Neural Correlates of Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Review of Hypotheses

Faculty of Medicine, Rehabilitation Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Journal of child neurology (Impact Factor: 1.72). 09/2009; 24(10):1273-81. DOI: 10.1177/0883073809333537
Source: PubMed


Affecting 5% to 6% of school-age children, developmental coordination disorder is characterized by a marked impairment of motor coordination that significantly interferes with activities of daily living and academic achievement. Little is known about the etiology of developmental coordination disorder, but the disorder often coexists with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), speech/language impairment, and/or reading disability. This comprehensive review examines the literature supporting or refuting hypothesized neural correlates of developmental coordination disorder and suggests directions for future research. Potential sources of neuropathology include the cerebellum, parietal lobe, corpus callosum, and basal ganglia. Comorbidities and deficits associated with developmental coordination disorder are highly suggestive of cerebellar dysfunction; yet, given the heterogeneity of this disorder, it is likely that the cerebellum is not the only neural correlate. Neuroimaging studies and behavioral investigations of learning-related change in motor behavior are the next critical step in enhancing our understanding of developmental coordination disorder.

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Available from: Cheryl Missiuna, Feb 09, 2015
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    • "More recently, deficits in imitation ability (Dewey 1993; Elbasan et al. 2012; Goyen et al. 2011; Sinani et al. 2011; Zoia et al. 2002) have been highlighted. The etiology of DCD is currently unknown but it is generally thought to be related to a deficit in the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) (APA 2013; Flouris et al. 2005; Steinman et al. 2010; Zwicker et al. 2009). A relatively new neural model to be implicated in DCD relates to a potential deficit in the functioning of the mirror neuron system (MNS) (Licari et al. 2015; Reynolds et al., in press; Steinman et al. 2010; Werner et al. 2012), a fronto-parietal network of brain regions playing an integrative role in imitation of motor skills. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to reveal cortical areas that may contribute to the movement difficulties seen in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Specifically, we hypothesized that there may be a deficit in the mirror neuron system (MNS), a neural system that responds to both performed and observed actions. Using functional MRI, 14 boys with DCD (mean = 10.08 years ± 1.31, range = 7.83 - 11.58 years) and 12 typically developing controls (mean = 10.10 years ± 1.15, range = 8.33 – 12 years) were scanned observing, executing and imitating a finger sequencing task using their right hand. Cortical activations of mirror neuron regions, including posterior inferior frontal gyrus, ventral premotor cortex, anterior inferior parietal lobule and superior temporal sulcus were examined. Children with DCD had decreased cortical activation mirror neuron related regions, including the precentral gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus, as well as in the posterior cingulate and precuneus complex when observing the sequencing task. Region of interest analysis revealed lower activation in the pars opercularis, a primary MNS region, during imitation in the DCD group compared to controls. These findings provide some preliminary evidence to support a possible MNS dysfunction in children with DCD. Keywords: developmental coordination disorder (DCD); imitation; mirror neuron system (MNS); functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); cortical function
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
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    • "The study has indicated that the key areas of concern raised by our participants are those that would be traditionally associated with deficits in executive functioning, for instance planning and organisation (Zwicker et al., 2009). This is in line with previous evidence that has highlighted executive functioning as an area of concern in Figure 2. Mean MABC-2 percentiles for the three sub-tests (manual dexterity; aiming and catching and static and dynamic balance) and mean overall percentile. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has attempted to recognise the pervasiveness of developmental coordination disorder across the lifespan. However, it falls short at describing the non-motoric symptomology such as executive functioning, social, emotional and psychiatric difficulties commonly reported in adults. Consequently, at the point of entry the self-reported functional difficulties of an adult with developmental coordination disorder may not be immediately associated with an underlying deficit within a motor domain, potentially resulting in inappropriate referrals.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
    • "It has been argued this co-occurrence of sensorimotor and cognitive deficits in children with developmental problems is highly suggestive of neuropathology of the cerebellum. However, given the heterogeneity of these disorders, other sources such as the basal ganglia, the parietal lobe, the corpus callosum and the prefrontal cortex may also be involved (Diamond, 2000; Zwicker et al., 2009). More recent 1388-2457/Ó 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify the interrelation between sensorimotor abilities, cognitive performance and individual alpha peak frequency (iAPF), an EEG marker of global architectural and functional properties of the human brain, in healthy preschool children. 25 participants completed a one minute eyes-closed EEG recording, two cognitive tests assessing processing speed and visual working memory and a sensorimotor test battery. We found positive correlations between selective sensorimotor abilities and iAPF; however, no significant correlations were observed between iAPF and cognitive performance. Specifically, locomotor skills correlated with iAPF across all cortical regions, except for the occipital cortex. Furthermore, a close relationship was found between sensorimotor and cognitive performance indicating that children with improved sensorimotor abilities were faster and/or more accurate in cognitive task performance. The cumulative pattern of our results indicates that a close relationship exists between sensorimotor and cognitive performance in young children. However, this relationship is dissociated from the iAPF. In contrast to adults, in young children the iAPF is related to locomotor skills and not to cognitive processing speed or visual working memory function. The global architectural and functional properties of the brain are closely related to locomotor skills during development. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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