Utilization of 3-Month Yoga Program for Adults at High Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

School of Nursing, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.88). 09/2009; 2011(4):257891. DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep117
Source: PubMed


Various modes of physical activity, combined with dieting, have been widely recommended to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes. Among these, yoga holds promise for reducing risk factors for type 2 diabetes by promoting weight loss, improving glucose levels and reducing blood pressure and lipid levels. This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility of implementing a 12-week yoga program among adults at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Twenty-three adults (19 Whites and 4 non-Whites) were randomly assigned to the yoga intervention group or the educational group. The yoga group participated in a 3-month yoga intervention with sessions twice per week and the educational group received general health educational materials every 2 weeks. All participants completed questionnaires and had blood tests at baseline and at the end of 3 months. Effect sizes were reported to summarize the efficacy of the intervention. All participants assigned to the yoga intervention completed the yoga program without complication and expressed high satisfaction with the program (99.2%). Their yoga session attendance ranged from 58.3 to 100%. Compared with the education group, the yoga group experienced improvements in weight, blood pressure, insulin, triglycerides and exercise self-efficacy indicated by small to large effect sizes. This preliminary study indicates that a yoga program would be a possible risk reduction option for adults at high risk for type 2 diabetes. In addition, yoga holds promise as an approach to reducing cardiometabolic risk factors and increasing exercise self-efficacy for this group.

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    • "Additional benefits of yoga include improved exercise-related self-efficacy [25] quality of life [26] and mood [27,28] all of which are important factors in maintenance of lifestyle behavior change. Yoga also may have a different effect on the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress compared to other types of exercise. "
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is a major health problem in many countries including India. Yoga may be an effective type 2 diabetes prevention strategy in India, particularly given its cultural familiarity. This was a parallel, randomized controlled pilot study to collect feasibility and preliminary efficacy data on yoga for diabetes risk factors among people at high risk of diabetes. Primary outcomes included: changes in BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and cholesterol. We also looked at measures of psychological well-being including changes in depression, anxiety, positive and negative affect and perceived stress. Forty-one participants with elevated fasting blood glucose in Bangalore, India were randomized to either yoga (n = 21) or a walking control (n = 20). Participants were asked to either attend yoga classes or complete monitored walking 3–6 days per week for eight weeks. Randomization and allocation was performed using computer-generated random numbers and group assignments delivered in sealed, opaque envelopes generated by off-site study staff. Data were analyzed based on intention to treat. This study was feasible in terms of recruitment, retention and adherence. In addition, yoga participants had significantly greater reductions in weight, waist circumference and BMI versus control (weight −0.8 ± 2.1 vs. 1.4 ± 3.6, p = 0.02; waist circumference −4.2 ± 4.8 vs. 0.7 ± 4.2, p < 0.01; BMI −0.2 ± 0.8 vs. 0.6 ± 1.6, p = 0.05). There were no between group differences in fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, insulin resistance or any other factors related to diabetes risk or psychological well-being. There were significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, anxiety, depression, negative affect and perceived stress in both the yoga intervention and walking control over the course of the study. Among Indians with elevated fasting blood glucose, we found that participation in an 8-week yoga intervention was feasible and resulted in greater weight loss and reduction in waist circumference when compared to a walking control. Yoga offers a promising lifestyle intervention for decreasing weight-related type 2 diabetes risk factors and potentially increasing psychological well-being. Trial registration Identified NCT00090506.
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    • "We hypothesized that regular practice of hatha yoga would be associated with greater arterial compliance and endothelium-dependent vasodilation. As the tertiary aim, we have also addressed the influence of hatha yoga on risk factors for coronary heart disease as many claims have been made on the association between yoga practices and these measures (Cade et al., 2010; Innes et al., 2005; Yang et al., 2011). "
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    • "In a RCT involving 23 adults, the yoga group subjected to a 3-month yoga intervention of twice weekly yoga sessions and the education group received health information every 2 weeks. At the end of the study, the yoga group showed improvements in weight, blood pressure and insulin, when compared with the education group.[51] "
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