Favorable Long-Term Survival in Patients Undergoing Stent PCI of Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery Compared to Predicted Short-Term Prognosis of CABG Estimated by EuroSCORE: Clinical Determinants of Long-Term Outcome
The long-term outcome of patients (pts) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of unprotected left main coronary artery (LMCA) is unclear so far. We prospectively investigated the outcome of 102 consecutive patients who underwent stent PCI of unprotected LMCA. Patients were divided according to clinical indication for PCI: stable coronary artery disease (CAD) (N = 60), NSTEMI (N = 18), STEMI (N = 24). Expected in-hospital mortality of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was calculated using the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) and compared to the observed survival rate during long-term follow-up (mean 1.8 +/- 1.2 years). The observed 30-day mortality was 1.7% (1/60 pts) in patients with stable CAD, 11% (2/18 pts) in NSTEMI patients, and 13% (3/24 pts) in STEMI patients. The observed mortality was lower than the predicted mortality of CABG as calculated by the logistic EuroSCORE. Using receiver-operator characteristics curves (ROC), EuroSCORE demonstrated a high predictive value for both 30-day mortality as well as 1-year mortality (AUC > 0.8; P < 0.01). Prognostically relevant patient related factors (P < 0.01) included severely reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HR 3.24), ACS (HR 3.18), STEMI (HR: 3.01), Killip class IV (HR 7.69), occurrence of neoplastic disease (HR 3.97), and elevated CRP (HR 3.86). LMCA-PCI was associated with lower long-term mortality rates compared to the estimated mortality of CABG. This prospective observational study suggests that DES-PCI of unprotected LMCA in "all-comers" can be carried out with reasonable risk.