizing farm chores in small farms also impede public and private investments4.
The Land Use Consolidation Policy was enunciated in 2004 by the Government after the
presidential visit in Malawi where real benefits of consolidated lands were seen.
1 Fast Facts (Jan 2011), National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda, http://statistics.gov.rw
2 USAID (2010) Country Profile: Rwanda
3Rwanda Statistical Year Book (2011), National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda
4 Mrema, G. C., Bake,r D. and Kahan, D (2008) Agricultural Mechanization in Sub-Saharan Africa: Time for a new
look, FAO, Rome.
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The process of land consolidation, the method of reversing the action of land fragmentation,
is not new in the World countries. In Britain land consolidation took place so long ago, that
many writers and even experts tend to forget that it took place at all (Simpson, 1976)5. Some of
the earliest attempts at land consolidation, as a method of land reform, took place in
Scandinavia, particularyly in Finland (FAO, 2003)6, Sweden (Osterberg and Petterson, 1992)7 and
Danemark (Binns, 1950)8 in the 18th and 19th centuries. According to Clout (1987), at least half of
Western Europe’s farmland was considered to need consolidation in the 1950s, a time when
Europe had pressing needs of reconstruction after the Second World War.
Land use consolidation had been also implemented in Central and Western European countries
since 1989 as part of an overal strategy of transition from centrally planned agriculture to
privatisation and market development in order to increase farmers revenues. It was also
implemented in Latin America, Asia and Southern Africa to mitigate land fragmentation. In
Kenya, the customary land tenure failed to meet the needs of an expanding population which
then resulted in low subsistence levels and influenced land reforms needing land consolidation to
stop further fragmentation in Kikuyu, Kiambu and Maranga Districts (Mackenzie, 1993)9.
2. LUC as a driving component of the Crop Intensification Program
LUC policy was implemented for the first time in 200810 by the Government of Rwanda,
through the Ministry of Agriculture, as part of the Crop Intensification Program (CIP). The CIP
was initiated by the same Ministry in September 2007 with a goal to increase agricultural
productivity of high-potential food crops and to provide Rwanda with greater food security and
self-sufficiency. The implementation of this program involves various components, including
Land Use Consolidation as the main pillar, the proximity advisory services to farmers, inputs
(seeds and fertilisers) distribution and post-harvest technologies (e.g. driers and storage facilities).
The program is also supported by other initiatives like land-husbandry, irrigation and
mechanization infrastructure development to bring more land under production, avoid
dependency on rainfed farming system and use of farm power in the context of a market-
oriented agriculture.
The LUC policy is in line with Rwandan Government efforts to mitigate hunger and poverty. It
correlates not only with CIP but also with the “Villagisation” known as new resettlement
5 Simpson, 1976 Simpson, S.R., 1976. Land Law and Registration, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
6 FAO (2003), The design of land consolidation pilot projects in Central and Eastern Europe, FAO Land tenure
Series 6, Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United nations, Rome, Italy.
7 Osterberg, T. & Pettersson L. (1992), Flurbereinigung in Schweden. In: Lapple, E.C. (edt.), Flurbereinigung in
Europa, Heft 78, Schriftgenreihe des Bundesministers fur Ernahrung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten,
Landwirtschaftsverlag, Munster-Hiltrup, 259-289.
8 Binns (1950), Binns, B.O. (1950), Consolidation of Fragmented Agricultural Holdings, FAO Agricultural Studies
Number 11, Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, Rome.
9 Mackenzie, F. (1993), A piece of land never shrinks’; reconceptualising land tenure in a smallholding district,
Kenya. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin, 194-221.
10 MINAGRI (2008). Ministerial decree appointing the conditions on agricultural land use consolidation in Rwanda.
Kigali, Rwanda
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program “Imidugudu” which started earlier in 2004. Therefore, its implementation process
involves various stakeholders (e.g. Ministries, NGOS, Civil Society Organisations and the Private
Sector).
3. Implementation process of LUC Policy in Rwanda
Land use consolidation is a multi sector process. Although the technical plan for land use is
drawn by MINAGRI (through its implementing agency- Rwanda Agriculture Board), it is
implemented in conjunction with local administration authorities. Based on the agro ecological
potential and the land area available in each district, the CIP estimates the consolidated area that
can be grown with priority crops in each district. Through negotiations with district authorities,
target figures are agreed and captured in the performance contracts of the respective districts.
The district- and sector agronomists, IDPs in cells and Farmer Promoters (abajyanama bubuhinzi)
in villages then mobilize the farmers for growing the priority crops in a consolidated fashion. At
national level, stakeholders under the IDP steering committee framework include MINAGRI,
MINALOC, MINIRENA, MININFRA, NGOs, Private Sector, Province and District
authorities (RGB, 2012)11.
The following figure highlights the participatory approach of LUC under CIP implementation.
CONSOLIDATED LAND
VILLAGE VILLAGE VILLAGE
MINAGRI
RAB
District,SECTOR
AGRONOMISTS
and IDPs
FARMERS PROMOTERS Backstopping
service
(agrodealers)
Figure 1. Farm Land Use Implementation Process
11 Rwanda Governance Board (2012), Rwanda’s rational land use through the implementation of land use
consolidation policy, crop intensification and rural settlement “IMIDUGUDU” programs, a citizen perception
survey, final report, Kigali, Rwanda.
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4. Priority Food Crops under LUC
Eight priority crops (Irish potato, cassava, beans, maize, wheat, rice, banana and soybean) have
been selected for promotion under land use consolidation policy. The rotation system is based
on comparative advantage, crop suitability in a specific agro-ecological zone and its contribution
to the overal food security. Crops like Irish potato, cassava, beans and maize have shown a
competitive advantage with a positive trade balance, according to the recent cross-border trade
study (MINAGRI, 2010). In an effort to address both marketing and post-harvest challenges, the
Government of Rwanda (GOR) has decided to establish driers and food storages facilities where
land has been consolidated.
Consolidated use of lands allows farmers to benefit from the various services under CIP such as:
(i) efficient delivery of inputs (improved seeds, fertilizers), (ii) proximity extension services, (iii)
post harvest handling and storage facilities, (iv) irrigation and mechanization by public- and
private stakeholders, and (v) concentrated markets for inputs and outputs.
4. Impact of Farm LUC on Food Production and Food Security
Since its introduction in 2008, the total area under land use consolidation has increased by 18-
fold from 28,016 ha in 2008 to 602,000 ha in 2012. The figure below illustrates the increment in
LUC under priority crops over years, the target being to reach over 700,000 ha fully consolidated
by 2017.
Figure 2. Increase in LUC under priority crops (2008-2012)
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The consolidated production of priority crops under CIP has also brought significant increases
in food production maize by 5-fold; wheat and cassava by about 3-fold; Irish potato, soybean
and beans by about 2-fold; rice by 30%. Interestingly, the productivity in consolidated land areas
has consistently been higher for maize and wheat. This has caused a paradigm shift from
producing enough to producing surplus thus placing the country’s vision for market oriented
agriculture on track.
The drive for consolidation of land use has a spiraling effect on the cultivation of priority crops
as it indirectly promotes the use of inputs and extension services to farmers. The expansion of
land area under cultivation of priority crops and the increase in production and yields are highly
correlated. The figures below illustrate recent trends in area under cultivation, production and
yields for maize and irish potato.
0
100,000
200,000
300,000
400,000
500,000
600,000
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
Total Production (Kg)
Area Under Cult ivaation (Ha)
Trends in Maize Output
Maize Yield (Kg/Ha)
Area Under Cu ltivation
Trends in Maize Output
Yield (Kg/Ha)
Cultivated Are a (Ha)
Maize_Season A
Yield (Kg/Ha)
Cultivated Are a (Ha)
Maize_Season B
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
300,000
350,000
400,000
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
120,000
140,000
160,000
Production (Kg)
Cultivated Are a (Ha)
Maize_Season A
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
120,000
140,000
160,000
180,000
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
80,000
Production (Kg)
Cultivated Are a (Ha)
Maize_Season B
Figure 3. Increase in cultivated area and productivity for maize (Kathyrsan, 2012)12
12 Kathiresan A. (2012), Farm Land Use consolidation in Rwanda, Assessment from the perspectives of Agriculture
Sector, MINAGRI, Kigali, Rwanda.
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0
500,000
1,000,000
1,500,000
2,000,000
2,500,000
100,000
120,000
140,000
160,000
180,000
Total Production (Kg)
Area Under Cultivaation (Ha)
Trends in Irish Potato
1,000
3,000
5,000
7,000
9,000
11,000
13,000
100,000
120,000
140,000
160,000
180,000
Yield (Kg/Ha)
Area Under Cult ivation
Trends in Irish Potato
1,000
3,000
5,000
7,000
9,000
11,000
13,000
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
80,000
Yield (Kg/Ha)
Cultivated Area (Ha)
Season B
0
200,000
400,000
600,000
800,000
1,000,000
1,200,000
1,400,000
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
120,000
Production (Kg)
Cultivated Ar ea (Ha)
Season A
0
200,000
400,000
600,000
800,000
1,000,000
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
Production (Kg)
Cultivated Are a (Ha)
Season B
1,000
3,000
5,000
7,000
9,000
11,000
13,000
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
120,000
Yield (Kg/Ha)
Cultivated Are a (Ha)
Season A
Figure 4. Increase in cultivated area and productivity for Irish Potato (Kathyrsan, 2012)13
The overall implementation of CIP has significantly improved the food security status of the
Country. LUC has been a major driving factor to this achievement. In terms of daily energy
availability, 21 districts out of 30 where qualified vulnerable to food insecurity in 2007 while in
2011, all districts were judged food secure on basis of this criteria. Results from the crop
assessment for the season 2013A tend to show a much more increase of per capita production
and availability of energy, proteins and lipids.
13 Kathiresan A. (2012), Farm Land Use consolidation in Rwanda, Assessment from the perspectives of Agriculture
Sector, MINAGRI, Kigali, Rwanda.
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Figure 5. Daily energy availability as indicator of food security (MINAGRI, 2011)14
According to the last household survey, LUC and associated production increase has
significantly contributed to the poverty reduction in Rwanda for the past five years (NISR,
2012)15. However, for most of food priority crops, there is still a significant gap between the crop
potential and the current attained yields; thus a room for production increase even without area
expansion.
5. Way-forward on land use consolidation
The lessons learned from the implementation of land use consolidation policy to date provide
the basis for way-forward for further improvement of processes and procedures of
implementation and for avoidance of recurrence of any significant adverse effects/trends.
Attention needs to be paid on how to use the strengths of current consolidation efforts to take
advantage of opportunities and minimize the threats that are external to the system.
The colossal production of priority food crops has reiterated the need for sustenance of land use
consolidation. The ecological sustainability of land use consolidation needs to be improved by
promoting crop rotation, usage of organic manures, soil and water conservation measures and
farmers’ innovation. The economic sustainability of land use consolidation requires
strengthening of value chain. As the demand for inputs has increased, the government shall
gradually withdraw and hand over to the supply chain management to the private sector, but
remain as a catalyst in enhancing marketability of farm outputs and raising public- and private
investments in consolidated land areas.
The current land use consolidation policy in Rwanda encourages crop specialization to realize
economies of scale and to orient the agricultural sector more towards the commercial market.
Despite the consolidation however, a large number of farmers continue to maintain
14 MINAGRI (2011). Crop Assessment Report. Season 2011B. Kigali, Rwanda
15 National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (2012), EICV3 Thematic Report- Agriculture. Kigali, Rwanda
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smallholdings. And therefore some of the old problems still persist and some new challenges
have emerged. Policy instruments should therefore enhance smallholders’ productivity and
competitiveness in order to ensure the socioeconomic benefits of land use consolidation. It is
therefore crucial to consider the views from bottom in order to determine the effectiveness of
land use consolidation.
... Whilst land consolidation has been shown to increase food productivity in several European, Asian and African countries (Muhinda & Dusengemungu, 2013;Tang, et al., 2015;Van Dijk, 2003a), its use in Sub-Saharan Africa's rural customary lands has been limited (Makana, 2009): Application has largely failed to support delivery of increased food productivity, or has tended to disrupt the pre-existing customary land tenure system (Blarel et al., 1992;Muhinda & Dusengemungu, 2013;Swynnerton, 1955;Takane, 2008;Thurston, 1987). This study explores whether and how experiences from the Dutch, Lithuanian and Rwandan land consolidation strategies can be adapted to Ghana's rural customary lands. ...
... Whilst land consolidation has been shown to increase food productivity in several European, Asian and African countries (Muhinda & Dusengemungu, 2013;Tang, et al., 2015;Van Dijk, 2003a), its use in Sub-Saharan Africa's rural customary lands has been limited (Makana, 2009): Application has largely failed to support delivery of increased food productivity, or has tended to disrupt the pre-existing customary land tenure system (Blarel et al., 1992;Muhinda & Dusengemungu, 2013;Swynnerton, 1955;Takane, 2008;Thurston, 1987). This study explores whether and how experiences from the Dutch, Lithuanian and Rwandan land consolidation strategies can be adapted to Ghana's rural customary lands. ...
... Rwanda is so far, the only sub-Saharan African country to develop a unique land consolidation approach (Box 9) aligned with local conditions, and implements it nationwide (Kathiresan, 2012;Musahara et al., 2014). Rwanda's land use consolidation programme is a locally developed land consolidation programme in an SSA country according to its local conditions (Muhinda & Dusengemungu, 2013;Rubanje, 2016). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The use of land consolidation on customary lands has been limited though land fragmentation persists. Land fragmentation on customary lands has two main causes – the nature of the customary land tenure system, and the somewhat linked agricultural system. Since attempts to increase food productivity on customary lands have involved fertilisation, and mechanisation, the small and scattered farmlands, these approaches have fallen short of increasing food productivity. This study aims at developing a responsible approach to land consolidation on customary lands. Based on a comparative study, it is found that the three factors inhibit the development of a responsible land consolidation approach on customary lands – the coverage of a land administration system, a land valuation approach, and a land reallocation approach the fits the customary land tenure system. To fill these gaps, firstly, this study developed the participatory land administration that to brought together traditional land administration approaches with emerging bottom-up approaches, as well as technological advances that drive these approaches together with the growing societal needs. Secondly, a valuation approach developed to enable the comparison of the farmlands in rural areas that are without land markets. Finally, a land reallocation approach was developed based on the political, economic and social, as well as technical and legal characteristics of rural customary farmlands. This study concludes that though the land consolidation strategy developed is significantly able to reduce land fragmentation, both physical and land tenure, the local customs are an obstruction to the technical processes to achieve the best form of farm structures.
... At the time Rwanda launched the LTRP, 80% of Rwanda's land was neither formally demarcated nor registered (Enemark et al., 2014). Most of the laws governing land administration and management in the country had been formulated by the colonial authorities and had remained the same until the 1990s (Mbonigaba and Dusengemungu, 2012). The 2005Organic Land Law (modified in 2013(Anon, 2013) guided the systematic land registration, part of the LTRP program (2007)(2008)(2009)(2010)(2011)(2012)(2013). ...
... The CIP is also subsidized by the government through other initiatives, like land-husbandry, irrigation, and mechanization infrastructure development. All these initiatives aimed to bring more land under production, avoid dependency on rain-fed farming system and promote a market-oriented agricultural sector (Mbonigaba and Dusengemungu, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
this article empirically assesses the relations between land tenure security and smallholder farms' crop production in Rwanda. We show that the general assumption that secure land tenure improves farm level harvests, is not found for smallholder farms in Rwanda. We defined a farmland tenure security index based on plausible threats as conveyed by smallholder farmers at each research site. Our findings indicate that the harvest of main crops did neither statistically correlate with this index, nor show differences from the mean at all research sites. Instead, factors mainly related to the ongoing crop intensification program, though threatening tenure security, contributed to the increase of small farm harvests. Lower land tenure security did not affect farmers satisfaction of the crop program, most of them claiming that in the end what matters most is that their harvests continue to increase. Therefore, in Rwanda, a new wave of agriculture strategizing contributes to increasing small farms' harvest of prioritized crops and decreasing farm land tenure security simultaneously.
... The main component of this programme is land use consolidation (LUC), i.e., the joint cultivation of large areas comprising multiple adjacent smallholder plots over which the farmers retain their individual land rights, which is expected to deliver important economies of scale in the production of selected crops (GoR, 2005). Instead of following the conventional land consolidation policy path, Rwanda chose a version of consolidation adapted to its national context (Muhinda and Dusengemungu, 2011). ...
... Official reports indicate considerable increases both in land areas under the LUC programme and in yields of the selected food crops, but they also describe the challenges encountered during programme implementation (Bizoza and Havigumana, 2013;IFDC, 2010;Kathiresan, 2012). These reports provide information on a national level, so the Rwandan Agricultural Board (RAB) specifically called for considering "views from below" in order to evaluate the effectiveness and socioeconomic impact of the programme (Kathiresan, 2012;Muhinda and Dusengemungu, 2011). ...
Article
The modernization and intensification of agricultural production in Africa has long been a policy goal, for increased productivity and food security. In 2008, the Rwandan government implemented various land and agricultural reforms to transform Rwandan agriculture from subsistence farming to market-oriented production. Central to this agricultural transformation was the Crop Intensification Programme, intended to increase the agricultural productivity of high-potential food crops and encourage land use consolidation, i.e., the joint cultivation of large areas, which was expected to deliver important economies of scale. This programme has been criticized, for example, for authoritarian implementation, negative effects on food security from sole-cropping a few selected crops, and increasing rural socioeconomic differentiation. This paper analyses the effects of the land use consolidation programme at the household level, as experienced by small-scale farmers in Musanze District in the Northern Province of Rwanda. The paper draws on 45 individual and 22 collective qualitative semi-structured interviews with small-scale farmers and local key informants in five sectors, conducted in 2013 and 2014. The findings show that there is satisfaction, dissatisfaction, and resistance to the programme, especially regarding the selected crops to be cultivated. The programme, including supporting mechanisms, seems to work well for the relatively better-off farmers, who have bigger and scattered land areas, whereas it does not work well for poor farmers with very small plots, which is common in rural Rwanda.
... However, the last step of the plan was to grant individual titles, thus effectively ending the coverage of customary land in these areas. The most recent of the land consolidation activities in sub-Saharan Africa is from Rwanda, which undertook a new form of land use consolidation [54][55][56]. With the prime objective of increasing agricultural production, the reasoning behind this is to be able to undertake a land consolidation programme that does not alter the land tenure relations [57]. ...
... The concepts relating to the problems and associated in knowledge gaps in the development of a responsible land consolidation process are summarised in Figure 1. most recent of the land consolidation activities in sub-Saharan Africa is from Rwanda, which undertook a new form of land use consolidation [54][55][56]. With the prime objective of increasing agricultural production, the reasoning behind this is to be able to undertake a land consolidation programme that does not alter the land tenure relations [57]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The use of land consolidation on customary lands has been limited, though land fragmentation persists. Land fragmentation on customary lands has two main causes—the nature of the customary land tenure system, and the somewhat linked agricultural system. Since attempts to increase food productivity on customary lands have involved fertilisation and mechanisation on the small and scattered farmlands, these approaches have fallen short of increasing food productivity. A study to develop a responsible approach to land consolidation on customary lands using a design research approach is undertaken and reported here. Based on a comparative study, it is found that three factors inhibit the development of a responsible land consolidation approach on customary lands—the coverage of a land administration system, a land valuation approach, and a land reallocation approach the fits the customary land tenure system. To fill these gaps, firstly, this study developed the participatory land administration that brought together traditional land administration approaches with emerging bottom-up approaches, as well as technological advances that drive these approaches together with the growing societal needs. Secondly, a valuation approach was developed to enable the comparison of the farmlands in rural areas that are without land markets. Finally, a land reallocation approach was developed based on the political, economic and social, as well as technical and legal characteristics of rural customary farmlands. This study concludes that though the land consolidation strategy developed is significantly able to reduce land fragmentation, both physical and land tenure, the local customs are an obstruction to the technical processes to achieve the best form of farmland structures.
... Consequently, most contemporary agricultural land policies aim to reduce fragmentation through land consolidation as a panacea to this quandary [12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. Besides the classical land consolidations programs, other instruments such as land banking [19][20][21], voluntary parcel exchange, land restrictions, cooperative farming, and land use consolidation (LUC) in Rwanda and Malawi [11,[22][23][24][25][26][27] have been applied in some specific areas and situations. The success of each strategy depends on local conditions of a country and specific management and governance factors, since the strategy which works well in one country might not succeed in another [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Farmland fragmentation and farmland consolidation are two sides of the same coin paradoxically viewed as farmland management tools. While there is a vast body of literature addressing the connections between farmland fragmentation and farmland consolidation on the one hand and agriculture production and crops diversification on the other hand, their relationship with variations in food security is still under-explored. This challenges policy makers about whether and how to devise policies in favor of fragmentation conservation or defragmentation. Therefore, drawing on the multiple secondary data and the deductive logical reasoning through an integrative concept-centric qualitative approach following the rationalist theory, this study critically reviews and analyses the existing body of literature to identify how farmland fragmentation versus defragmentation approaches relate to food security. The goal is to develop and derive an explicit model indicating when, where, how and why farmland fragmentation can be conserved or prevented and controlled for food security motives as a novel alternative comprehensive scientific knowledge generation, which could guide and inform the design of future research and policies about farmland fragmentation management. The findings show that both fragmentation and consolidation variously (positively and negatively) impact on food security at different (macro, meso and micro) levels. While farmland fragmentation is highly linked with food diversification (food quality), acceptability, accessibility, and sovereignty at the local (household and individual) levels, farmland consolidation is often associated with the quantity and availability of food production at the community, regional and national levels. Theoretically, the best management of farmland fragmentation for food security purposes can be achieved by minimizing the problems associated with physical and tenure aspects of farmland fragmentation along with the optimization of its potential benefits. In this regard, farmland consolidation, voluntary parcel exchange and on-field harvest sales, farmland realignment, and farmland use (crop) consolidation can be suitable for the control of physical fragmentation problems under various local conditions. Similarly, farmland banking and off-farm employment, restrictions about the minimum parcel sizes subdivision and absentee owners, joint ownership, cooperative farming, farmland use (crop) consolidation, agricultural land protection policies, and family planning measures can be suitable to prevent and minimize farmland tenure fragmentation problems. On the other hand, various agriculture intensification programs, agroecogical approaches, and land saving technologies can be the most suitable strategies to maximize the income from agriculture on fragmented plots under the circumstances of beneficial fragmentation. Moreover, in areas where both rational and defective fragmentation scenarios coexist, different specific strategies like localized and multicropping based land consolidation approaches in combination with or without agriculture intensification programs, can provide better and more balanced optimal solutions. These could simultaneously minimize the defective effects of fragmentation thereby optimizing or without jeopardizing its potential benefits with regard to food security under specific local conditions. Keywords: farmland fragmentation; farmland consolidation; food security; food sovereignty; agroecology; integrative review
... Depending on the goal of land consolidation, describes five different land consolidation instruments. The first, consolidation of land use, applies to land consolidation processes that require just the increase of farm productivity without the manipulation of land rights and the boundaries of the farms involved (Kathiresan, 2012;Muhinda and Dusengemungu, 2013). Land use consolidation here is the cultivation of the same crops by different owners, whose farms share boundaries in order to combine their farm operations without an exchange of parcels. ...
Article
Land consolidation activities have generally failed in the Sub-Saharan African region for various reasons. However, there has been a new wave of land consolidation activities in the past two decades. This study examines how contemporary land consolidation activities in Sub-Saharan Africa contribute to the achievement of the SDGs, specifically ending poverty, ending hunger, and developing sustainable cities and settlements through land tenure security, food security, and rural development initiatives at country level. Using cases from Rwanda, Ethiopia, and Ghana, the study draws lessons on how land consolidation activities can contribute to the 2030 agenda. In Rwanda, it is found that though land use consolidation is a locally developed strategy for food security, due to its focus on the national level, household food security is actually lowering. Perceptions of land tenure security are also lower, despite an increase in legal tenure security. In Ghana, it is seen that the technical processes of land consolidation, though they hold the potential to increase food security, they will not fit with the existing land tenure system. Finally, in Ethiopia, it is seen that a bottom-up land consolidation is flexible and sensitive to local needs, however, scaling is difficult without the strong governmental involvement. Overall, land consolidation in SSA could deliver significantly to those SDGs relating to food security, poverty reduction, and landscape management. However, realistically, to achieve measurable country-wide or regional impact by 2030, immediate and strong governmental support tied to collaboration with community leadership is essential.
... Alongside classical land consolidation programs, other defragmentation instruments have also been adopted in some areas and specific circumstances. These include land banking (Van Dijk, 2003; Van der Molen et al., 2004;Van Dijk, 2004;Hartvigsen, 2015), cooperative farming, voluntary parcel exchange, farmland subdivision restrictions and Farmland Use Consolidation (LUC) in Rwanda and Malawi (Kathiresan, 2012;Bizoza & Havugimana, 2013;Huggins, 2013;Mbonigaba & Dusengemungu, 2013;Pritchard, 2013;Musahara et al., 2014;Asiama et al., 2017b;Chigbu et al., 2019;Nilsson, 2019;Ntihinyurwa et al., 2019). The success of each of these strategies depends upon different local conditions and factors, which vary from country to country and case to case, since a strategy that works in one country might not work in another. ...
Article
Theoretically, both land fragmentation and consolidation (defragmentation) approaches are considered as tools of land management. However, although a large literature about the relationships among land fragmentation, land consolidation, agriculture production and crops diversification concepts exists, less is known about the linkages among the conditions determining the decisions about the adoption of these tools in a given area. This poses a major dilemmatic challenge to policy makers about whether to devise policies in favour of fragmentation conservation or defragmentation. Therefore, this study identifies the conditions under which one could opt for land fragmentation or defragmentation policies by critically reviewing the documented causal-effects relationships between different fragmentation forms and defragmentation approaches. The end goal is the development of an explicit comprehensive model indicating when, where and why farmland fragmentation can be preserved or eliminated for food security purposes within the framework of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs 1, 2, 12, 13 and 15). Following the rationalist theory, the study adopts an integrative concept-centric qualitative approach which builds on the analysis of existing literature and deductive logical reasoning to create new comprehensive scientific knowledge about a topic, as an informative guidance for future research and policies. Contrary to the majority of existing literature, this study posits that farmland fragmentation is not necessarily a problem. The scenarios and extent to which it becomes problematic or beneficial are dependent on a combination of a number of local specific external circumstances, ranging from biophysical, social, economic, political, technical to agro-ecological ones. For subsistence motives, labour, risks and conflicts management, climate change adaptation and household food security purposes, both physical in terms of internal and location, and tenure fragmentation of farmland in a given heterogeneous area under the subsistence and middle-income economies can be conserved either in combination with or without agriculture intensification programs. On the other hand, both physical and tenure fragmentation of farmland under homogenous agro-ecological conditions, and physical fragmentation under heterogeneous agro-ecological conditions and strong complex economies can be revoked for the purposes of improving farm efficiency, food quantity and supply, and food security. We therefore argue that any policy to adapt the extent of farmland fragmentation should consider both the benefits and costs of such intervention in relation to the specific local context.
... Kondisi tersebut terjadi juga di Rwanda bahwa lebih dari 80% penduduk tinggal di pedesaan dengan penghidupan pada pertanian lahan sempit. Kebijakan yang diterapkan berkaitan dengan penggunaan lahan adalah kebijakan konsolidasi sebagai kunci transformasi pertanian (Dusengemungu, 2013). ...
Article
Farm land management institutional in term of consolidation and corporate farming programs are the management of farm land especially wet rice field to fulfill the optimum farm scale that manage by farmer’s group and to get the value for farmers. Research was aimed to develop the farmer’s institutional by land consolidation and corporate farming approach. Survey method was used for research. Dalangan Village, Tawangsari District and Dukuh Village, Mojolaban District were determined for research location by purposive method based on the farm institutional. Simple random sampling was used to get 40 respondents who joined the institutional program and 40 respondents who were not affiliated with land institutions. Data were analyzed by descriptively. The research was held by farmer’s empowerment and assistance at the farmers group to make use of innovation technology. Result of research showed that 28 ha wet rice field was integrated to the program of 4 farmer’s groups. The implementation of program answered the scarcity of land and labor and it can be easily to manage the production factors. The impact of the programs were increasing paddy production, prodoctivity, cost production effiecientcy by IDR 374.643,56/ha,/period increasing the usage of farm equipment, the created of the opportunity for employment, especially for women, to create the seedling and increasing the income of IDR 3.185.241.56/ha/period.
Preprint
The agricultural ability to satisfy the global population demand for food has been a major concerned issue and was put among the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals. Rwanda is striving to meet these goals despite the recent decline of agricultural production and other expected factors which can affect agricultural sector. In this context, relying on data from 1967 to 2017, the study analyzed the growth trends and forecasted the yield of major food crops using exponential regression and univariate autoregressive moving average models(ARIMA). The major crops considered in the study were beans, cassava, maize, potato, rice, soybeans and wheat. The results showed that before implementing agricultural reform in 2000, the food crops registered a high annual compound growth rate in area, low growth rate in productivity and high instability with production growth heavily contributed by the cultivated area. During agricultural reform, the growth in yield increased with high instability, and yield effect was a powerful factor for increasing production. The projected results from 2018 to 2030 indicated that generally, there will be an increase in Food Crops yield . The empirical findings of study suggest the policy implications, promoting the agriculture sector to boost the countries’ economy and meet 2030 Agenda.
Preprint
The agricultural ability to satisfy the global population demand for food has been a major concerned issue and was put among the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals. Rwanda is striving to meet these goals despite the recent decline of agricultural production and other expected factors which can affect agricultural sector. In this context, relying on data from 1967 to 2017, the study analyzed the growth trends and forecasted the yield of major food crops using exponential regression and univariate autoregressive moving average models(ARIMA). The major crops considered in the study were beans, cassava, maize, potato, rice, soybeans and wheat. The results showed that before implementing agricultural reform in 2000, the food crops registered a high annual compound growth rate in area, low growth rate in productivity and high instability with production growth heavily contributed by the cultivated area. During agricultural reform, the growth in yield increased with high instability, and yield effect was a powerful factor for increasing production. The projected results from 2018 to 2030 indicated that generally, there will be an increase in Food Crops yield . The empirical findings of study suggest the policy implications, promoting the agriculture sector to boost the countries’ economy and meet 2030 Agenda.
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