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Abstract

Gallbladder and biliary system pathologic component is a spectrum of benign and malignant conditions. Standard magnetic resonance imaging techniques when used together with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) can evaluate gallbladder and biliary system pathologic conditions. Inflammatory diseases are characterized by thickening and intense mucosal contrast enhancement of the affected bile ducts and or gallbladder wall. Postinflammatory changes can be appreciated on MRCP with short or long segment strictures of the bile ducts. Serial contrast-enhanced images show reactive inflammatory changes in the liver parenchyma. Neoplastic diseases of the gallbladder and the biliary tree are evaluated on T2-weighted fat-suppressed echo train and serial contrast-enhanced images and their obstructive effect can be displayed on MRCP images. In this paper, we will review the spectrum of MRI findings of gallbladder and biliary system pathologic conditions.

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... In strictures abrupt termination , long segment involvement, and irregular margin were accepted as malignancy criteria; smooth gradual tapering , short segment involvement and regular margin were accepted as benignity criteria. In addition, the demonstration of hyperintense areas around the stenosis on T2w images and the contrast enhancement of these areas on T1w images was accepted as a criterion in favor of tumor [3, 14,18192021222324. For malignant obstructions, in addition to axial images, when it was necessary coronal plan images were also obtained. ...
... In the determination of gallstone, the sensitivity of MRCP depends on the size of the stone [5, 16] . In the literature , 88%–100% sensitivity and 89%–100% specificity rates have been reported in diagnosis of choledocholithiasis with MRCP [12,202122232425. In our study, the sensitivity of MRI/ MRCP in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis was found 82.3%, the specificity was found 92.2%, and accuracy was 91.7%; this was compatible with the results of the literature. ...
... (d) ERCP demonstrates the malignant character of stricture (black arrow), and the result of biopsy was adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. the stone, stone may not be seen or small stones may be hidden because of partial volume effect in hyperintense bile [20, 21]. The most difficult cases in diagnosis with MRCP were the calculi impacted at papilla or millimetric calculi. ...
Article
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In this study, our purpose was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of the dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method in the patients with bile duct obstruction. 108 consecutive patients (53 men, 55 women, mean age; 55.77 ± 14.62, range 18-86 years) were included in this study. All the patients underwent conventional upper abdomen MRI using intravenous contrast material (Gd-DTPA) and MRCP in 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. MRCP images were evaluated together with the T1 and T2w images, and both biliary ducts and surrounding tissues were examined for possible pathologies that may cause obstruction. MRI/MRCP findings compared with final diagnoses, MRI/MRCP in the demonstration of bile duct obstruction sensitivity 96%, the specificity 100%, and accuracy 96.3%, in the detection of presence and level of obstruction, the sensitivity 96.7%, specificity 100%, and accuracy 97.2%, in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis, the sensitivity 82.3%, specificity 96%, and accuracy 91.7%, and in the determination of the character of the stenosis, sensitivity 95.6%, specificity 91.3%, and accuracy 94.5% were found. The combination of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and MRCP techniques in patients with suspected biliary obstruction gives the detailed information about the presence of obstruction, location, and causes and is a highly specific and sensitive method.
... There is considerable variation in the biliary tree with the normal portrayal thought to be existing in about 60% of the population . The most important bile duct variants, which amplify the damage to the bile duct during surgery are an abnormal right hepatic duct that connects to the common bile duct (CBD) or the unusual intrahepatic ducts that may join the CBD, cystic duct, common hepatic duct (CHD) or the gallbladder [23]. The most common bile duct variation is known as a crossover anomaly, in which the right dorsa-caudal intrahepatic branch drains into the left hepatic duct [24]. ...
... Bile duct structural variations are a common occurrence and clinically significant as they pose difficulties if unnoticed before a surgery [21]. The most important bile duct variants, which amplify the damage to the bile duct during surgery, are an abnormal right hepatic duct that connects to the common bile duct (CBD) or the unusual intrahepatic ducts that may join the CBD, cystic duct, common hepatic duct (CHD) or the gallbladder [23]. The most common bile duct variation is known as a crossover anomaly, in which the right dorsa-caudal intrahepatic branch drains into the left hepatic duct [24] Latest MRCP procedures use heavy T2-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) pulse sequences which produce images of the bile ducts which have an ingrained signal of the bile. ...
... Single and multislice projections can be obtained. The multislice procedure is divided into two types, namely 2D and 3D techniques [23,50]. Using high-resolution 3D acquisitions and maximum-intensity projection (MIP) images, spectacular displays of the entire biliary tree can be obtained. ...
Article
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The purpose of this article was to review the literature on hepatobiliary anatomy evaluation using different imaging modalities and opt for the best suitable imaging technique to show a specified part of the hepatobiliary system. For this article, the best suitable literature was searched using PubMed database and reviewed. This article describes major aspects of liver segmentation and the most popular classification of the hepatic segments and the vascular and biliary variants in the liver. And the evaluation of the hepatobiliary system using imaging techniques such as ① computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for liver, ② computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for the hepatic vasculature including the hepatic arteries, hepatic veins and the portal vein, and ③ magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) for bile duct. These imaging techniques have provided us with better procedures to depict the liver and biliary architecture, which will help us differentiate normal anatomy from variants and abnormal findings, even benefit in differential diagnosis and devising surgical planning/mapping for preoperative evaluation and post-operative care in conditions of the liver sucha as hepatocellular carcinoma and parasitic cysts.
... On MRI, the gallbladder wall is shown to be of intermediate T1 and low T2 signal. Mural stratification may be observed on T2weighted imaging, with an inner hypointense mucosal layer and an outer hyperintense serosal layer [9,10]. Unconcentrated bile is hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging and hypointense on T1-weighted sequences. ...
... Unconcentrated bile is hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging and hypointense on T1-weighted sequences. With prolonged fasting and increased concentration, bile will become progressively T1 hyperintense and T2 hypointense, often demonstrating a layered appearance [10,11]. Normal bile will show a slight loss in signal on opposed-phase T1 compared to in-phase imaging due to lipid content [12, 13 • ]. ...
... Findings of AC on MR include gallbladder distention, an obstructing gallbladder neck/cystic duct stone on T2 or MRCP imaging, pericholecystic inflammation, increased intensity and stratification of the wall on T2 imaging, and intense mucosal enhancement on T1 post contrast sequences. The so-called ''C sign'' (a small amount of fluid interposed between the liver and right hemidiaphragm) is a specific (though not sensitive) MR sign of AC [10,11,40,41]. Early enhancement of the hepatic parenchyma adjacent to the gallbladder fossa may be present, as seen on CT and scintigraphy. ...
Article
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A wide variety of inflammatory and neoplastic processes may affect the gallbladder. Gallstones are commonly encountered, and can result in both acute and chronic cholecystitis. Advanced acute cholecystitis can lead to a variety of complications, each with unique imaging findings. Adenomyomatosis and xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis can result in gallbladder wall thickening which may mimic carcinoma. Polyps are frequently encountered and are typically benign. However, some imaging features of polyps are more suggestive of suspected carcinoma and necessitate surveillance or intervention. Gallbladder carcinoma usually presents as a subhepatic mass with liver invasion, generally portending a poor prognosis. Congenital anomalies, torsion, and traumatic injury are additional less-common entities that may affect the gallbladder. This article will describe the various diseases that affect the gallbladder and discuss the associated imaging appearances across multiple modalities.
... Alternatively, there are breath-hold sequences like the single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) and the half Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spinecho (HASTE). These may be performed with a thin slice collimation or thick slab acquisition [2]. ...
... Prolonged fasting causes resorption of water from the bile, thereby increasing the concentration of cholesterol, bile salts, and phospholipids. This concentrated bile appears intermediate to high intensity on T 1 -weighted images [2]. The GB wall appears hypointense on T 2 -weighted and intermediate intensity on T 1 -weighted images and demonstrates smooth and uniform enhancement on postgadolinium images. ...
... МРТ и МРХПГ имеет весьма высокую специфичность 92 %, однако, представлено только в 70 % случаев [8,13,16]. ...
Article
Gallbladder polyps are an elevation of the mucous membrane that protrudes into the lumen of the gallbladder cavity. Pathology, according to world literature, occurs with a frequency of 0.3% to 13.8%. Currently, the diagnosis of polypoid formations of the gallbladder is based on the routine use of ultrasound, without further clarifying research, which often leads to errors in treatment tactics. In the domestic literature, there are very few studies on this topic, despite the relevance of this area.
... Most current MRCP techniques are based on heavily T2-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) pulse sequences, which yield a luminal image of the bile ducts that is based on the inherent signal of slow-flowing or stationary bile. Both, single shot projections and multislice techniques are available [5], with the latter being distinguished into 2D [6] and 3D techniques [7]. Single shot projections are preferred in individuals who are unable to hold their breath, such as severely sick patients or small children [7]. ...
Article
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Background Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is an established technique for the evaluation of intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts in patients with known or suspected hepatobiliary disease. However, the ideal acquisition and reconstruction plane for optimal bile duct evaluation with 3D technique has not been evaluated. The purpose of our study was to compare different acquisition and reconstruction planes of 3D-MRCP for bile duct assessment. Methods 34 patients (17f/17 m, mean age 41y) referred for MRCP were included in this prospective IRB-approved study. Respiratory-triggered 3D-T2w-MRCP sequences were acquired in coronal and axial plane. Coronal and axial MIP were reconstructed based on each dataset (resulting in two coronal and two axial MIP, respectively). Three readers in two sessions independently assessed the MIP, regarding visualization of bile ducts and image quality. Results were compared (Wilcoxon test). Intra- and interobserver variability were calculated (kappa-statistic). Results In case of coronal data acquisition, visualization of bile duct segments was significantly better on coronal reconstructed MIP images as compared to axial reconstructed MIP (p < 0.05). Regarding visualization, coronal MIP of the coronal acquisition were equal to coronal MIP of the axial acquisition (p > 0.05). Image quality of coronal and axial datasets did not differ significantly. Intra- and interobserver agreement regarding bile duct visualization were moderate to excellent (κ-range 0.55-1.00 and 0.42-0.85, respectively). Conclusions The results of our study suggest that for visualization and evaluation of intra- and extrahepatic bile duct segments reconstructed images in coronal orientation are preferable. The orientation of the primary dataset (coronal or axial) is negligible.
... Both single-shot projections and multislice techniques are available [5], with the latter being distinguished into 2D- [6] and 3D-techniques [7]. Single-shot projections are preferred in individuals who are unable to hold their breath, such as severely sick patients or small children [7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is an established technique for the evaluation of intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts in patients with known or suspected hepatobiliary disease. However, the ideal acquisition and reconstruction plane for optimal bile duct evaluation with 3D technique has not been evaluated.The purpose of our study was to compare different acquisition and reconstruction planes of 3D MRCP for bile duct assessment. Methods: 51 consecutive adult patients suspected to have pancreatico-biliary disease were examined with 3 Tesla (Philips 3 T Ingenia) system both a multi thin slice (3D) and a breath-hold (Single Shot) MRCP technique were performed. In the multi thin slice technique both source images and maximum intensity projections were examined. Two radiologists blinded to clinical information viewed both MRCP techniques independantly. Measure of correlation between each of the techniques and the inter observer agreement were computed. Coronal and axial MIP were reconstructed based on each dataset (resulting in two coronal and two axial MIP, respectively) and assessed the MIP, regarding visualization of bile ducts and image quality.Results were compared (Wilcoxon test). Intra- and interobserver variability were calculated (kappa-statistic). Results: In case of coronal data acquisition, visualization of bile duct segments was significantly better on coronal reconstructed MIP images as compared to axial reconstructed MIP (p < 0.05). Regarding visualization, coronal MIP of the coronal acquisition were equal to coronal MIP of the axial acquisition (p > 0.05). Image quality of coronal and axial datasets did not differ significantly. Obstruction due to tumor was shown in 30% of patients, and calculi in the common bile duct were shown also in 30% of patients employing the 3D MRCP technique. Obstruction due to tumor and calculi were shown in 30% and 21% of patients, respectively, using the SS 2D MRCP technique. Sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing calculi in the common bile duct by 3D MRCP and SS MRCP were 100%, 100%, 70% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: Although the 3D MRCP multislice technique is more time consuming than the SS MRCP breathhold technique at a 3 Tesla (Philips 3 T Ingenia) system it is advisable to use thin slice 3D MRCP in order not to misdiagnose calculi in the common bile duct.The results of our study suggest that for visualization and evaluation of intra- and extrahepatic bile duct segments reconstructed images in coronal orientation are preferable.
... An impacted stone in the ampulla can be misdiagnosed as a stricture due to a lack of T2WI bright fluid surrounding the stone. [59][60][61][62] When compared to various imaging available including Endoscopic US and ERCP, MRI with MRCP provides non-invasive, operator-independent, without the use of ionizing radiations and contrast agent, a detailed evaluation of the pancreaticobiliary system. An abbreviated MRI protocol can be adopted in patients suspected of biliary pathology thus achieving high accuracy in evaluation of choledocholithiasis and its complication in emergent cases. ...
... Both single-shot projections and multislice techniques are available [5], with the latter being distinguished into 2D- [6] and 3D-techniques [7]. Single-shot projections are preferred in individuals who are unable to hold their breath, such as severely sick patients or small children [7]. ...
Article
Purpose: Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is an established technique for the evaluation of intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts in patients with known or suspected hepatobiliary disease. However, the ideal acquisition and reconstruction plane for optimal bile duct evaluation with 3D technique has not been evaluated.The purpose of our study was to compare different acquisition and reconstruction planes of 3D MRCP for bile duct assessment. Methods: 51 consecutive adult patients suspected to have pancreatico-biliary disease were examined with 3 Tesla (Philips 3 T Ingenia) system both a multi thin slice (3D) and a breath-hold (Single Shot) MRCP technique were performed. In the multi thin slice technique both source images and maximum intensity projections were examined. Two radiologists blinded to clinical information viewed both MRCP techniques independantly. Measure of correlation between each of the techniques and the inter observer agreement were computed. Coronal and axial MIP were reconstructed based on each dataset (resulting in two coronal and two axial MIP, respectively) and assessed the MIP, regarding visualization of bile ducts and image quality.Results were compared (Wilcoxon test). Intra- and interobserver variability were calculated (kappa-statistic). Results: In case of coronal data acquisition, visualization of bile duct segments was significantly better on coronal reconstructed MIP images as compared to axial reconstructed MIP (p < 0.05). Regarding visualization, coronal MIP of the coronal acquisition were equal to coronal MIP of the axial acquisition (p > 0.05). Image quality of coronal and axial datasets did not differ significantly. Obstruction due to tumor was shown in 30% of patients, and calculi in the common bile duct were shown also in 30% of patients employing the 3D MRCP technique. Obstruction due to tumor and calculi were shown in 30% and 21% of patients, respectively, using the SS 2D MRCP technique. Sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing calculi in the common bile duct by 3D MRCP and SS MRCP were 100%, 100%, 70% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: Although the 3D MRCP multislice technique is more time consuming than the SS MRCP breath-hold technique at a 3 Tesla (Philips 3 T Ingenia) system it is advisable to use thin slice 3D MRCP in order not to misdiagnose calculi in the common bile duct.The results of our study suggest that for visualization and evaluation of intra- and extrahepatic bile duct segments reconstructed images in coronal orientation are preferable.
... Duodenal Schwannomas are mostly located in the second or third portion of the duodenum [12] . In our case, the location of the tumor mimicked an ampullary neoplasm on crosssectional imaging because of its location [13] . Ampullary neoplasms are associated with upstream biliary dilatation, which was not pronounced in our case. ...
Article
Full-text available
Schwannomas are neurogenic tumors that arise from Schwann cells in the neural sheath. Gastrointestinal schwannomas occur most often in the stomach, followed by the colon and the rectum. Duodenal schwannomas are rare amongst mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and only a few cases have been reported up to the current date with an incidence of approximately 2%-6%. Duodenal Schwannomas do not have characteristic imaging features thereby cannot be easily differentiated from other submucosal and adjacent extraluminal neoplasms. We present a case of a 76-year old male patient that presented to our hospital with abdominal pain and was diagnosed after an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with an ampullary duodenal neoplasm that proved to be a periampullary duodenal Schwannoma on histopathology. Duodenal Schwannomas although rare should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ampullary neoplasms.
... 2 3 In the setting of diagnostic uncertainties (clinically or radiologically), the clinician should consider the use of other imaging modalities for further definitive characterisation. 3 This case highlights the complementary value of MRI in addition to US and CT for the evaluation of gall bladder disorders in the era of multimodality imaging. ...
... This sign is highly specific (92%), but only present in 70% of cases. 52,53 In recent years, a large number of nuclear scanning studies have begun to be published to differentiate between benign and malignant polyps. In their studies with 50 cases of performed PET/ CT with 18F-FDG, Lee et al. reported that the presence of 18F-FDG uptake in polyps is a strong risk factor for cancer and that the ratio of liver/polyp SUVgp may be an important predictor. ...
Article
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Introduction: Gallbladder polyps (GBPs) are generally harmless, but the planning of diagnosis and treatment of the GBP is of clinical importance due to the high mortality risk of delays in the diagnosis of gallbladder carcinomas that show polypoid development. Materials and methods: GBPs are usually incidentally detected during ultrasonographic (USG) examinations of the abdomen. The risk of carcinoma development from polypoid lesions in the literature is reported as 0-27%. There is no consensus about the management of the GBPs. Herein, we reviewed the contemporary data to update our knowledge about diagnosis and treatment of gallbladder polyps. Results: Polyps can be identified in five different groups, primarily as neoplastic and non-neoplastic. Cholesterol polyps account for 60% of all cases. The most common (25%) benign polypoid lesions after cholesterol polyps are adenomyomas. Conclusion: Ultrasonography and endoscopic ultrasonography seems to be the most important tool in differential diagnosis and treatment. Ultrasonography should be repeated in every 3-12 months in cases that are thought to be risky. Nowadays, the most common treatment approach is to perform cholecystectomy in patients with polyps larger than 10 mm in diameter. Radical cholecystectomy and/or segmental liver resections should be planned in cases of malignancy. How to cite this article: Dilek ON, Karsu S, et al. Diagnosis and Treatment of Gallbladder Polyps: Current Perspectives. Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol 2019;9(1):40-48.
Chapter
In this important and practically written chapter, the authors detail important imaging modalities for HPB surgeons. The authors summarize the available imaging modalities and their complementary nature for the assessment of critical HPB lesions. Communication with the radiology team is crucial to determine the optimal imaging modality for each patient. This is especially true for minimally invasive HPB surgeons because of their greater reliance on imaging owing to reduced haptic feedback and the challenges of fully screening the liver with intraoperative ultrasound. MRI has the advantage of not using nephrotoxic contrast agents. Nevertheless, limitations for the use in patients with impaired renal function exist. Additional advantages of MRI are the ability to provide crucial information about lesion characteristics and underlying liver disease. Ultrasound is not only essential for intraoperative surgical planning; it is also an important screening modality for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic liver disease.
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The treatment of gallbladder disease has been revolutionized by improvements in laparoscopic surgery as well as endoscopic and radiologic interventional techniques. Therapeutic success is dependent on accurate radiologic assessment of gallbladder pathology. This article describes recent technical advances in ultrasonography, multidetector computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and scintigraphy, which have significantly improved the accuracy of noninvasive imaging of benign and malignant gallbladder disease. The imaging findings of common gallbladder disorders are presented, and the role of each of the imaging modalities is placed in perspective for optimizing patient management.
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Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is an elegant MR technique for noninvasively delineating the biliary system. Technologic advances in MRCP acquisition and processing and the routine availability of three-dimensional sequences have facilitated detailed assessment of biliary anatomy and pathologic or congenital processes; therefore, invasive endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is rarely needed for establishing a diagnosis. MRCP can be combined with contrast-enhanced MR imaging to enable concurrent evaluation of organs such as the liver and pancreas in addition to functional biliary imaging. This review focuses on the current use of MRCP to evaluate nonmalignant processes affecting the biliary system.
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We aimed to assess radial endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) features of the bile duct wall as well as biliary luminal liquid characteristics in cases with acute cholangitis. This prospective study was performed during the period from January 2009 to February 2010 in a tertiary referral center. Twenty-eight patients with acute cholangitis and 60 patients without acute cholangitis but with cholestasis due to gallstone disease were enrolled in the study. During radial EUS examination, sonographic features of the common bile duct wall, the intraductal luminal content, and nearby periductal structures were investigated. Mild hyperechogenic-heterogenic appearances with waving-type movements without acoustic shadowing enclosing one-third of the common bile duct were noted as purulent materials. EUS indicated an increased focal and/or diffuse concentric bile duct wall thickness (>1.5 mm) in 68 and 27% of the cases with and without acute cholangitis, respectively. The mean bile duct wall thickness was 1.9 mm (0.9-2.9 mm) and 1.1 mm (0.6-2.1 mm) in the study and control groups, respectively (P < 0.05). On EUS, a pericholedochal hypoechoic strand more than 1.5 cm in length was present in 13 of 28 patients with acute cholangitis (46%). It was less than 1 cm long in 11 cases without acute cholangitis (18%). Bile duct content with heterogenous dense echogenicity without acoustic shadowing was present in 18 patients (64%) with acute cholangitis and in two patients (3%) without cholangitis. Those 20 patients were successfully drained with a same-day endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) procedure which confirmed purulent biliary content after sphincterotomy. Same-day ERCP revealed no purulent material drainage from the bile duct in the other eight patients without cholangitis. The accuracy and positive and negative predictivity of diffuse concentric wall thickening and a peribiliary hypoechoic strand of greater than 1.5 cm in length for a diagnosis of acute cholangitis were 91, 86.3, and 67.1%, and 76, 72, and 54%, respectively. For purulent material, the accuracy and positive and negative predictive values of EUS for acute cholangitis were noted to be 87, 93.3, and 82%, respectively. Through this study, it was concluded that EUS findings such as diffuse and/or concentric wall thickening of more than 1.5 mm and intraductal heterogenous echogenicity without acoustic shadowing are highly accurate and predictive for diagnosing acute cholangitis.
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Several studies have reported the effectiveness of high b-value diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in the abdominal region, and have found that various malignant tumors may show high signal intensity on DWI, reflecting their high cellularity and/or their long relaxation time. The value of ADC measurement has also been documented for the diagnosis of several abdominal malignancies. To retrospectively evaluate the usefulness of high b-value DWI in differentiating between benign and malignant polypoid gallbladder lesions. The study population consisted of 10 benign (three hyperplastic polyps and seven adenomas) and 13 malignant (all adenocarcinomas) polypoid gallbladder lesions. DWI was evaluated by two observers. Qualitatively, the signal intensity of the lesions on DWI was visually evaluated and categorized as iso, high, or very high. Quantitatively, the ADC values of the lesions were measured from ADC maps. Statistical analysis was performed using a two-tailed Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test, respectively. Qualitative analysis revealed a statistical difference (P = 0.0041). Six of 10 benign lesions were categorized as iso, and the remaining four were categorized as high. In the 13 malignant lesions, one was categorized as iso, five as high, and seven as very high. The ADC values of the malignant lesions (1.34 ± 0.50 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec) were significantly lower than those of the benign lesions (2.26 ± 0.44 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec) (P = 0.00016). High b-value DWI may be useful for differentiating between benign and malignant polypoid gallbladder lesions by the visual assessment of DWI and ADC measurement.
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The purpose of this study is to assess the common MRI findings of acute cholangitis compared with those of non-acute cholangitis. During a 31-month period, we performed MRCP and contrast-enhanced MRI on 173 patients with biliary abnormalities including duct dilatation or stricture. The causes of the biliary abnormalities included biliary stone disease (n=85), cholangiocarcinoma (n=47), periampullary cancer (n=20), GB cancer (n=4), and others (n=17). Among 173 patients, 66 consecutive patients were confirmed with acute cholangitis diagnosed according to the Tokyo guideline, and 107 patients were confirmed as having non-acute cholangitis. Two radiologists retrospectively and independently accessed the MR findings, including the cause of biliary abnormality, increased periductal signal intensity on T2-weighted images, the transient periductal signal difference, and the presence of abscess, thrombosis, and ragged duct. They also measured the dilated duct and the thickened wall. The Student t-test and the Pearson chi-square were used. The κ statistics were used to determine interobserver agreement. Logistic regression was used to identify the MR findings that predicted acute cholangitis. MRI correctly accessed the cause of biliary abnormality in 163 patients (94%). The statistically common findings for acute cholangitis were as follows: increased periductal signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging (n=26, 39%, p<0.05); transient periductal signal difference (n=31, 47%, p<0.05); abscess (n=18, 27%, p<0.05); thrombosis (n=12, 18%, p<0.05); and ragged duct (n=11, 17%, p<0.05). Interobserver agreement was good to excellent for each finding (κ=0.74-0.97). The wall thickness showed a statistically significant difference between the acute cholangitis and the non-acute cholangitis group (2.65 mm:2.32 mm, p<0.05), however, there was no significant difference in duct dilatation in the two groups. The periductal transient attenuation difference was an independent predictor of acute cholangitis (Exp (B)=6.389, p=0.018). MRI accurately assesses the cause of biliary abnormality in patients with cholangitis. Using statistically common MR findings for acute cholangitis, MR imaging is very successful in predicting acute cholangitis.
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Aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of relevant biliary and extrabiliary findings in patients undergoing magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Three hundred eighty-four patients underwent 1.5-Tesla MRCP, and relevant biliary and extra-biliary findings were identified. Four hundred twenty-two biliary findings were identified in 384 patients (75%; 1.1 per patient). Ninety-five patients were free of any relevant biliary finding (25%). Incidental extrabiliary findings were observed in 763 patients (1.98/patient). Most of the findings can be diagnosed by MRCP, while others require further examination. Interdisciplinary involvement is recommended to optimize clinical categorization, management, and treatment of these incidental findings.
MR imaging is a noninvasive, radiation-free imaging method for evaluation of the biliary system. Continued advancements in MR imaging system hardware and sequence design, coupled with novel gadolinium chelate agents, allow for a detailed evaluation of the bile ducts and surrounding soft tissues. New hepatocyte-specific contrast agents may hold utility in the anatomic and functional evaluation of bile duct injury. MR imaging is also the imaging method of choice for bile duct tumor diagnosis, staging, and presurgical planning. Familiarity with the proper methodology of MR image acquisition and interpretation is critical for optimized diagnostic assessment.
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A multitude of pathologies can affect the biliary system, including infection, inflammation, neoplasms, and congenital and acquired abnormalities. This chapter begins with a description of normal biliary anatomy and anatomic variants followed by biliary imaging techniques. Next, the chapter divides biliary diseases according to imaging patterns-bile duct filling defects; biliary dilatation, subdivided into obstructive and nonobstructive causes; bile leaks and bilomas; absent bile ducts; and biliary cystadenoma/cystadenocarcinoma-and discusses in each section the salient imaging findings and how to correctly diagnose biliary disease.
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Magnetic resonance (MR) with cholangiopancreatography imaging has evolved considerably in the last decades. Improving in spatial resolution and speed of acquisition, MR provides comprehensive information to evaluate the full range of biliary and pancreatic diseases in a single session, without using any ionizing radiation. Furthermore, MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) has an accepted main role in the study of many biliary and pancreatic disorders, becoming a noninvasive diagnostic alternative to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).
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The purpose of radiological imaging in patients with suspected or known cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is tumour detection, lesion characterization and assessment of resectability. Different imaging modalities are implemented complementary in the diagnostic work-up. Non-invasive imaging should be performed prior to invasive biliary procedures in order to avoid false positive results. For assessment of intraparenchymal tumour extension and evaluation of biliary and vascular invasion, MRI including MRCP and CT are the primarily used imaging modalities. The role of PET remains controversial with few studies showing benefit with the detection of unexpected metastatic spread, the differentiation between benign and malignant biliary strictures, and for discriminating post therapeutic changes and recurrent CCA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of HRUS, CT, and MRI for differentiating xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) from gallbladder (GB) cancer. Patients with surgically proven XGC (n = 40) and GB cancer (n = 44), who had undergone at least one HRUS (n = 43), CT (n = 82), or MRI (n = 34) examination between 2000 and 2012, were included. Two radiologists retrospectively graded the likelihood of XGC or GB cancer using a 5-point confidence scale; they also assessed the imaging features. Statistical analyses were performed using ROC, ANOVA, and Fisher's exact test. Diagnostic performance of MRI was better than HRUS for differentiating XGC from GB cancer (AUCs = 0.867 and 0.911 vs. AUCs = 0.818 and 0.86). However, HRUS showed a better performance than CT (AUCs = 0.818 and 0.86 vs. AUCs = 0.806 and 0.84) with moderate to excellent agreement (κ = 0.48-0.83). Statistically common findings for XGC included non-focal thickening, smooth GB wall, presence of intramural nodules, type I enhancement of wall, transient hepatic attenuation difference, and continuity of mucosa (p < 0.05). Co-existence of gallstones (OR = 16.5), non-focal thickening (OR = 14.7), and collapsed lumen (OR = 13.0) on HRUS, and type I enhancement on CT (OR = 3.52) were independently associated with XGC (p < 0.05). Although MRI showed a better performance than both HRUS and CT, HRUS showed a better performance than CT. The co-existence of gallstones, non-focal thickening, and collapsed lumen on HRUS was independently associated with XGC.
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Practical Body MRI: Protocols, Applications and Image Interpretation demystifies MRI examinations of the abdomen and pelvis, giving the essential knowledge required by radiologists in order to develop and select appropriate protocols, assess scan quality and interpret imaging studies. Each chapter describes why each sequence is performed, what to look for, and how the important findings from each sequence lead to a unique diagnosis. Numerous protocols are included, from the more common, such as liver and renal MRI, to more tailored examinations such as rectal and placental MRI. All protocols are richly illustrated with images of body MR pathology. A separate chapter discusses MRA/MRV and an introductory chapter gives a brief, practical introduction to MRI physics and receiver coils. The authors' expertise and practical, concise explanations of both protocols and image interpretation makes this an essential resource for residents, fellows and experienced radiologists using body MRI for the first time.
Article
Imaging with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) can show the normal anatomical structures of the biliary tree, the left and right hepatic ducts, the common hepatic duct, the common bile duct, the gallbladder and the pancreatic ducts [1].
Chapter
Abdominal pain is a common chief complaint in the emergency department, and computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound are useful first-line imaging modalities in the appropriate clinical setting. Both are rapid, low cost, and easily accessible. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is increasingly used in equivocal situations, especially for imaging the biliary system and pancreas, in the setting of pregnancy, and in young or relatively young patients with chronic diseases which will require multiple imaging examinations, with the associated exposure of ionizing radiation if repetitive CT is performed. MR has proved particularly useful in the setting of Crohn disease, complications of pancreatitis, suspected appendicitis in pregnant patients, complications from pancreatic injury, choledocholithiasis, and biliary obstruction of indeterminate etiology. Acute abdominal pain related to liver, gallbladder, and biliary etiologies may present as acute infections with hepatitis or cholecystitis, acute obstruction with choledocholithiasis or malignancy, hemoperitoneum from a ruptured liver mass, or trauma/iatrogenic injury.
Chapter
The gallbladder is affected by a diverse spectrum of diseases, which may have nonspecific signs and symptoms. Imaging plays an important role in differentiating the various causes of gallbladder disease and in guiding management. This chapter begins with a description of normal gallbladder anatomy and anatomic variants followed by gallbladder imaging techniques. Next, this chapter divides gallbladder diseases according to imaging patterns-intraluminal filling defects, diffuse gallbladder wall thickening, focal gallbladder wall thickening, abnormal gallbladder wall density, distended gallbladder, and hyperdense bile-and discusses in each section how to correctly diagnose gallbladder disease.
Article
The purpose of our study was to evaluate quantitative and qualitative image quality of MR cholangiography at a field strength of 3.0 T compared with the standard field strength of 1.5 T. A standardized MR cholangiography sequence protocol was used for 15 healthy male volunteers (mean age +/- SD, 32.4 +/- 4.3 years) who underwent both 1.5- and 3.0-T MRI within 2 hr in an alternating fashion. Dedicated circular polarized torso coils (1.5 and 3.0 T) were used. The sequence protocol included breath-hold single-slice rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (slice thickness, 50 mm; orientation, coronal and +/- 20 degrees oblique coronal); breath-hold multislice HASTE (slice thickness, 3 mm; coronal only); and a non-breath-hold, respiratory-triggered 3D turbo spin-echo (TSE) T2-weighted sequence (slice thickness, 1 mm; 60 slices per slab; coronal only). Maximum intensity projections were generated from each multislice data set. Bile duct (common bile duct, right posterior segmental branch, and left hepatic duct) to periductal tissue contrast-to-noise ratios were compared at 1.5 and 3.0 T. Qualitative image analysis was performed by three independent reviewers. Qualitative analysis included delineation of the extra- and intrahepatic biliary anatomy, with specific attention given to the presence (or absence) of cystic or intrahepatic ductal variants, using a 4-point confidence scale. Statistical analysis consisted of the paired Student's t test and the signed rank test. Contrast-to-noise ratios between the bile duct and the periductal tissue were higher at 3.0 T in all three locations (common bile duct, right posterior segmental branch, and left hepatic duct). In each magnet class, the 3D TSE sequence offered the best contrast-to-noise ratio and qualitative analysis. Superiority of the 3D TSE sequence was statistically significant in all analyses. Five of the 15 volunteers had intrahepatic biliary variants that were detected with a higher level of confidence (p < 0.01) on the 3.0-T system than on the 1.5-T system. Compared with MR cholangiography at 1.5 T, MR cholangiography at 3.0 T offers improved contrast-to-noise ratio and a higher level of confidence for depicting intrahepatic variants.
Article
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We evaluated the MR imaging features of adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder with particular emphasis on Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses. MR images of 17 patients with histologically proven adenomyomatosis were retrospectively reviewed. The presence of Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses was evaluated and analyzed; four T2-weighted (fast spin-echo with a surface coil, with or without breath-holding, fast spin-echo with a phased-array coil with breath-holding, and half-Fourier rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement with breath-holding) and two contrast-enhanced dynamic pulse sequences were studied. These six pulse sequences were separately rated on a 5-point scale by two radiologists for comparison. Interobserver differences were evaluated. Other MR findings were also analyzed. Among the six pulse sequences studied, three T2-weighted with breath-holding sequences were found to be superior to the other three sequences in showing Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses. In particular, the half-Fourier rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement was scored the highest by the two observers and received the highest kappa coefficient in our statistical analysis of the scoring. Diffuse-type adenomyomatosis typically showed early mucosal and subsequent serosal enhancement. Localized adenomyomatosis exhibited homogeneous enhancement, showing smooth continuity with the surrounding gallbladder epithelium. MR imaging may be able to provide important information in the diagnosis of adenomyomatosis.
Article
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the spectrum of MR imaging features of primary sclerosing cholangitis. A retrospective review was performed of MR imaging findings including MR cholangiography and multiphasic contrast-enhanced dynamic sequences in 22 patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. MR imaging analysis included abnormalities of intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, abnormalities of liver parenchyma, changes in liver morphology, and lymphadenopathy. Abnormal findings of bile ducts were seen in all 22 patients; the most common finding was intrahepatic bile duct dilatation (77%), followed by intrahepatic bile duct stenosis (64%), extrahepatic bile duct wall enhancement (67%), extrahepatic bile duct wall thickening (50%), extrahepatic bile duct stenosis (50%), and intrahepatic bile duct beading (36%). Increased enhancement of the liver parenchyma on dynamic arterial-phase images, predominantly in the peripheral areas of the liver, was identified in 56% of patients. Other findings included periportal lymphadenopathy (77%), periportal high signal intensity on T2-weighted images (68%), hypertrophy of the caudate lobe (68%), and abnormal hyperintensity of the liver parenchyma on T1-weighted images (23%). On MR imaging, primary sclerosing cholangitis showed several characteristic features, including bile duct abnormalities and increased enhancement of the liver parenchyma. MR cholangiography and contrast-enhanced dynamic MR techniques are useful for revealing intra- and extrahepatic signs of primary sclerosing cholangitis.
Article
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The surgical management of porcelain gallbladder is based on studies performed in 1931 and 1962, which indicated a correlation between porcelain gallbladder and carcinoma. We sought to evaluate the characteristics of patients with porcelain gallbladder and the risk for gallbladder carcinoma. The medical records of 10,741 cholecystectomies performed between 1955 and 1998 were reviewed and recorded. The pathology slides were evaluated for evidence of calcification and gallbladder carcinoma. Fifteen (0.14%) of 10,741 specimens were porcelain gallbladders. Ten patients (67%) had symptoms suggestive of biliary colic or cholecystitis. Five (33%) were asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally. All specimens demonstrated chronic cholecystitis and partial calcification of the gallbladder wall. Nine (60%) had cholelithiasis. None had gallbladder carcinoma by recent review of pathologic material. During this same period 88 (0.82%) patients had gallbladder carcinoma, none of which showed calcification of the wall. This report represents the largest modern review of porcelain gallbladders. No carcinoma was identified among patients with porcelain gallbladder. In addition no patient with gallbladder carcinoma had calcified gallbladder. With a better understanding of the natural history of the porcelain gallbladder the current management of these patients may change.
Article
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To retrospectively determine the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for differentiation between acute and chronic cholecystitis, with histopathologic analysis as the reference standard. Institutional review board approval with waived informed consent was obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study. Four reviewers blinded to the cholecystitis type but aware that cholecystitis was present retrospectively evaluated MR images for predetermined findings in 32 patients (15 male, 17 female; mean age +/- standard deviation, 55 years +/- 20) with histopathologically proved acute or chronic cholecystitis. The final MR diagnoses and MR findings in both groups were compared with each other and with the histopathologic diagnoses to determine the sensitivity and specificity of MR imaging. Chi(2) tests were used to detect differences in MR findings between the acute and chronic cholecystitis groups. MR imaging sensitivity and specificity for detection of acute cholecystitis were 95% (18 of 19 patients) and 69% (nine of 13 patients), respectively. The sensitivities of increased gallbladder wall enhancement and increased transient pericholecystic hepatic enhancement were 74% (14 of 19 patients) and 62% (10 of 16 patients), respectively. Both findings had 92% (12 of 13 patients) specificity. Sensitivities of increased wall thickness, pericholecystic fluid, and adjacent fat signal intensity changes were 100% (19 of 19 patients), 95% (18 of 19 patients), and 95% (18 of 19 patients), respectively; specificities were 54% (seven of 13 patients), 38% (five of 13 patients), and 54% (seven of 13 patients), respectively. Pericholecystic abscess, intraluminal membranes, and wall irregularity or defect each had 100% (13 of 13 patients) specificity; sensitivities were 11% (two of 19 patients), 26% (five of 19 patients), and 21% (four of 19 patients), respectively. Increased gallbladder wall enhancement (P<.001) and increased transient pericholecystic hepatic enhancement (P=.003) were the most significantly different between acute and chronic cholecystitis. Increased gallbladder wall enhancement and increased transient pericholecystic hepatic enhancement had the highest combination of sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis and differentiation of acute and chronic cholecystitis.
Article
Purpose: The diagnostic value of fast pulse sequences in MR imaging was compared with US in patients with clinically suspected acute cholecystitis. Material and Methods: In a prospective study of 94 patients, 35 were examined with both MR and US within 24 h. Results: MR diagnoses were acute cholecystitis in 23, gallbladder and common bile duct stones in 3, other pathologic conditions of the abdomen in 7 and normal in 2 patients. US diagnoses were acute cholecystitis in 17, gallbladder stones in 8, other pathologic conditions of the abdomen in 2, normal in 5 and non-conclusive in 3 patients. Conclusion: MR has a higher sensitivity than US for diagnosing acute cholecystitis and, with increased accessibility, may be the first imaging method.
Article
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to compare the accuracy of helical CT cholangiography and that of MR cholangiography in the diagnosis of aberrant bile ducts or cystic ducts before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. A total of 120 consecutive patients, including 114 patients with cholecystolithiasis and six with gallbladder polyps, were treated using laparoscopic cholecystectomy between November 1996 and August 1998. Eighteen (15%) of the 120 patients were suspected of having aberrant bile ducts or cystic ducts on helical CT cholangiography, and 16 of these 18 patients were subsequently examined on MR cholangiography. For the 16 patients who underwent both imaging examinations, findings from helical CT cholangiography and MR cholangiography were compared with intraoperative cholangiography. RESULTS. Aberrant bile ducts in 13 patients and aberrant cystic ducts in three patients were divided into six types on the basis of the results of intraoperative cholangiography. Although these types were clearly identified using helical CT cholangiography in all 16 patients, the anatomic variants were not correctly identified in seven (44%) of the 16 patients with MR cholangiography. False-negative findings were mainly a result of the insertion sites of the cystic ducts or aberrant bile ducts being obscured by aberrant bile ducts or duodenum. Two (2%) of the 120 patients developed mild adverse reactions to the contrast material, but neither required treatment. CONCLUSION. Helical CT cholangiography clearly showed aberrant bile ducts and cystic ducts, but visualization of these structures on MR cholangiography was unsatisfactory because of overlapping duodenum and hepatic ducts.
Article
To determine prospectively the clinical applications and diagnostic accuracy of half-Fourier rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in a large patient population. Breath-hold, heavily T2-weighted half-Fourier RARE MRCP was performed in 265 patients with suspected pancreaticobiliary disease and in 35 control patients without symptoms or signs referrable to the biliary tract or pancreatic duct. MRCP findings were correlated with those at direct cholangiography, pathologic examination, cross-sectional imaging, and clinical follow-up. Diagnostic MRCP examinations were obtained in 299 (99.7%) subjects. MRCP yielded an accuracy of 100% in determining the presence of pancreaticobiliary disease, the presence and level of biliary obstruction, and obstruction due to bile duct calculi. The accuracy of MRCP and MR imaging in determining the presence and level of malignant obstruction was 98.2%. MRCP obviated endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) by excluding choledocholithiasis in patients with acute pancreatitis (n = 13) and nonspecific abdominal pain (n = 82). In patients with sclerosing cholangitis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cholangiopathy, MRCP depicted the biliary tract as clearly as did ERCP (n = 9). After failed ERCP, MRCP delineated the pancreaticobiliary tract and helped determine therapeutic options (n = 27). Half-Fourier RARE MRCP enables accurate evaluation of pancreaticobiliary disease and obviates ERCP in some patients.
Article
Benign bile duct strictures remain one of the most difficult problems encountered by the hepatobiliary surgeon. The vast majority of bile duct strictures occur as a complication of cholecystectomy. The patients may present early in the postoperative period with evidence of a biliary leak or months to years later with the development of jaundice or cholangitis. The essential first step of management consists of delineation of the proximal biliary anatomy. Current management techniques include either operative biliary reconstruction or nonoperative balloon dilatation by either the percutaneous transhepatic or endoscopic routes. The best form of surgical reconstruction of the biliary tree is a biliary-enteric anastomosis from the proximal bile duct to a Roux-en-Y limb of jejunum. In these cases, we favor the use of long-term postoperative biliary stenting using Silastic stents. Recent retrospective, nonrandomized results from our institution favor this surgical technique over nonoperative dilatation. Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a rare cause of biliary strictures. The etiology of sclerosing is unknown, but its association with ulcerative colitis and other diseases suggest an autoimmune condition. The diagnosis is confirmed by typical cholangiographic findings of multiple areas of stricture and dilatation. No medical management has proven to be successful. Surgical management for symptomatic patients includes resection of the hepatic bifurcation with long-term transhepatic stenting of the biliary tree for patients with primarily extrahepatic and/or hilar disease and with no evidence of cirrhosis. In patients with primarily intrahepatic strictures or advanced cirrhosis, liver transplantation is the treatment of choice. Benign strictures due to other causes, such as chronic pancreatitis, calculous biliary disease, sphincter of Oddi stenosis, duodenal Crohn's disease, peptic ulcer, or perivaterian duodenal diverticula usually can be managed by choledochoduodenostomy or choledochojejunostomy without long-term stenting. The management of other rare benign biliary strictures is dependent upon their extent and underlying etiology.
Article
A prospective study of jaundiced (n = 187) and nonjaundiced (n = 33) cholestatic patients was carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of ultrasonography (US), CT, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the detection of choledochal stone disease. Altogether 83 patients had the final diagnosis of choledocholithiasis. In the jaundiced patients, the sensitivity of US, CT, and ERCP was 22.5%, 23.2%, and 80.6%, respectively. In cases of cholestasis without jaundice, the values were 20%, 37.5%, and 66.7%. In patients in whom all 3 imaging studies were done (n = 64), the differences between US and ERCP and between CT and ERCP were statistically significant (p less than 0.0001). In most false-negative ERCP studies (10/15), the clinical course of the disease strongly suggested a passed choledochal stone. On the basis of this study, we recommend prompt ERCP to be performed if choledochal stone disease is suspected on clinical grounds.
Article
Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 19 patients with histologically proved gallbladder carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed to determine the appearance of the primary tumor, and to assess the ability of MR imaging to demonstrate the various modes of tumor spread beyond the gallbladder. The primary tumor, as well as tumor spread beyond the gallbladder, was hyperintense on T2-weighted images and hypointense on T1-weighted images when compared with the liver parenchyma. Liver invasion and metastasis could be depicted by MR imaging with both sequences, unless the tumors were small or the extent of invasion was minimal. Duodenal invasion was difficult to evaluate because of motion artifacts, paucity of fat, and partial volume effects. T1-weighted images readily demonstrated extension of the tumor to the hepatoduodenal ligament and para-aortic region with good contrast between tumor and surrounding tissue. The extent of tumor extension to the blood vessels was also easily evaluated because of flow void in the vasculature. MR imaging can help determine the extent of gallbladder carcinoma and can contribute to the staging of this disease.
Article
Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, proton MR spectroscopy, and biochemical analysis were performed to investigate MR signal intensity (SI) differences between concentrated and dilute gallbladder bile of seven fasting and five sincalide-treated dogs. MR images revealed high SI from bile of fasting dogs and low to medium SI in sincalide-treated dogs when spin-echo (SE) pulse sequences with repetition rates of 0.5 and 2.0 sec were used. Proton MR spectra were similar for fasting and sincalide-treated dogs. In fasting dogs, water content in the bile was slightly lower, and cholesterol, phospholipid, and bile acid concentrations were higher. More than 90% of proton signals in all Fourier transform free induction decay spectra emanated from water molecules, and no lipid proton resonances were detected in Fourier transform SE spectra after tau delays of 7 msec. These results indicate that the differences in SI are caused by alterations in relaxation times of water protons, possibly resulting from the interactions of water protons and macromolecules.
Article
Cholelithiasis usually appears on magnetic resonance as a signal void contrasting with the high signal of surrounding bile. We describe the appearance of two intraluminal gallstones as high-signal areas on a heavily T1-weighted scan and, based on infrared spectroscopic analysis of the stones, believe the fatty-acid content of the stones accounts for this unusual result. Increased focal intraluminal signal on strongly T1-weighted sequences does not, therefore, preclude a diagnosis of cholelithiasis.
Article
Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a progressive, ultimately fatal, chronic hepatobiliary disorder for which no effective medical or surgical therapy now exists. The syndrome occurs most commonly in young men and is characterized by a chronic cholestatic syndrome, frequent association with chronic ulcerative colitis, hepatic copper overload, a paucity of serologic markers, and characteristic abnormalities in some liver-biopsy specimens and most cholangiograms. The natural history of the syndrome is unclear; the disease is likely to progress slowly and relentlessly, over a decade or longer, from an asymptomatic stage to a condition characterized by symptoms of cholestasis and complicated by cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and possibly carcinoma of the bile ducts. Screening techniques based on automated biochemical analyses are likely to lead to a diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis in increasing numbers of patients, perhaps in the early, preicteric stage. An increased level of serum alkaline phosphatase in a young man, particularly if he has chronic ulcerative colitis, should strongly suggest the presence of this syndrome and the need for additional diagnostic studies. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and liver biopsy should be considered under these circumstances.
Article
The debate over routine versus selective intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy continues because of a paucity of objective data to support or refute the case for either approach. The introduction of fluoroscopic techniques during the performance of cholangiography is an important step forward because it decreases the operative time for the technique and because real-time visualization may also diminish the number of false-positive and false-negative results. Routine cholangiography improves the surgeon's ability to delineate the biliary anatomy when the need arises and undoubtedly facilitates the development of skills useful for the laparoscopic management of common bile duct calculi. Normal results on intraoperative cholangiography are also reassuring to the surgeon, given the current visual and tactile limitations of laparoscopy. As a result of these considerations as well as our procurement of a digital fluoroscopic system and the need to train surgical residents in cholangiographic techniques, we have adopted a policy of routine fluoroscopic intraoperative cholangiography on all patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Article
Our purpose was to prospectively compare MRI findings with histopathologic findings in the evaluation of suspected acute cholecystitis. Fourteen patients with clinically suspected acute cholecystitis were entered into the study. MR sequences included T1-weighted fat-suppression and breath-hold spoiled gradient echo (SGE) before and after intravenous gadolinium chelate administration. Percent contrast enhancement (%CE) of the gallbladder wall and gallbladder wall thickness (WT) were measured and liver enhancement patterns determined prospectively on MR images. Correlation was obtained with pathological findings at cholecytectomy in all patients. In a second phase of the study MR images on 10 additional subjects who underwent MR examination for reasons other than hepatobiliary disease were analyzed to determine normal values for %CE and gallbladder wall thickness. Mean %CE was 124.0% in patients with acute cholecystitis (10 patients), 58.0% in patients with chronic cholecystitis (2 patients), and 73.0% in patients with gallbladder malignancy (2 patients). Mean gallbladder WT was 6.1 mm in acute cholecystitis, 4.5 mm in chronic cholecystitis, and 6.0 mm in malignant disease. There was a significant difference in %CE between acute and chronic cholecystitis (p = 0.03); no other significant differences in %CE or WT were observed among the patients with gallbladder disease. Patients without biliary disease had %CE of 37.3% and WT of 2.9 mm, which were both significantly less (p < 0.001) than in patients with acute cholecystitis. Transient enhancement of pericholecystic hepatic parenchyma on immediate postgadolinium SGE images was seen in 7 of 10 patients with acute cholecystitis, and not observed in other patients. Patients with acute cholecystitis had increased %CE and WT on MR images that were significantly greater than normal and %CE that was significantly greater than in patients with chronic cholecystitis. Transient increased pericholecystic hepatic enhancement was observed in 70% of acute cholecystitis patients and in no other patient groups.
Article
Implementation of fast T1- and T2-weighted sequences on state-of-the-art magnetic resonance (MR) imagers increases the potential of MR imaging for examining the gallbladder and permits imaging of both cooperative and acutely ill patients with fewer artifacts. Comprehensive evaluation of gallbladder and biliary tract disease is feasible on new generation MR scanners using MR cholangiographic techniques in combination with tissue imaging sequences (spoiled gradient-echo and fat-suppressed spoiled gradient-echo) and dynamic intravenous gadolinium-chelate administration. Inflammatory and neoplastic diseases of the gallbladder are well shown with these techniques.
Contrast agents are needed for improvement of lesion detection and lesion characterization on hepatic MR imaging. According to their biodistribution, contrast agents are classified into extracellular, hepatocyte-targeted, macrophage-monocytic phagocytic system(MPPS)-targeted, and blood-pool contrast agents. Dynamic MR imaging of the liver enhanced with extracellular gadolinium chelates improves lesion characterization. Hepatocyte-targeted and MPPS-targeted contrast agents improve lesion detection. Hepatocyte-targeted contrast agents that have an initial extracellular distribution phase and blood-pool contrast agents offer a potential for improvement of both detection and characterization of focal hepatic lesions.
Article
To evaluate the computed tomographic (CT) features of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) and to distinguish it from gallbladder carcinoma. Retrospective analysis was performed in 11 patients with XGC and 17 patients with gallbladder carcinoma in which the wall was thickened. The following CT features were analyzed: maximum wall thickness, intramural hypoattenuated nodules, mucosal line, patterns of wall thickening and enhancement, and the presence of stones. The changes outside the gallbladder were also compared. The mean thickness of the gallbladder wall was 1.8 cm in patients with XGC and 2.1 cm in patients with gallbladder carcinoma. Intramural hypoattenuated nodules were seen in all patients with XGC but in only seven patients with gallbladder carcinoma (P = .008). The mucosal line was observed in nine patients with XGC and in six with gallbladder carcinoma (P = .02). The gallbladder wall was more diffusely thickened in patients with XGC (10 of 11 patients) than in patients with gallbladder carcinoma (seven of 17 patients) (P = .01). The occurrence of changes outside the gallbladder did not differ statistically significantly. Because of a statistically significant overlap of CT features, only when intramural hypoattenuated nodules occupy a large area of the thickened gallbladder wall can the diagnosis of XGC be highly suggestive. The diagnosis of XGC at CT may indicate a less aggressive surgical approach.
Article
To compare findings with magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiography with rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) and half-Fourier acquisition with single-shot turbo spin-echo (hereafter, half Fourier RARE) snapshot imaging techniques to those with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). Heavily T2-weighted thick-section (RARE) and thin-section (half-Fourier RARE) MR cholangiography were performed prospectively, on a 1.5-T imager, in the biliary tree of 61 consecutive patients before ERC. Findings at ERC were considered the standard of reference. The radiologist and endoscopist were blinded to each other's report. On- and off-site MR cholangiographic readings were performed to detect stones (n = 24), biliary dilatation (n = 34), or stenosis (n = 36). The sensitivity and specificity of MR cholangiography, respectively, calculated on a lesion-by-lesion basis, were 92.3% and 95.8% for cholangiolithiasis, 94.1% and 92.6% for duct dilatation, and 88.8% and 84.0% for stenosis. With snapshot MR cholangiography, on a patient-by-patient basis, differentiation between normal (n = 15) and abnormal (n = 46) results yielded a sensitivity of 92.4%, a specificity of 83.4%, and a positive predictive value of 95.6%. Pitfalls were caused by flow artifacts, compression by vessels, and low contrast between calculi and surrounding parenchyma. Snapshot MR cholangiography allowed noninvasive, accurate detection of biliary stones, strictures, and dilatation similar to that with ERC. Discrepancies regarding low-grade dilatation and strictures had no clinical relevance at retrospective review.
Article
To assess preliminary experience with breath-hold single-shot fast spin-echo magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiography in complex postcholecystectomy biliary disorders. MR cholangiography was performed in 17 consecutive patients referred for specialist surgical evaluation of suspected complex postcholecystectomy biliary disorders. Two readers, unaware of surgical, histopathologic, or other imaging findings, independently reviewed the MR cholangiographic images to assess the presence of biliary occlusion, peribiliary lesions, nonspecific biliary dilatation (biliary dilatation without an abrupt transition in caliber and without a visible underlying cause), bile duct stones, or biliary fistulas. Final diagnoses were established with surgery (n = 9), imaging other than MR (n = 6), and histopathologic review of the initial surgical specimen (n = 2). Final diagnoses were biliary occlusion (n = 8), peribiliary lesions (n = 3), nonspecific biliary dilatation (n = 3), bile duct stones (n = 2), and biliary-colonic fistula (n = 1). The two readers correctly categorized these diagnoses in 15 (88%) and 13 (76%) of the 17 cases, with excellent interobserver agreement (kappa = 0.82). Single-shot fast spin-echo MR cholangiography is an accurate, noninvasive modality for the assessment of complex postcholecystectomy biliary disorders.
Article
To compare prospectively the data provided with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in eight patients with symptomatic choledochal cysts. Eight patients (three children, five adults) with choledochal cyst and abdominal pain underwent sequential single-shot turbo spin-echo T2-weighted MRCP and ERCP. Seven of the eight patients had relapsing pancreatitis. In three patients, a dynamic MR examination was performed after secretin stimulation of exocrine pancreatic function. A complete correlation was observed between ERCP and MRCP for defining the anatomic characteristics of the cyst (seven type I cysts, one type IV cyst) and the presence of an abnormal pancreaticobiliary junction (PBJ) (six patients) with a long common channel. Of the seven patients with acute pancreatitis, six had an abnormal PBJ and one had common bile duct (CBD) stones with a normal ductal union evidenced with both techniques. In two patients, dynamic MRCP demonstrated preferential filling of the gallbladder and the CBD after secretin injection, whereas normal duodenal filling was observed in another patient without a junctional abnormality. MRCP provides information equivalent to that provided with ERCP, without potential complications, for the preoperative assessment of choledochal cysts. Dynamic secretin-stimulated MRCP studies might help better understand the pathophysiologic characteristics of this entity.
Article
This study describes the spectrum of appearances of cholangiocarcinoma on magnetic resonance (MR) sequences, including gadolinium-enhanced, fat-suppressed spoiled gradient echo images and MR cholangiography. Fifteen patients were included in the study. Histologic diagnosis was established in 11 patients by surgical resection (6 patients), percutaneous biopsy (4 patients), and open liver biopsy (1 patient). The final diagnosis was determined by correlation of the MR findings with cholangiographic studies and laboratory studies in 4 patients. MR studies were performed at 1.5 T, and the following sequences were obtained: T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (SGE), T1-weighted fat-suppressed spin echo or SGE, T2-weighted fat-suppressed conventional or turbo spin echo, MR cholangiography, and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted fat-suppressed SGE images. The following determinations were made: tumor location, tumor extent, ductal dilatation, ductal wall thickness, signal intensity, enhancement pattern, and associated findings. Mass-like neoplasms were peripheral (6 patients), hilar (1 patient), and extrahepatic (2 patients). Circumferential tumors were hilar (2 patients) and extrahepatic (4 patients). All peripheral tumors were multifocal. Mass-like tumors were well-defined, rounded, and ranged from 1 to 14 cm in diameter. Circumferential tumors had less well-defined margins and measured from 3 to 15 mm in thickness. All mass-like tumors were moderately hypointense on T1-weighted images and mildly to moderately hyperintense on T2-weighted images. The circumferential tumors were iso- to moderately hypointense on T1-weighted images and iso- to mildly hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Mass-like tumors were generally well shown on non-contrast and immediate gadolinium-enhanced images, whereas circumferential tumors were poorly seen on non-contrast images and best shown on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted fat-suppressed images. The degree of enhancement ranged from minimal to intense on immediate gadolinium-enhanced images, with all tumors becoming more homogeneous in signal intensity on images obtained between 1 and 5 min following contrast administration. Tumor-containing lymph nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm in diameter were demonstrated in 11 out of 15 patients (73.3%). These were best shown on T2-weighted fat-suppressed images and gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed SGE images. MR cholangiography demonstrated the level of obstruction and degree of dilatation of the proximal biliary system in 5 out of 6 patients who underwent MR cholangiography. The spectrum of appearances of cholangiocarcinoma is demonstrable on MR images. Mass-like tumors are well shown on both pre- and post-gadolinium sequences. Circumferential tumors may cause minimally increased duct wall thickness and are most clearly shown on gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed SGE images obtained 1 to 5 min following gadolinium administration.
Article
Gallbladder carcinoma is one of the most frequent malignant tumors in Chile. The aim of this paper is to show our experiences in gallbladder carcinoma. Six-hundred-sixty-nine cases of gallbladder carcinoma were included in this prospective study; 557 females (83.5%) and 112 males (16.5%). In 466 cases (70%), diagnosis was carried out in the cholecystectomy sample, 45 cases were partial cholecystectomies and 158 cases were metastases of gallbladder carcinoma. Ninety-eight per cent of the cases were adenocarcinomas, and in 85% of the cases gallstones were observed. Thirty-seven per cent of the primary tumors were macroscopically inapparent. One-hundred-thirty-one cases (29%) were early carcinomas and 323 cases (71%) were advanced carcinomas. A relationship between differentiation grade and infiltration level (p=0.0001) was observed. Lymph-node metastasis was found in 18.5%, 4.5% and 3.3% in the first, second and third lymph-node barriers respectively. Muscular tumors presented no lymph-node metastasis, while in serosal tumors lymph node metastasis reached 62% (p=0.04). Hepatic tumor infiltration was observed in 11%, 19% and 38% of muscular, subserosal and serosal tumors. The high frequency of inapparent carcinomas, gallstones and inflammatory changes of the vesicular wall are elements that make the pre-operative diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma difficult. Differentiation grade and infiltration level are the most reliable prognostic factors in gallbladder carcinoma. Lymph-node metastasis or liver tumor infiltration are infrequent in early gallbladder carcinoma.
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate MR imaging findings of primary sclerosing cholangitis, to compare them with histopathologic findings, and to determine if these findings help differentiate primary sclerosing cholangitis from other disorders that result in end-stage liver disease. MR imaging was performed in 40 patients (27 men, 13 women; age range, 13-72 years; mean, 47 years) with primary sclerosing cholangitis over a 9-year period. In 16 patients who underwent orthotopic hepatic transplantation and in seven patients who underwent needle biopsy, correlation was made between MR imaging and pathologic findings. Focal signal changes in the liver parenchyma were seen on T2-weighted images as peripheral wedge-shaped zones of increased signal intensity in 29 patients (72%), as a reticular pattern in 15 patients (38%), and as periportal edema in 16 patients (40%). Lobar atrophy involved the right lobe in three patients (8%) and the left lobe in 11 patients (28%); hypertrophy of the caudate lobe was seen in nine patients (23%). Features of portal hypertension were seen in 14 patients (35%). Histologic assessment showed zones of segmental atrophy and scarring on the periphery of the liver. Peripheral wedge-shaped areas of high T2 signal intensity and dilatation of bile ducts are characteristic MR features of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Pathologic correlation suggests that these features may be related to underlying perfusion changes and bile duct inflammation in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis.
Article
To determine the accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiography for detection of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and localization of PSC in the biliary tract. In a prospective case-control study involving 102 patients, the MR cholangiograms obtained in 34 patients with PSC established with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were compared with the MR cholangiograms obtained in 68 age-matched control patients with hepatobiliary diseases other than PSC. Two abdominal radiologists conducted an independent, blinded random review of the MR cholangiograms to assess for the presence or absence of PSC and determine the location of PSC in the biliary tract, and then compared the findings with those at ERCP. MR cholangiography was found to be accurate in detecting PSC and in defining the extent of disease. In the detection of PSC, the sensitivities were 88% and 85%; specificities, 97% and 92%; positive predictive values, 94% and 85%; and negative predictive values, 94% and 93% for readers 1 and 2, respectively. Interobserver agreement was excellent (kappa = 0.79). In the localization of extrahepatic PSC, the sensitivities were 83% and 89%; and specificities, 83% and 83% for readers 1 and 2, respectively. Interobserver agreement was good (kappa = 0.62). In the localization of intrahepatic PSC, the sensitivity was 87% for both readers; interobserver agreement was good (kappa = 0.71). MR cholangiography enables accurate detection and localization of PSC.
Article
The diagnostic value of fast pulse sequences in MR imaging was compared with US in patients with clinically suspected acute cholecystitis. In a prospective study of 94 patients, 35 were examined with both MR and US within 24 h. MR diagnoses were acute cholecystitis in 23, gallbladder and common bile duct stones in 3, other pathologic conditions of the abdomen in 7 and normal in 2 patients. US diagnoses were acute cholecystitis in 17, gallbladder stones in 8, other pathologic conditions of the abdomen in 2, normal in 5 and non-conclusive in 3 patients. MR has a higher sensitivity than US for diagnosing acute cholecystitis and, with increased accessibility, may be the first imaging method.
Article
The purpose of our study was to compare the accuracy of helical CT cholangiography and that of MR cholangiography in the diagnosis of aberrant bile ducts or cystic ducts before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A total of 120 consecutive patients, including 114 patients with cholecystolithiasis and six with gallbladder polyps, were treated using laparoscopic cholecystectomy between November 1996 and August 1998. Eighteen (15%) of the 120 patients were suspected of having aberrant bile ducts or cystic ducts on helical CT cholangiography, and 16 of these 18 patients were subsequently examined on MR cholangiography. For the 16 patients who underwent both imaging examinations, findings from helical CT cholangiography and MR cholangiography were compared with intraoperative cholangiography. Aberrant bile ducts in 13 patients and aberrant cystic ducts in three patients were divided into six types on the basis of the results of intraoperative cholangiography. Although these types were clearly identified using helical CT cholangiography in all 16 patients, the anatomic variants were not correctly identified in seven (44%) of the 16 patients with MR cholangiography. False-negative findings were mainly a result of the insertion sites of the cystic ducts or aberrant bile ducts being obscured by aberrant bile ducts or duodenum. Two (2%) of the 120 patients developed mild adverse reactions to the contrast material, but neither required treatment. Helical CT cholangiography clearly showed aberrant bile ducts and cystic ducts, but visualization of these structures on MR cholangiography was unsatisfactory because of overlapping duodenum and hepatic ducts.
Article
A variety of different categories of contrast agents, and within each category a number of individual agents, are currently available for clinical use in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the liver. In this review, the use of nonspecific extracellular gadolinium chelates, reticuloendothelial system-specific iron oxide particulate agents, hepatocyte-selective agents, and combined perfusion and hepatocyte-selective agents are described. Most clinical experience is with nonspecific extracellular gadolinium chelates. The relatively low cost, safety, good patient tolerance, and ability to help detect and characterize a wide range of liver diseases have rendered gadolinium chelates as commonly used agents. Reticuloendothelial system-specific agents improve lesion detection by decreasing the signal intensity of background liver on T2-weighted MR images, which increases the conspicuity of focal hepatic lesions with negligible reticuloendothelial cells (eg, metastases). Hepatocyte-selective agents increase the signal intensity of background liver on T1-weighted images, which increases the conspicuity of focal lesions that do not contain hepatocytes (eg, metastases). The clinical application of the different categories of contrast agents, techniques for their administration, sequences to be used, and appearances of common entities on contrast agent-enhanced studies are described.
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the appearance of infectious cholangitis on MRI. The MR images of 13 patients (9 women, 4 men; age range, 14-79 years) with clinically confirmed infectious cholangitis, who represent our complete 9.5 year experience with this entity, were retrospectively evaluated. All MR studies were performed at 1.5 T and included: in-phase and out-of-phase T(1)-weighted spoiled gradient echo (SGE), T(2)-weighted fat-suppressed echo train spin echo, single shot T(2)-weighted sequences, and serial postgadolinium T(1)-weighted SGE sequences without and with fat-suppression. The biliary ductal system was evaluated regarding presence of dilatation, stenosis, wall irregularities, wall thickening, and gadolinium enhancement of duct walls. The liver parenchyma was evaluated regarding focal signal abnormalities on precontrast and serial postgadolinium images. Biliary ductal dilatation was observed in 100% of patients. Mild to moderate thickening of bile duct walls combined with increased enhancement on postgadolinium images was observed in 92% of patients. The liver parenchyma showed periportal or wedge-shaped areas of hyperintense signal on T(2)-weighted images in 69% of patients. On T(1)-weighted images, 54% of patients showed areas of hypointense signal and 15% of patients showed wedge-shaped hyperintense areas. Areas with increased enhancement on immediate postgadolinium SGE were observed in 58% of patients, and in 42% of patients increased enhancement persisted on 2 min postgadolinium fat-suppressed images. Distinctive MRI findings on pre- and postgadolinium images are appreciated for infectious cholangitis.
Article
The purpose of this work was to present the imaging findings of late biliary complications in right lobe living donor liver transplantation recipients and to describe radiologic techniques used to treat these complications. A retrospective review of medical records and imaging examinations was conducted in 5 of 48 right lobe living donor recipients with known biliary obstruction treated with percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD). Two abdominal radiologists reviewed in consensus the MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)/MR, ultrasound (US), CT, and PBD images. Biliary-enteric anastomotic strictures were detected in all five recipients. In the four recipients who underwent the procedure, MRCP detected obstruction in each. CT detected obstruction in the fifth recipient. US failed to detect obstruction in one of two recipients. PBD catheters were placed without complication and relieved the obstruction in all five recipients. In addition, in three recipients, balloon dilatation of the stricture was performed and resulted in anastomotic patency. Biliary-enteric anastomotic strictures accounted for all late biliary complications and were detected correctly with MRCP and CT. The strictures were treated successfully with PBD in all instances and balloon dilatation when possible.
Article
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the appearance of ampullary carcinomas on MR images. Sixteen patients with ampullary carcinomas underwent MR imaging. Tumor detectability, signal intensity of the tumor, and enhancement pattern on dynamic study were analyzed. MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) findings were assessed and were compared with the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) findings. Signal intensities of the tumor on each image were various. Dynamic study detected all tumors except one, and all detected tumors showed delayed enhancement. MRCP delineated more than half of the tumors as a filling defect within the duodenal fluid and clearly demonstrated pancreaticobiliary ductal. Dynamic study is mandatory in diagnosing ampullary carcinoma, because it can depict most of the tumors, and delayed enhancement of such tumors is characteristic in case of ampullary carcinoma. MRCP can provide reliable information about pancreaticobiliary duct and it can replace diagnostic ERCP.
Article
To evaluate the spectrum of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearances of the liver in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and to examine their correlation with clinical stage of disease. Fifty-two patients (25 female, 27 male; mean age, 43 years; age range, 11-87 years) with PSC underwent nonenhanced and gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. Two abdominal radiologists retrospectively reviewed all images (independently and then in consensus) for the imaging pattern of the liver parenchyma, presence and grade of intrahepatic biliary ductal dilatation, and presence of areas of parenchymal atrophy or abnormal signal intensity and/or gadolinium enhancement. Imaging findings were correlated with Child class, Child-Turcotte-Pugh score, and Mayo end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. Statistical analyses (kappa scoring for interobserver agreement, McNemar test, Mann-Whitney U test, multiple regression analysis, Spearman correlation) were performed. Of 52 patients, seven (13%) had no imaging findings of cirrhosis, 17 (33%) had a diffuse pattern of cirrhosis, and 28 (54%) had a large macronodular pattern (with nodules >or=3 cm) (kappa = 0.84). Intrahepatic biliary ductal dilatation was observed in 44 (85%) patients and was general in 18 (35%) and segmental in 26 (50%). Peripheral wedge-shaped areas of parenchyma were observed with atrophy in 23 (44%) and 25 (48%) patients by the two readers (kappa = 0.76) and without atrophy in 18 (35%) patients by both readers (kappa = 1.00). No correlation was found between imaging findings and clinical scores (P >.05, multiple regression analysis; P =.25-.75, Mann-Whitney U test; Spearman correlation coefficients between -0.33 and 0.33). The spectrum of MR imaging appearances of PSC is diverse and comprises distinct patterns that do not appear to correlate with severity of disease. Large regenerative nodules are a frequent finding and may help to establish the diagnosis.
Article
To assess the utility of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in preoperative mapping of biliary anatomy in adult-to-adult living related liver transplant (LRLT) donors. From 57 potential donors with preoperative MRCP, 27 cases (16 men, 11 women, age range 22-51 years, mean 37.2 years) underwent right lobe resection and had intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) for comparison. The MRCP and IOC reports were retrospectively reviewed in all 27 cases. The MRCP was performed on 1.5 Tesla MR magnets using breath-hold heavily T2-weighted sequences in axial/coronal thin sections, and variable-thickness rotating slabs. The accuracy of preoperative MRCP for biliary mapping in potential LRLT donors was analyzed compared to the IOC findings. Of 27 donors, 26 (96.3%) had MRCP which showed adequate information of central intrahepatic biliary anatomy. Of these, 19 had normal bifurcation confirmed by IOC, and single biliary anastomosis was created in the recipient at transplantation. MRCP correctly predicted 17 of 19 normal cases (sensitivity for normals: 89.5%). In seven donors with variant biliary anatomy, two separate biliary anastomoses were performed in the recipient. MRCP correctly predicted five of seven variants (sensitivity for variants: 71.4%). Overall, MRCP had an accuracy 84.6% (22/26). MRCP has potential in the preoperative assessment of nondilated bile ducts in LRLT donors, however further improvements are desired to increase its quality and accuracy.
Article
To retrospectively evaluate criteria for differentiating extrahepatic bile duct cholangiocarcinoma from benign cause of stricture at magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and to compare diagnostic accuracy with this modality versus endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). MRCP and ERCP images in 50 patients (27 with cholangiocarcinoma [18 men, nine women; mean age, 58 years] and 23 with benign cause of stricture [13 men, 10 women; mean age, 60 years]) were retrospectively reviewed to assess the appearance of bile duct strictures. Final diagnosis was based on surgical or biopsy findings. Strictures were described according to their imaging appearance (irregular or smooth margins, asymmetric or symmetric narrowing, abrupt narrowing or gradual tapering, and presence or absence of double-duct sign). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MRCP and ERCP were calculated by using ratings of confidence in image-based diagnosis. Lengths of stricture were electronically measured and compared by using the Student t test. Among cholangiographic criteria for malignant biliary stricture, irregular margins and asymmetric narrowing were more common in cholangiocarcinomas (24 [89%] of 27 patients) than in benign strictures (six [26%] and eight [35%] of 23 patients, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the two methods for differentiation of malignant from benign causes of biliary stricture were 81% (22 of 27), 70% (16 of 23), and 76% (38 of 50), respectively, for MRCP and 74% (20 of 27), 70% (16 of 23), and 72% (36 of 50), respectively, for ERCP. Mean length (+/- standard deviation) of cholangiocarcinomas was 30.0 mm +/- 8.5, and that of benign strictures was 13.6 mm +/- 9.1 (P <.001). Accuracy of MRCP is comparable with that of ERCP. Regardless of modality, a lengthy segment of extrahepatic bile duct stricture with irregular margin and asymmetric narrowing suggests cholangiocarcinoma, and a short segment with regular margin and symmetric narrowing suggests benign cause.
Article
The present paper provides a brief overview of the rationale behind magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, a description of the most common sequences used, and a general approach to performing liver MRI.
Article
Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe the spectrum of MRI and MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) findings of hepatic, pancreatic, and biliary manifestations in patients with HIV infection. Conclusion: The spectrum of MRI and MRCP findings in HIV-infected patients includes acute or chronic hepatitis (or both), pancreatitis, cholangitis, acalculous cholecystitis, and biliary strictures that may resemble primary sclerosing cholangitis. The presence of segmental extrahepatic biliary strictures is characteristic of AIDS cholangiopathy.
Ultrasonography, CT, and ERCP in the diagnosis of choledochal stones.
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