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Cognitions as mediators in the relationship between self-compassion and affect

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Abstract

Previous studies suggest that self-compassion is related to numerous facets of mental health, but the role of cognitions in this relationship remains unknown. To examine the mediating role of cognitions in the relationship between self-compassion and anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction when controlling for self-esteem in Japanese people, we conducted two studies. Study 1 (N = 231) examined the relationship between self-compassion and affect by modeling negative automatic thoughts as a mediator; Study 2 (N = 233) tested whether positive and negative automatic thoughts meditate this relationship. Results suggested that both self-compassion and self-esteem increased positive automatic thoughts and decreased trait anxiety, whereas only self-esteem increased life satisfaction and decreased depression directly. Positive automatic thoughts increased life satisfaction and decreased depression and trait anxiety, and positive automatic thoughts mediated the relationship between self-compassion and negative affect. These findings suggest that both positive and negative automatic thoughts mediate the relationship between self-compassion and affect in Japanese people.

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... Self-compassion, referred to as having a nonjudgmental attitude toward oneself, seeing one's 241 International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance (2019) 19:239-256 imperfections and suffering as a part of the universal human condition, and being aware of one's difficult or painful experiences without judgment (Neff, 2003a), is an important positive psychological resource generating increased research attention. A substantial body of research demonstrates that self-compassion is closely related to various aspects of college students' well-being, including life satisfaction (Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015;Hope, Koestner, & Milyavskaya, 2014;Neff, 2003a). ...
... Despite the consistent pattern of results indicating the relation between self-compassion and life satisfaction, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this relation. Thus far, positive automatic thought (Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015) and a sense of hope (Yang, Zhang, & Kou, 2016) have been identified as mediators linking self-compassion to life satisfaction among college populations. The current study aims to add to the existing literature by investigating the role of employment anxiety (EA) as another potential mediator of this relation. ...
... Although positive relationships between self-compassion and life satisfaction have been established, the reasons for these links remain unclear. Previous research has demonstrated that higher levels of self-compassion relate to lower levels of negative psychological outcomes such as depression (Raes, Pommier, Neff, & Van Gucht, 2011), stress (Finlay-Jones, Rees, & Kane, 2015, and anxiety (Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015), with a large effect size (MacBeth & Gumley, 2012). These findings suggest that a self-compassionate attitude may enhance life satisfaction, perhaps by helping individuals manage negative emotions more effectively. ...
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The present study examined (1) whether employment anxiety mediates the relation between self-compassion and life satisfaction and (2) whether the mediating process is moderated by the level of self-esteem among South Korean college students (N = 214). Mediation analyses revealed that employment anxiety partially mediates the relation between self-compassion and life satisfaction, controlling for students’ gender, school year, and current employment-seeking status. Moderated mediation analyses showed that the mediated relations of self-compassion to life satisfaction through employment anxiety were not conditional upon the level of students’ self-esteem. Implications for practice and directions for future research are discussed.
... Yet, few studies have investigated potential mechanisms that underlie this relationship. Identified mediators include emotion regulation tendencies, such as rumination and tolerance of negative emotions (Diedrich et al., 2017;Raes, 2010), positive future outlook (Phillips, 2018), and cognitive processes such as automatic and repetitive thinking (Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015;Wadsworth et al., 2018). The current study extends this research by exploring whether four types of counterfactual thinking may mediate the negative relationship between selfcompassion and depression. ...
... The link between heightened self-compassion and lower levels of depression symptoms is wellestablished, yet few studies have explored potential mechanisms that may underlie this relationship (e.g., Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015;Diedrich et al., 2017;Phillips, 2018;Raes, 2010;Wadsworth et al., 2018). The current study examined whether four types of counterfactual thoughts mediated the negative association between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. ...
... Finally, the direct path from self-compassion to depression remained significant after the effects of the four counterfactual variables were removed, highlighting the role of other factors not tested in this study that may explain how higher self-compassion is associated with lower levels of depression. As a first step, future research could examine the relative mediating roles of self-referent upward counterfactual thinking and other identified mediators, such as rumination and tolerance of negative emotions (Diedrich et al., 2017;Raes, 2010), positive future outlook (Phillips, 2018), and automatic and repetitive thinking (Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015;Wadsworth et al., 2018). ...
Article
Objective: Consistently strong negative associations have been found between self-compassion and depressive symptoms, but less is known about mechanisms that underlie this relationship. This study investigated whether four types of counterfactual thinking (self-referent upward, nonreferent upward, other-referent upward and nonreferent downward) mediate this association. Method: One hundred and sixty-seven Australian tertiary students (76.0% female) aged between 18 and 73 years (M = 33.63, SD = 10.76) completed an online survey. Results: Self-compassion exhibited significant negative bivariate relationships with self-referent, nonreferent, and other-referent upward counterfactual thinking, and a positive association with nonreferent downward counterfactual thinking. A multiple-mediation analysis revealed one significant indirect effect, in which highly self-compassionate participants reported lower levels of self-referent upward counterfactual thinking and, in turn, reported lower levels of depression. Conclusions: These findings indicate that self-compassion is associated with adaptive forms of counterfactual thinking, and that one way in which self-compassion conveys its beneficial influence on depression may be through its relationship with fewer self-referent upward counterfactual thoughts. This indirect effect suggests that self-compassion interventions may be especially beneficial to depression-vulnerable individuals who tend to generate self-referent upward counterfactuals. Key Points What is already known about this topic: • (1)Consistently strong negative associations have been found between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. • (2)Less is known about mechanisms that underlie this relationship. • (3)Identified mediators include emotion regulation tendencies, positive future outlook, and cognitive processes such as automatic and repetitive thinking. What this topic adds: • (1)This study found that self-referent upward counterfactual thinking tendencies also mediate this association. • (2)High levels of self-compassion were associated with adaptive counterfactual thinking (low levels of nonreferent, self-referent, and other-referent upward and high levels of downward). • (3)These findings suggest that self-compassion interventions may be especially beneficial to depression-vulnerable individuals who tend to generate self-referent upward counterfactuals.
... During the experience of heightened negative emotions, the protective relation between self-compassion and suicidal behavior may be strengthened. Although previous literature suggests that negative emotions are associated with selfcritical thinking and with difficulties in self-soothing and emotional regulation (Arimitsu and Hofmann 2015;Gilbert 2005), it is during such times when the need to self-soothe is greater and when self-compassion is theorized to be at its most salient. Via the act of relating to oneself in an intentional, caring, and mindful manner when suffering is experienced, self-compassion provides self-soothing, assists in regulating emotions, and may reduce the tendency for dysfunctional interpretations of negative events, which often trigger high levels of negative emotionality, including anger and shame (Johnson and O'Brien 2013). ...
... Regarding emotional factors, self-compassion had a negative association with shame and anger, and these factors appeared to moderate the link between selfcompassion and shame. At the core of many negative emotions is engagement in self-critical thinking (Arimitsu and Hofmann 2015), isolation (Hawkley et al. 2007), and rumination (Moberly and Watkins 2008), and self-compassion has been shown to reduce these negative emotions (Leary et al. 2007). Being kind to oneself in the face of disturbing emotions, remembering that such emotions are part of the shared human experience, and taking a more mindful, balanced approach to negative emotions is likely to render them less overwhelming (Arimitsu and Hofmann 2015). ...
... At the core of many negative emotions is engagement in self-critical thinking (Arimitsu and Hofmann 2015), isolation (Hawkley et al. 2007), and rumination (Moberly and Watkins 2008), and self-compassion has been shown to reduce these negative emotions (Leary et al. 2007). Being kind to oneself in the face of disturbing emotions, remembering that such emotions are part of the shared human experience, and taking a more mindful, balanced approach to negative emotions is likely to render them less overwhelming (Arimitsu and Hofmann 2015). As noted previously, we did not find a moderating effect of PTSD on the link between selfcompassion and suicide; however, the factor of shame is a hallmark characteristic of the experience of trauma, PTSD, and moral injury (Litz et al. 2009). ...
Article
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Objectives Veterans are at particular risk for suicide due to psychopathological, emotional, and interpersonal risk factors. However, the presence of individual-level protective factors, such as self-compassion, may reduce risk, becoming more salient at increasing levels of distress and psychopathology, per theory. We examined the relation between self-compassion and suicide risk, and the moderating effects of depression, PTSD symptoms, anger, shame, and thwarted interpersonal needs. Methods Our sample of US veterans (n = 541) in our cross-sectional study were mostly male (69.1%) with an average age of 49.90 (SD = 16.78), who completed online self-report measures: Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, Multidimensional Health Profile-Psychosocial Functioning Screening Tool, PTSD Checklist-Military Version, Differential Emotions Scale-IV, and the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire. Results The linkage between self-compassion and suicidal behavior in our veteran sample was moderated by distress-evoking risk factors, including depression, anger, shame, and thwarted interpersonal needs, such that, as level of risk severity increases, the inverse association between self-compassion and suicidal behavior is strengthened. Conclusions Our findings highlight an emergent protective process that may prevent suicide in times of distress. Therapeutically bolstering the ability for self-compassion may provide a proactive coping strategy that can be brought to bear in times of crisis, reducing suicide risk for veterans.
... In a study on students between the ages of 11-18, Bluth and Blanto (2015) reported that approximately 41% of student life satisfaction stemmed from self-compassion. In a study on Greek students, self-compassion correlated positively with life satisfaction (.39) (Mantelou & Karakasidou, 2017) and in another study on Japanese students, the relationships between the two variables were found to be positive and significant (.50) (Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015). In a study comparing the relationship between the self-compassion and life satisfaction of university students in Turkey (.52) and other countries (.16), the relationship was found to be higher for Turkish university students (Deniz, Arslan, Özyeşil & İzmirli, 2012). ...
... Positive and significant relationships were found between the self-compassion attitudes and life satisfaction of the pre-service teachers. The results were obtained as expected, supporting the previous findings that show self-compassion was related positively to life satisfaction (Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015;Hope, Koestner & Milyavskaya, 2014;Neff et.al, 2008;Neff, 2013a;Omay, 2019;Sünbül, 2016;Şahin, 2014;Yang, Zhang & Kou, 2016). This may suggest a close relationship between individuals' satisfaction and happiness in their entire lives and their compassionate and understanding behaviour towards their selves. ...
... The study also indicated that high level of employment anxiety brought about less satisfaction with life, which is in line with previous research findings (Şahin, 2008;Gençay, 2009;Turaç & Donar, 2017). Despite the consistent results revealing the rela-tionship between self-compassion and life satisfaction, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this relationship (Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015;Yang, Zhang & Kou, 2016;Shin, 2019). The current study aimed to contribute to the existing literature by examining the role of another potential mediator variable in the relationship between self-compassion and life satisfaction. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to determine the relations between employment anxiety, self-compassion and life satisfaction among preservice teachers. The sample of the study consists of 376 Turkish forth-year preservice teachers from a state university, who were selected by stratified purposeful sampling method. The data were collected via the The self-compassion scale-short form, the employment anxiety scale, and the satisfaction with life scale. Positive, moderate and significant relationships were found between preservice teachers ’ self-compassion and life satisfaction, and negative, moderate and significant relationships were observed between self-compassion and employment anxiety. Path analysis results revealed that self-compassion negatively predicted employment anxiety and positively predicted life satisfaction. It has been determined that employment anxiety has a partial mediating role in the relationship between self-compassion and life satisfaction. In addition, self-compassion had a stronger effect on life satisfaction than employment anxiety.
... As for the underlying mechanisms between selfcompassion and psychological symptoms, it is reasonable to consider self-compassion as a relatively stable personal trait and then search for the underlying cognitive process, which may influence psychological symptoms (Raes 2010). Following this line of reasoning, several studies mainly with a cross-sectional design in the general population and people with depression have tested the mediating role of cognitive processes (Arimitsu and Hofmann 2015;Diedrich et al. 2017;Finlay-Jones et al. 2015;Krieger et al. 2013). In particular, rumination, worry, and negative automatic thoughts were found as important mediators. ...
... According to the CSM model, one's personal trait can also impact their illness perceptions (Diefenbach and Leventhal 1996;Leventhal et al. 1997). Considering previous findings suggesting a mediating role of cognitive processes between self-compassion and psychological symptoms (Arimitsu and Hofmann 2015;Krieger et al. 2013;Raes 2010), self-compassion could also be argued as a personal trait relevant in this context of perceiving and coping with cancer. It can therefore be reasoned that self-compassion (i.e., providing self-care and kindness to oneself in the face of suffering) might be beneficial for cancer patients' psychological functioning by enhancing adaptive illness perceptions. ...
... It can therefore be reasoned that self-compassion (i.e., providing self-care and kindness to oneself in the face of suffering) might be beneficial for cancer patients' psychological functioning by enhancing adaptive illness perceptions. This line of reasoning is also in line with previous research showing a mediation role of cognitive process in general population (Arimitsu and Hofmann 2015;Krieger et al. 2013;Raes 2010). ...
Article
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Objectives An adaptive role of self-compassion for psychological functioning in cancer patients has been highlighted, yet less is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of cancer patients’ illness perceptions in the relations between self-compassion and psychological symptoms.Methods This cross-sectional study focused on 301 people with heterogeneous types of cancer. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect participants’ levels of self-compassion, illness perceptions, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Parallel mediation analyses were performed to examine the research questions.ResultsThe relation between self-compassion and depressive symptoms was mediated by perceived consequences and a timeline cyclical of cancer. Perceived consequences also mediated the relation between self-compassion and symptoms of anxiety, with an additional mediating role of personal control.Conclusions These findings suggest that both self-compassion and illness perceptions were closely linked with cancer patients’ psychological symptoms. Particularly, cancer patients who feel more self-compassionate perceive fewer negative consequences of cancer, a less timeline cyclical, and more personal control over their life and report fewer psychological symptoms.
... Thoughts pertaining to personal failure were identified as a common pathway to both anxiety and depression, while automatic thoughts were more likely tied to anxiety symptoms among youth with autism spectrum disorder (Keefer et al. 2018). Using the mediator structural equation modeling approach, two studies in Japanese participants showed that both positive and negative automatic thoughts mediated the relations between self-compassion and affect (Arimitsu and Hofmann 2015). In comparison to healthy controls, Iancu et al. (2015) observed that patients with a social anxiety disorder had greater scores of negative automatic thoughts and depression. ...
... It is worth noting that both measures were found to covarying with syndrome rather nosological depression, a point made by Hollon et al. (1986). More recent studies identified automatic thoughts as a significant risk factor for the formation and perseverance of depression rather than anxiety symptoms (Gul et al. 2015;Keefer et al. 2018) even though these studies are not without contradictory evidence (Arimitsu and Hofmann 2015). Additionally, it appeared that specific automatic thoughts might be differentially associated with depression and anxiety symptoms (Buschmann et al. 2018). ...
Article
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High comorbidity of anxiety and depression poses challenges to research and treatment in clinical settings. The current study was set out to investigate whether respondents can be separated into discrete depressive and anxious subgroups or reveal a continuous distribution throughout the population based on the symptoms of depression and anxiety. In addition, we also explored the role of rumination, automatic thoughts, dysfunctional attitudes, and thought suppression as transdiagnostic factors. Psychometric instruments including Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ), Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale-Revised (DAS-R), Ruminative Response Scale – Short Form (RRS-SF), and White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI) were completed by 310 undergraduates. Item responses to the BDI and BAI were subjected to latent class analysis (LCA). The LCA showed that three homogenous subgroups exist: normal, subclinical, and psychopathology latent classes. Findings supported the dimensional model rather than the categorical distinction between anxiety and depression. Strong covariances between anxious and depressive symptoms across latent subgroups were observed. Having controlled for age and gender, automatic thoughts, dysfunctional thinking, rumination, and thought suppression were all found significant transdiagnostic factors. Anxiety and depression, as frequently co-occurring clinical conditions, can be best understood in a continuum rather than taxonomic classifications. Individuals more prone to use maladaptive cognitive emotional regulation strategies seem to be at greater risk of psychopathology.
... Other studies of potential pathways in mental health have tested a range of possible psychosocial mediators, predominantly in crosssectional, correlational designs. Mediators thought to link self-compassion to mental health and psychosocial outcomes include aspects of rumination and worry (Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015;Fresnics & Borders, 2017;Hodgetts et al., 2020;Johnson & O'Brien, 2013;Raes, 2010;Tandler et al., 2020), emotion regulation (Chishima et al., 2018;Meyer & Leppma, 2019), coping (Hamrick & Owens, 2019;Li et al., 2021), perceived stress (Luo et al., 2019), positive and negative affect (Schmidt et al., 2019), subjective happiness (Booker & Dunsmore, 2019), gratitude (Nguyen et al., 2020), and depressive symptoms (Kelliher Rabon et al., 2018). ...
... To date, theoretical discussion of the putative mechanisms behind self-compassion has predominantly occurred in the context of mental health. Several theories have been offered, focusing on possible roles for cognitive processes, for example, reductions in automatic thinking, cognitive fusion, cognitive appraisal (Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015;Basharpoor et al., 2021;Chishima et al., 2018), and ruminative depression (Fresnics & Borders, 2017;Fresnics et al., 2019). In such views, because self-compassionate individuals are less self-critical or judgemental, they are less likely to experience negative affect (or perceived stress) following challenging events or ruminate less about the possible negative implications. ...
Article
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Objectives Growing research indicates that self-compassion is associated with key physical health outcomes in non-clinical adult populations. This systematic review was designed to characterize the mediators linking self-compassion to physical health outcomes, evaluate study quality and theoretical evidence, compare findings to the mental health literature, and provide directions for future research. Methods We searched Embase , Medline , APA PsycInfo , Scopus , AMED , and Web of Science for relevant articles (including the inclusion of formal statistical mediation tests) from 2003 to February 2022. Study quality was assessed with Downs and Black Checklist for Measuring Quality and Mediation Quality Checklist tools. Results We screened 6439 articles for title and abstracts, assessed 101 full texts for eligibility, and included 20 relevant articles. A range of mediators were categorized as testing psychological or behavioral factors. Perceived stress ( n = 5), emotion regulation ( n = 5), negative affect ( n = 3), and coping strategies ( n = 3) were the most frequently assessed mediators. In general, self-compassion had a significant indirect effect on physical health via negative affect and perceived stress (in the absence of overlapping affective mediators). Findings for emotion regulation and coping strategies were mixed. Conclusions The mediational evidence linking self-compassion to physical health via psychological and behavioral factors remains underdeveloped and focused on the measures of affect and emotion regulation. Future studies need to broaden the scope of mediators to include other self-regulatory factors indicated by theory (e.g., motivational and physiological indices) and implement designs other than cross-sectional/correlational. Protocol Registration PROSPERO CRD42021241915.
... Self-compassion also relates to core constructs in health and well-being (more specifically emotional well-being) (Neff & Lamb, 2009) and is associated with positive and negative effect, according to Krieger et al. (2015). Their investigation showed that self-compassion was positively correlated with positive affect and negatively correlated with negative affect Neff & Vonk, 2009) while the same results revealed by Arimitsu & Hofmann (2015), arguing that self-compassion leads to increase of positive automatic thoughts which in turn lead to higher levels of life satisfaction and lower levels of anxiety. So, it is so far confirmed by literature that self-compassion is associated with reduced negative affect and increased positive affect and happiness . ...
... Therefore, the results of this study are in accordance with previous findings that have proved that higher scores on self-compassion seem to lead, among other things, to higher levels on positive affect and life satisfaction (Heffernan, Griffin, McNulty & Fitzpatrick, 2010;Hollis-Walker & Colosimo, 2011;Neff, 2009) and to a less stressful experience of negative feelings (Leary et al., 2007). To state it differently, people who are more self-compassionate have the tendency to make more positive automatic thoughts (Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015) and that consequently results in higher levels of life satisfaction. Hence, they are more capable of dealing more effectively and coping better with their possible failures, mistakes and personal weaknesses, as they maintain a positive attitude towards those conditions. ...
Article
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Abstract Self-compassion (Neff, 2003b) is a newly developed construct of positive psychology while a plethora of studies has highlighted its beneficial outcomes on people’s psychological prosperity. This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of a brief self-compassion training program on self-compassion, life satisfaction and positive and negative affect as well as to contribute new knowledge by investigating whether changes in self-compassion can significantly predict changes in positive affect. A sample of 42 students of Social Sciences, randomly assigned to either the intervention (N = 20) or the control group (N= 22) group where the first group participated in a psycho-educational training program aiming to train them to be more self-compassionate in challenging situations whilst the control group received no training. The results that revealed through the three different questionnaires (Self-Compassion Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale and Positive and Negative Affect Scale) that both groups completed before and after the completion of the program, showed that the intervention group indeed indicated increases in self-compassion, life satisfaction as well as positive affect scores and decrease in negative affect scores, compared to the control group which reported no changes. Furthermore, participants’ increases in self-compassion levels strongly predicted increases in positive affect levels, meaning that those who are high self-compassionate have also high positive affect. These findings suggest the importance of selfcompassion on psychological well-being, testing through the implementation of specific intervention programs. Other possible implications and recommendations for future research are also considered.
... Assim, este estudo tem como principal objetivo a adaptação do PNTQ (em português, Escala de Pensamentos Automáticos Negativos Pós-Parto) para a população portuguesa e o estudo das suas propriedades psicométricas. Estudos recentes apontam para uma correlação positiva entre pensamentos automáticos negativos no pós-parto e sintomatologia depressiva (Hildebrant, 2013) e pensamentos automáticos negativos gerais (Hall & Papageorgiou, 2005), bem como uma correlação negativa com a autocompaixão (Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015), pelo que a associação com estas variáveis foi também investigada no contexto do estudo das propriedades psicométricas da escala. ...
... Por um lado, verificou-se que a maior frequência de pensamentos automáticos negativos se associa a níveis mais elevados de isolamento, sobreidentificação e autocritica (avaliados pela escala SCS). De facto, apesar de, do nosso conhecimento, não existirem estudos sobre este tópico com a população perinatal, os estudos com a população geral demonstram que existe uma associação negativa entre a autocompaixão e pensamentos automáticos negativos (Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015) e que, concordantemente, níveis mais elevados de autocompaixão se refletem na diminuição dos pensamentos negativos (Stuntzner, 2014). Também as correlações positivas encontradas entre a EPANP, os pensamentos automáticos negativos gerais e a sintomatologia depressiva se evidenciam congruentes com o esperado e com os resultados encontrados noutros estudos (e.g., Hall & Papageorgiou, 2005). ...
Article
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Negative automatic thoughts play an important role in depressive symptoms, namely in the postpartum period. This study aimed to adapt the Postnatal Negative Thoughts Questionnaire (PNTQ) for the Portuguese population, which was developed to assess the frequency of negative thoughts in postpartum period, and to examine its psychometric properties. The sample consisted of 387 postpartum women who answer to a cross-sectional survey. Confirmatory factor analysis suggests that the Portuguese version had a two-dimensional structure: (1) Appraisals of Cognitions, Emotions and Situations (ACES), and (2) Baby-Related and Motherhood Negative Thoughts (BRMNT). Internal consistency is .90 and .75 for the ACES and BRMNT factors, respectively. EPANP correlates positively with depressive symptoms and negative thoughts, and negatively with self-compassion and positive automatic thoughts. Finally, the EPANP scores were found to be different as a function of the presence/absence of depressive symptomatology and the presence/absence of depressive history. The PNTQ presents good indicators of convergent and known-groups validity and good reliability. © 2017, Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada. All rights reserved.
... These findings may be explained in part by the impact of self-compassion on cognitive processing. In the general population, the relationship between self-compassion and anxiety has been shown to be mediated by positive and negative automatic thoughts [70] in one study and by worry and rumination in another [68]. Those who are high in self-compassion, experience fewer negative automatic thoughts, more positive automatic thoughts, and less rumination and ...
... This could be followed up with additional quantitative research to examine predictors of self-compassion in PWE, incorporating longitudinal methods which would allow researchers to examine causal relationships between these variables [82]. Studies in the general population are beginning to elucidate psychological mechanisms involving selfcompassion which contribute to reduced distress, for example by exploring the role of rumination and negative automatic thoughts [68,70], and such studies could also be usefully replicated and extended with PWE. ...
Article
Background Research suggests that people with epilepsy (PWE) are more likely to experience depression and anxiety than the general population. Given the adversity associated with the condition, resilience may also be important. However, to date, resilience has been largely overlooked in the epilepsy literature. Self-compassion has been widely associated with improved psychological wellbeing and, to a lesser extent, resilience. However, the relationship between self-compassion and depression, anxiety, and resilience in PWE has not been examined. Objectives Using a quantitative cross-sectional survey design, the aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which self-compassion predicted depression, anxiety, and resilience when controlling for demographic and illness-related variables. Methods Adults with epilepsy were invited to take part in a survey online or in epilepsy or neurology clinics. Two-hundred and seventy participants completed the survey, and data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression models. Results In this sample of PWE, self-compassion significantly predicted lower depression and anxiety and higher resilience when other significant sociodemographic and illness-related variables had been taken into account. Conclusions The findings of the present study indicate that self-compassion could be an important factor in determining psychological outcomes for adults with epilepsy, and its role is worthy of further exploration to help improve psychological outcomes for PWE.
... Finally, the current analysis found a medium positive correlation between selfcompassion and evaluative well-being. Of note, a recent study conducted in Japan by Arimitsu and Hofmann (2015), examined the role of cognitions in the relationship between self-compassion and anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction when controlling for selfesteem. Using structural equation modelling, they found that self-compassion increased positive automatic thoughts, which in turn predicted higher life satisfaction ratings. ...
... No direct relationship was found however between self-compassion and life satisfaction. Therefore, it is likely that the relationship found in the current analysis is equally mediated by other factors, such as, positive automatic thoughts or self-regulation (Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015;Neff, Hsieh, & Dejitterat, 2005;Neff et al., 2007a). ...
Conference Paper
Aims: This study aimed to establish whether an immersive virtual reality (VR) compassionate scenario is any more effective at nurturing self-compassion and positively influencing state levels of shame, self-criticism and mood compared to a mental imagery (MI) comparison in healthy individuals with high levels of self-criticism. This study also investigated whether state self-compassion, self-criticism and shame undergo any further change following two weeks of independent mental imagery practice based on the experimental scenario. Method: Forty participants who met the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to either a one-off VR or MI experimental session. State measures of self-compassion, self-criticism, shame and mood were administered pre, post-intervention and at two-week follow-up following daily mental imagery practice based on the experimental compassionate scenario. Results: Both conditions had a small to medium positive effect on state levels of self-compassion and shame and a large effect on self-criticism post-intervention, which was maintained at follow-up. No main effect of condition across any of the dependent variables was found however. In addition, the prediction that frequency of mental imagery rehearsal, ease of recall, and vividness of the mental imagery would be related to the amount of change in levels of self-compassion, shame and self-criticism was also not supported by the data. Conclusion: This study found that a novel immersive VR scenario designed to nurture compassion and an MI control condition both demonstrated short-term therapeutic benefits in healthy individuals with high average levels of self-criticism. However, the overall results indicate that the use of VR technology to enable participants to directly experience both giving and receiving compassion from the self, affords no extra benefit over a guided MI analogue. Further research is therefore warranted in clinical populations.
... Further, grateful people have a positive attitude toward themselves and others and they generally think that life is meaningful, understandable, and manageable (Lambert et al., 2009). Certain researchers believe that positive emotional factors play roles in the influence of self-compassion on the negative psychological outcomes of post-trauma victims (Arimitsu and Hofmann, 2015). Therefore, gratitude may be another mediator between self-compassion and suicide risk. ...
Article
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Background The suicide risk among adolescents post-earthquake remains an important issue in trauma psychology. While existing studies and theories suggest that factors such as self-compassion, gratitude, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) play roles in the risk of suicide, few studies have combined these factors to explore the relationship between them.Objective This study examined the mediating roles of gratitude and PTSD in the relationship between self-compassion and suicide risk among Chinese adolescents after the Ya’an earthquake.Methods Four and a half years after the Ya’an earthquake, 499 middle school students in Lushan County were assessed using the following systems: Measures of Self-Compassion Scale, Gratitude Questionnaire, PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, and Child Behavior Problems Questionnaire.ResultsWhen we controlled for gender, age, and traumatic exposure, in the direct effect model, positive self-compassion had a negative effect on suicide risk, and negative self-compassion had a positive effect on suicide risk. In the indirect effects model, both positive self-compassion and negative self-compassion had no significant direct effect on suicide risk. Moreover, we found an indirect and negative effect of positive self-compassion on suicide risk via gratitude and PTSD, as well as via an indirect path from gratitude to PTSD. On the other hand, we also found an indirect and positive effect of negative self-compassion on suicide risk via gratitude and PTSD, as well as via an indirect path from gratitude to PTSD.Conclusion Positive self-compassion reduces the risk of suicide, while negative self-compassion increases the risk of suicide. Gratitude and PTSD play significant mediating role between self-compassion and suicide risk.
... ‫م‬ Afari, Ward, & Khine, 2012;Alkhatib, 2012;Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015;Charles, 2010;Clark & Blackhart, 2012;Herman, 2005;Kandemir, Ilhan, Özpolat, & Palanchi, 2014;Kim & Hwang, 2001;Lo, Cheng, Wong, Rochelle, & Kwok, 2011;Marshall, 2014;Rentfro, 2009;Schyns, 2001;Swenson & Prelow, 2005 . 1 General Self-Efficacy Scale 2 Self Regulation Scale 3 Self -Control and Self Management Scale 4 Self -Monitoring Scale 5 Self -Esteem Scale 6 Self -Compassion Scale 7 Self -Actualization Scale 8 Item-remainder ...
... (Greenberg, 2006) Koss, 1990;Astin, et al., 1993;Ranter, 1993 (Neff, et al., 2007a) ‫ﻭﺗﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ‬ . (Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015) ، ‫ﻣﻔﻴﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺃ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻛﺘﺌﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺮﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ . (Pauley& McPherson, 2010;Neff & Germer, 2013) ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺬﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﺒﻴ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﻒ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ . ...
... Studies in younger adults have found that self-compassion is a powerful predictor of mental health, including high levels of positive well-being (satisfaction with life, emotional balance, and a sense of purpose), and low levels of psychological symptoms, including depression, anxiety, and stress (Barnard & Curry, 2011;MacBeth & Gumley, 2012). Self-compassionate people are also more likely to have helpful thoughts, with less worry and rumination, lead healthy lifestyles, and have more fruitful relationships with others relative to those who are low on self-compassion (Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015;Neff & Beretvas, 2013;Sirois, Kitner, & Hirsch, 2015). Studies of younger adults show that self-compassionate people are more resilient facing major life events such as divorce and diagnosis of a serious illness (Brion, Leary, & Drabkin, 2014;Sbarra, Smith, & Mehl, 2012). ...
Article
Abstract background and objectives: There is considerable heterogeneity in experiences of aging, with some experiencing greater well-being and adapting more successfully to the challenges of aging than others. Self-compassion is a modifiable psychological skill that might help explain individual differences in well-being and adjustment in later life. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on self-compassion and well-being outcomes in studies of older adults aged 65 and older. Research design and methods: This systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines, using databases PsycINFO, Medline, and Embase. The search term self-compassion was paired with terms relating to well-being, psychological symptoms, and adjustment. Meta-analysis was used to synthesize results on the relationship between self-compassion and four outcomes including depression, anxiety, hedonic well-being, and eudaimonic well-being. Results: Eleven studies met inclusion criteria for this review. Meta-analysis revealed that self-compassion was associated with lower levels of depression (r = -.58, 95% CI [-.66, -.48]) and anxiety (r = -.36, 95% CI [-.60, -.07]), and higher levels of hedonic (r = .41, 95% CI [.15, .62]) and eudaimonic (r = .49, 95% CI [.41, .57]) well-being. Further, three studies found self-compassion weakened the impact of physical symptoms on well-being outcomes. Discussion and implications: We found preliminary evidence that self-compassion is associated with well-being outcomes in older adults, and that self-compassion may buffer the psychological sequelae of health symptoms in later life. Higher quality studies with uniform outcome measures are needed to replicate and extend these results.
... Compassion focuses more on dealing with emotions rather than avoiding it. [40] The next finding of the study showed the effect of this treatment on increasing the self-control score, which was consistent with the findings of Noroozi et al., [41] as they found that self-control and body image flexibility improved in the experimental group. Ghodrati Torbati et al. [42] compared the effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy and CFT on blood cortisol levels and self-control in drug users, and showed that for both groups, self-control improved and cortisol levels reduced, but the effectiveness of compassion therapy was greater than the dialectical behavior therapy. ...
Article
BACKGROUND: One of the important causes of anxiety in COVID-19 disease is the inability to regulate emotion and lack of self-control during threatening conditions. The psychotherapy technique has been effective in reducing these symptoms. Therefore, this study attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of compassion-based therapy on emotion regulation and self-control in patients with COVID-19 after discharge. MATERIALS AND METHOD: It was a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest study with a control group. The statistical population consisted of 30 men (15 in each group) who were in the quarantine period of COVID-19 disease. Available sampling was used and the participants were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, compassion-based treatment was performed in 10 sessions of 90 min. Tanji's self-control questionnaire and Garnofsky's Emotion Regulation questionnaires were used. Data analysis were performed using SPSS 21 software and multivariate analysis of covariance. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the mean scores of emotion regulation and self-control variables in the experimental and control groups (P < 0.001). The effect of this treatment on increasing the emotion regulation score was 49% and on increasing the self-control score was 37%. CONCLUSION: Compassion-based therapy can increase cognitive regulation and improve self-control in patients with COVID-19 disease. It is suggested that this intervention can be used in psychological treatment programs.
... In addition, consistent negative associations have been reported for self-compassion and anxiety (Barnard & Curry, 2011, Marshall & Brockman, 2016Neff, Hsieh, & Dejitterat, 2005) -a prominent emotion in OCD (Calkins, Berman, & Wilhelm, 2013) and perfectionism (Ferrari, Yap, Scott, Einstein, & Ciarrochi, 2018;Neff, 2003a) -a characteristic belief in OCD. Moreover, selfcompassion has been found to be associated with more positive and less negative or irrational thoughts (Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015;Leary, Tate, Adams, Batts Allen, & Hancock, 2007;Podina, Jucan, & David, 2015). Furthermore, self-compassionate people tend to ruminate or worry less (Johnson & O'Brien, 2013;Krieger, Altenstein, Baettig, Doerig, & Holtforth, 2013;Neff, Kirkpatrick, & Rude, 2007;Raes, 2010;Smeets, Neff, Alberts, & Peters, 2014). ...
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Lack of self‐compassion and deficits in emotion regulation are associated with various psychopathological symptoms and may play a role in the development and maintenance of obsessive‐compulsive disorder (OCD). However, further empirical research is still needed to better understand these constructs in the context of this disorder. The present study investigated the relation between self‐compassion, emotion regulation difficulties, obsessive beliefs, and obsessive‐compulsive symptom severity in 90 OCD patients using self‐report questionnaires. Symptom severity and obsessive beliefs were negatively correlated to self‐compassion and positively associated with emotion regulation difficulties. Additionally, self‐compassion showed a negative relation to emotion regulation difficulties. Emotion regulation difficulties ‐ but not self‐compassion ‐ predicted symptom severity when controlling for obsessive beliefs and depression in a hierarchical regression analysis. Further analyses showed that emotion regulation deficits mediated the relationship between self‐compassion and OCD symptom severity. Our results provide preliminary evidence that targeting self‐compassion and putting more emphasis on emotion regulation deficits might be promising treatment approaches for OCD patients. Future studies could investigate which specific interventions that directly address these variables improve treatment outcome.
... Self-kindness vs. self-judgment is regarded as one of three components of self-compassion (Neff, 2003). Self-compassion is positively associated with positive automatic thoughts and inversely with negative automatic thoughts (Arimitsu and Hofmann, 2015). Self-compassion is associated with situational positive reinterpretation and growth and reveals a negative correlation with situational focus on and venting of emotions (Neff et al., 2005). ...
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It seems obvious that the identification of coping structure is necessary to understand how stress affects human health and functioning. Despite numerous coping conceptualization proposals, there is no agreement as to the core coping categories. This article presents the Coping Circumplex Model (CCM), which is designed to integrate various coping distinctions, drawing inspiration from the tradition of circumplex models in psychology. The model is based on the assumption that individuals in stressful situations face two tasks: they need to solve the problem and regulate their emotions, which are reflected in two corresponding dimensions, that is, the problem coping dimension and emotion coping dimension. Problem coping and emotion coping are interpreted as bipolar dimensions. Importantly, these dimensions define a space for other coping categories. The model contains a total of eight coping styles forming a circumplex: positive emotional coping, efficiency, problem solving, preoccupation with the problem, negative emotional coping, helplessness, problem avoidance, and hedonic disengagement. The paper discusses the potential of the CCM to overcome some of the problems of stress psychology by: (a) supplementing the set of coping categories (i.e., process, strategy, style) with coping mode; (b) providing a foundation for the integration of numerous coping constructs; (c) enabling the interpretation of results obtained by means of different coping measures, thus facilitating knowledge consolidation; (d) explaining relationships between coping and adjustment after trauma, as well as explaining the mechanisms of psychological interventions (e.g., cognitive therapy, exposure therapy); (e) clarifying linkages between the effectiveness of coping strategies and situation controllability. Moreover, the CCM may elucidate the relationship between coping and emotion regulation (e.g., cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression).
... Kirby, Tellegen, and Steindl (2017) identified five randomized controlled trials of compassion focused therapy, where CFT was offered either as a group based intervention administered by a therapist or as unguided self help. These trials were conducted with both clinical samples (Braehler et al., 2013: schizophrenia-spectrum disorder;Kelly & Carter, 2015: binge eating disorder) and non clinical samples (Arimitsu & Hofman, 2015: low self compassionate people; Kelly, Zuroff, Foa, & Gilbert, 2010: smokers seeking to quit; Shapira & Mongrain, 2010: nonspecific adult sample). The authors concluded that there exists promising initial evidence for the effectiveness of compassion focused therapy. ...
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This article explores the potential of compassion focused therapy for developing self compassion as a resource for young people coping with hardship. Theoretical and research perspectives that point to the therapeutic potential of compassion, in particular self compassion, are presented. Compassion focused therapy (CFT) is introduced as a well delineated and empirically supported approach that may facilitate the development of self compassion. An illustration is offered which demonstrates the contribution of compassion focused-therapy based interventions to the coping of a 15 year old boy experiencing post-divorce paternal disengagement. The complexity related to practitioner readiness to utilize CFT is discussed, as well as that associated with the utilization of compassion promoting interventions with children and adolescents.
... ‫م‬ Afari, Ward, & Khine, 2012;Alkhatib, 2012;Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015;Charles, 2010;Clark & Blackhart, 2012;Herman, 2005;Kandemir, Ilhan, Özpolat, & Palanchi, 2014;Kim & Hwang, 2001;Lo, Cheng, Wong, Rochelle, & Kwok, 2011;Marshall, 2014;Rentfro, 2009;Schyns, 2001;Swenson & Prelow, 2005 . 1 General Self-Efficacy Scale 2 Self Regulation Scale 3 Self -Control and Self Management Scale 4 Self -Monitoring Scale 5 Self -Esteem Scale 6 Self -Compassion Scale 7 Self -Actualization Scale 8 Item-remainder ...
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The objective of the present study was to develop the Positive Self Scale (PSS). This scale was based on eight scales as follows: Self – Efficacy, Self – Regulation, Self – Control & Self – Management, Self- Monitoring, Self – Esteem, Self – Confidence, Self – Compassion, and Self – Actualization. A sample of 470 undergraduates responded to the afore - mentioned eight scales. The PSS was constructed based on the selection of two items from each scale on the basis of two criteria: the highest item – remainder correlation, and the highest loading onto each scale. The final form of the PSS consisted of 16 items with good to high item – remainder correlations as well as good Cronbach alpha reliability. Principal component analysis of the 16 items identified a general factor. Men obtained a statistically significant higher mean score than did female counterparts. It was recommended to investigate the PSS associations with the big five personality factor, and the positive psychology variables. Keywords: The Positive Self Scale (PSS), Self – Efficacy, Self – Regulation, Self – Control & Self – Management, Self- Monitoring, Self – Esteem, Self – Confidence, Self – Compassion, Self – Actualization.
... Other studies indicate that the individuals who have a tendency towards selfcompassion are expected to face fewer negative emotions (Leary et al., 2007;Arimitsu & Hofmann 2015;Odou & Brinker, 2014), and their personalities are characterized by flexibility in stressful situations that often cause failure and frustration. Therefore, finding a scale for self-compassion that has a high degree of reliability and consistency is considered to be substantial. ...
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Purpose of Study: The purpose of this study is to examine the psychological structure of self-compassion and to determine the relationship between the sub-dimensions (or factors) of the self-compassion-scale and the contribution of each factor to the construct. Although the self-compassion scale has been commonly used in the area of psychology, the number of the studies that examine the relationship between the factors (or sub-dimensions) of self-compassion is limited. The contribution of this study is assumed to be substantial since it examines the relationship between the several factors of self-compassion and determines the unique and common contribution of each factor to the self-compassion construct. Method: This study employed a relational survey method. A purposive sampling technique was used in order to determine the study group which consisted of 593 university students from Damascus University, Syria. Findings and Results: According to canonical correlation analysis mindfulness was the most important among the positive factors set, while over-identified was the most important among the negative factors set. On the other hand, common variance of common-humanity and self-kindness was quite large, indicating multicollinearity between these two factors. Additionally, the contribution of common humanity was negligibly small; therefore, it can be excluded from the model with a small sacrifice in explained variance. Conclusions and Recommendations: Although the results of this study suggest the exclusion the common-humanity factor from the self-compassion structure, more research should be conducted to support this finding both theoretically and empirically. Also, additional statistical methods should be used to explore the complex relationship between factors of self-compassion within different samples.
... Our findings also suggest numerous potential mechanisms of action that might help explain the linkage between self-compassion and suicidal behavior. In previous research, for instance, engaging in self-compassion exercises is related to less negative emotionality, perhaps due to a reduction in self-critical thoughts (Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015). The ability to respond with self-compassion when encountering challenges and difficulties may also help reduce emotional reaction to stressors by promoting adaptive coping strategies and reducing catastrophizing the negative situation (Allen & Leary, 2010;Neff et al., 2005). ...
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Suicide is a significant public health concern. Risk factors include depression, anxiety, hopelessness, being college-aged, and chronic illness. Self-compassion may reduce risk. We examined the relation between self-compassion and suicide risk, and the mediating effects of depression, anxiety, and hopelessness. Our cross-sectional study included four samples: community (N = 632, 51.7% female, M age = 35.91), collegiate (N = 338, 67.0% female, M age = 21.81), fibromyalgia (N = 508, 95.7% female, M age = 47.66) and cancer (N = 241, 64.3% female, M age = 61.28). Across all samples, self-compassion was related to less suicide risk (avg. r = .28), and all assessed psychopathology mediated this association. Future studies are needed to examine causal effects of study variables.
... Self-compassion has empirically shown to mediate MBI's effects on mental health and well-being (128)(129)(130)(131)(132)(133). It is associated with a wide variety of positive outcomes related to psychological well-being and QoL (e.g., life satisfaction, positive affect, social connectedness, flourishing) (48,(134)(135)(136)(137) and inversely associated with psychopathology (i.e., depression, anxiety, stress, suppression of unwanted thoughts, self-criticism, shame, anger) (137)(138)(139)(140)(141). Emotional regulation deficits and experiential avoidance are linked to depression, anxiety, and a lower QoL (142,143). ...
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Background: Police officers' high-stress levels and its deleterious consequences are raising awareness to an epidemic of mental health problems and quality of life (QoL) impairment. There is a growing evidence that mindfulness-based interventions are efficacious to promote mental health and well-being among high-stress occupations. Methods: The POLICE study is a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) with three assessment points (baseline, post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up) where police officers were randomized to mindfulness-based health promotion (MBHP) ( n = 88) or a waiting list ( n = 82). This article focuses on QoL, depression and anxiety symptoms, and religiosity outcomes. Mechanisms of change and MBHP feasibility were evaluated. Results: Significant group × time interaction was found for QoL, depression and anxiety symptoms, and non-organizational religiosity. Between-group analysis showed that MBHP group exhibited greater improvements in QoL, and depression and anxiety symptoms at both post-intervention (QoL d = 0.69 to 1.01; depression d = 0.97; anxiety d = 0.73) and 6-month follow-up (QoL d = 0.41 to 0.74; depression d = 0.60; anxiety d = 0.51), in addition to increasing non-organizational religiosity at post-intervention ( d = 0.31). Changes on self-compassion mediated the relationship between group and pre-to-post changes for all QoL domains and facets. Group effect on QoL overall health facet at post-intervention was moderated by mindfulness trait and spirituality changes. Conclusion: MBHP is feasible and efficacious to improve QoL, and depression and anxiety symptoms among Brazilian officers. Results were maintained after 6 months. MBHP increased non-organizational religiosity, although the effect was not sustained 6 months later. To our knowledge, this is the first mindfulness-based intervention RCT to empirically demonstrate these effects among police officers. Self-compassion, mindfulness trait, and spirituality mechanisms of change are examined. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov . identifier: NCT03114605.
... Luo et al. (2020) reported on the effectiveness of compassionate self-talk in generating a compassionate state and lowering pain in an experimental setting. Arimitsu and Hofmann (2015) described how compassionate thinking, compared to other cognitive strategies, was effective in the regulation of negative emotions. ...
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Objectives The authors report on the initial development and validation of the Compassion Practice Quality Scale (CPQS), a measure to assess the quality of compassion-based meditation (CBM). It is conceptualized and operationalized via two factors measuring mental imagery and somatic perception/response.Methods The total sample was composed of 205 university students who underwent a CBM and completed pre-test/post-test assessment of compassion and related constructs. Results from a series of preliminary psychometric analyses of the CPQS were examined, including factor analysis, internal consistency, and convergent/discriminant validity.ResultsThe data supported a 12-item and 10-item (without reference to gestures and self-instructions) CPQS of which imagery and somatic perception emerged as two significant reliable subscales, with Cronbach’s alpha values of .90 and .88 respectively. Practice quality factors assessed by the CPQS correlated in expected ways with fear of compassion, imagery variables, and self-criticism, as well as predicted compassion outcome (i.e., feeling positive attitudes toward others).Conclusions Our findings contribute to identifying two key components of high-quality meditation in CBM (i.e., mental imagery and somatic perception/response) for use in pedagogical development and further research and to offer a reliable self-report measure to assess them for the first time.
... contexts. Self-compassion as a single composite score was associated with lower levels of depression in Japan (Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015) and higher levels of life satisfaction and hope in China . A compassionate letter writing intervention with Hong Kong adults reduced depressive symptoms (Wong & Mak, 2013). ...
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Objectives The purpose of the study was to examine self-compassion as two interrelated yet distinct constructs (self-compassion and self-coldness) and their relations to psychological functioning in two cultural contexts.MethodsA total of 165 United States (US) and 141 Hong Kong (HK) undergraduate students completed self-report measures on self-compassion, self-coldness, subjective well-being, depression, and anxiety. A multi-group structural equation model (SEM) was used to examine the relations between self-compassion, self-coldness, and psychological functioning.ResultsThe multi-group SEM demonstrated good model fit (CFI = .97, RMSEA = .05, SRMR = .07). The relation between self-compassion and self-coldness was negative among US students (95% CI [− .42, − .08]), but positive among HK students (95% CI [.00, .22]). This association was significantly different across the two groups (χ2(1) = 13.02, p < .001). Self-compassion was associated with significantly higher levels of subjective well-being (95% CI [1.14, 2.28]), lower levels of depressive (95% CI [− 5.56, − 1.88]), and anxiety symptoms (95% CI [− 3.83, .032]) in HK. However, none of the relations were significant among US students. In contrast, self-coldness was negatively associated with subjective well-being (US, 95% CI [− 1.41, − .61]; HK, [− 2.60, − 1.30]) and positively associated with depressive (US, 95% CI [2.50, 4.47]; HK, [2.80, 6.86]) and anxiety symptoms (US, 95% CI [2.59, 4.53]; HK, [1.92, 6.27]) for both groups.Conclusions The differential pattern of results by cultural context suggest that self-compassion is best examined as a two-factor construct. Self-compassion and self-coldness have distinct implications for psychological functioning among young adults hailing from different cultural contexts.
... They also gained the ability to effectively manage each of these systems and respond more appropriately to situations and conditions, and consequently, balance their emotions and achieve appropriate emotional regulation. These results are consistent with those reported in other studies (19)(20)(21)(22). Furthermore, it was found that mindfulness therapy increased emotion regulation skills in patients with coronary heart disease. ...
... These findings are consistent with the idea that self-compassion promotes (Leary et al., 2007) and better emotion regulation (Sirois et al., 2018). Our results also support previous research that has shown that people with higher self-compassion have more positive than negative automatic thoughts, which in turn, are associated with lower negative affect including anxiety (Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015). In the current analysis, we examined the profile of sleep hygiene practice as a whole and therefore, we cannot pinpoint which specific sleep hygiene practices are particularly conducive to promoting sleep quality but it is conceivable that high levels of anxiety about sleep and perceived stress can transpire into poor sleep hygiene practices, such as going to bed feeling stressed and worrying while in bed (Mastin et al., 2006). ...
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The study examined the relationship between self-compassion and sleep quality. We also investigated whether the relationship was mediated by brooding, perceived stress, sleep hygiene, and anxiety about sleep and whether self-compassion was associated with anxiety, depression, and mental well-being indirectly through sleep quality. A sample of 468 adults completed measures of demographics, health, sleep quality, self-compassion, predisposing (arousability, brooding, perfectionism, interpersonal problems), precipitating (perceived stress, presence of life-changing events) and perpetuating (sleep hygiene, anxiety about sleep) factors of insomnia, depression, anxiety and mental well-being. The results of the hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that low self-compassion was significantly associated with poorer sleep quality when controlling for socio-demographic variables, health-related factors and predisposing factors of insomnia. The association, however, became non-significant when precipitating and perpetuating factors of insomnia were added to the model. Structural equation modelling showed that the relationship between self-compassion and sleep quality was mediated by anxiety about sleep and through sequential mediations involving anxiety about sleep and then sleep hygiene; or anxiety about sleep, perceived stress and then sleep hygiene; or perceived stress and then sleep hygiene. Poor sleep in turn was associated with anxiety and depression, which had a negative effect on mental well-being. This study provided cross-sectional evidence that low self-compassion is a potential risk factor for poor sleep quality, and consequently, poor mental well-being. These findings provide insights into possible mechanisms underlying the relationship between self-compassion and sleep quality that could inform etiological models of insomnia.
... Generally, compassion-focused therapy consists of self-compassion training, and increasing sensitivity along with a deep commitment to relieve pain. It is based on three components of mindfulness, common human experience, and self-kindness, which enhances the awareness and acceptance of pain, so that one can treat oneself compassionately (Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2015). Compassion-focused therapy contributes to experiencing fewer problems in socially-challenging situations and becoming more satisfied with life . ...
... A number of studies supported that self-compassion promotes psychological well-being, demonstrating the significant, and inverse relationship between self-compassion and psychological distress (Neff, 2003a;Neff, 2003b;Neff, Pisitsungkagarn,et al.;Neff, &Vonk, 2009;Ying, 2009;Raes, 2010). Multiple studies have found significant inverse associations between self-compassion and anxiety, depression, and several other negative emotions (Neff 2003;Raes, 2010;Ying 2009;Arimitsu& Hofmann, 2015). Self-compassion found to have significant negative associations with depression, anxiety and academic burn-out (Neff, 2003a;Neff, Pisitsungkagarn, et al.;Lee, 2013), self-criticism (Neff, 2003b;; negative affect (Neff, Rude, et al.); rumination, thought suppression (Neff, Kirkpatrick, et al.); neuroticism (Neff, Rude, et al.); neurotic perfectionism (Neff, 2003b), social anxiety, fear of negative evaluation (Werner et al., 2012), performance-approach/avoidance goals (Akın, 2008b), submissive behavior (Akın, 2009), interpersonal cognitive distortions (Akın, 2010a), loneliness (Akın, 2010b), internet addiction (Iskender& Akın, 2011), as well as negatively related to automatic thoughts (Akın, 2012). ...
Article
Mental health plays an important role in enhancing the performance of managers as well as in achieving the goals of organization. There are many factors which determine mental health of managers. The aim of this review paper is to present an idea to explore the role of self-compassion as an emerging determinant in enhancing the mental health of managers. An inclusive search of published and grey literature was undertaken to present an idea of exploring the role of self-compassion in mental health of managers. In most of the studies self-compassion has been studied in the context of preventing mental illness (i.e. anxiety and depression) and in mental health care when individuals become victim of illness in terms of intervention to cope and decrease the level of illness. On the basis of theoretical grounds we can say that there is a lack of studies regarding the role of self-compassion in promoting the mental health of managers. There is a need of study related to this. Findings of such study will help in promoting the managers " mental health through enhancing their self-compassion which in turn will increase the productivity of organizations.
... A number of studies supported that self-compassion promotes psychological well-being, demonstrating the significant, and inverse relationship between self-compassion and psychological distress (Neff, 2003a;Neff, 2003b;Neff, Pisitsungkagarn,et al.;Neff, &Vonk, 2009;Ying, 2009;Raes, 2010). Multiple studies have found significant inverse associations between self-compassion and anxiety, depression, and several other negative emotions (Neff 2003;Raes, 2010;Ying 2009;Arimitsu& Hofmann, 2015). Self-compassion found to have significant negative associations with depression, anxiety and academic burn-out (Neff, 2003a;Neff, Pisitsungkagarn, et al.;Lee, 2013), self-criticism (Neff, 2003b;; negative affect (Neff, Rude, et al.); rumination, thought suppression (Neff, Kirkpatrick, et al.); neuroticism (Neff, Rude, et al.); neurotic perfectionism (Neff, 2003b), social anxiety, fear of negative evaluation (Werner et al., 2012), performance-approach/avoidance goals (Akın, 2008b), submissive behavior (Akın, 2009), interpersonal cognitive distortions (Akın, 2010a), loneliness (Akın, 2010b), internet addiction (Iskender& Akın, 2011), as well as negatively related to automatic thoughts (Akın, 2012). ...
Article
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Mental health plays an important role in enhancing the performance of managers as well as in achieving the goals of organization. There are many factors which determine mental health of managers. The aim of this review paper is to present an idea to explore the role of self-compassion as an emerging determinant in enhancing the mental health of managers. An inclusive search of published and grey literature was undertaken to present an idea of exploring the role of self-compassion in mental health of managers. In most of the studies self-compassion has been studied in the context of preventing mental illness (i.e. anxiety and depression) and in mental health care when individuals become victim of illness in terms of intervention to cope and decrease the level of illness. On the basis of theoretical grounds we can say that there is a lack of studies regarding the role of self-compassion in promoting the mental health of managers. There is a need of study related to this. Findings of such study will help in promoting the managers " mental health through enhancing their self-compassion which in turn will increase the productivity of organizations.
... A number of studies supported that self-compassion promotes psychological well-being, demonstrating the significant, and inverse relationship between self-compassion and psychological distress (Neff, 2003a;Neff, 2003b;Neff, Pisitsungkagarn,et al.;Neff, &Vonk, 2009;Ying, 2009;Raes, 2010). Multiple studies have found significant inverse associations between self-compassion and anxiety, depression, and several other negative emotions (Neff 2003;Raes, 2010;Ying 2009;Arimitsu& Hofmann, 2015). Self-compassion found to have significant negative associations with depression, anxiety and academic burn-out (Neff, 2003a;Neff, Pisitsungkagarn, et al.;Lee, 2013), self-criticism (Neff, 2003b;; negative affect (Neff, Rude, et al.); rumination, thought suppression (Neff, Kirkpatrick, et al.); neuroticism (Neff, Rude, et al.); neurotic perfectionism (Neff, 2003b), social anxiety, fear of negative evaluation (Werner et al., 2012), performance-approach/avoidance goals (Akın, 2008b), submissive behavior (Akın, 2009), interpersonal cognitive distortions (Akın, 2010a), loneliness (Akın, 2010b), internet addiction (Iskender& Akın, 2011), as well as negatively related to automatic thoughts (Akın, 2012). ...
... On the other hand, PAT predicted higher motivation and activities. Previous studies indicated that lower NAT and higher PAT have a significant relationship with subjective life satisfaction, social adaptation, and QOL in healthy subjects 19,52 and people with depression. 20 This study suggested that both PAT and NAT might be important for improving subjective QOL for people with schizophrenia as well. ...
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Conference Paper
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Výskum je zameraný na schopnosť rozpoznávať tvárové výrazy emócií v súvislosti so psychologickým zážitkom komunity v rodine, mierou sebakritickosti a sebasúcitu. Jednotlivci s vyššou mierou sebakritickosti, na rozdiel od tých s vyššou mierou sebasúcitu, majú problém s identifikáciou súcitu a tvárového výrazu súcitu (McEwan et al., 2014). Použili sme škály FSCRS [Forms of Self-Criticism/Reasurance Scale] (Gilbert et al., 2004), SCS [Self-compassion scale] (Neff, 2003), BSCS-F [The Brief Sense of Community Scale - Family] (Peterson, Speer, McMillan, 2008) a nami vytvorené fotografie výrazu súcitu. Zistili sme signifikantý slabý záporný vzťah medzi zážitkom komunity v rodine a sebakritickosťou, a tiež sebasúcitom a sebakritkickosťou. Vzťahy medzi ostatnými premennými neboli signifikantné. Taktiež sme zistili, že jednotlivci, ktorí rozpoznali súcitný výraz na tvári ženy, skórovali vyššie v sebasúcite ako tí, ktorí tento výraz nerozpoznali.
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This study examines the mediating role of negative automatic thoughts on the link between childhood maltreatment and young adult depression, and the moderating role of self-compassion in this indirect link. College students ( N = 578) completed self-report questionnaires assessing the mentioned study variables. The results showed that childhood maltreatment was positively associated with young adult depression via negative automatic thoughts. Moreover, self-compassion moderated this indirect link such that participants with low self-compassion demonstrated a stronger indirect link than those with high self-compassion. These findings highlight the important role of self-compassion in countering the adverse outcomes of childhood maltreatment.
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To date, there is no evidence regarding how self-compassion's components, self-kindness, common humanity and mindfulness could work as distinct interventions. Thus, the main objective of the present study was exploring the effects that the three separate components of self-compassion would have on shame-proneness levels in individuals with clinical depression. All the participants (n= 122) with a diagnostic of Major Depressive Disorder were randomized in four experimental groups: the self-kindness exercises group, the mindfulness exercises group, the common humanity one and the control group. Results indicated that levels of depression and shame-proneness, as measured by BDI-II, TOSCA-3 and ESS decreased from baseline to post-intervention, but no significant differences were observed between groups. Therefore, we cannot conclude that one self-compassion component is more efficient than the others, but the present study does offer though, a strong starting point for more complex, future studies.
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Previous meta-analyses have found higher self-compassion is associated with lower anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of self-compassion as an active ingredient in the treatment and prevention of anxiety and depression in youth. This was conducted through (i) a systematic review of the literature and (ii) qualitative consultation with young people and researchers in self-compassion. Fifty studies met our inclusion criteria. Eight studies evaluated self-compassion interventions among youth aged 14–24, and the remaining studies measured the association between self-compassion and anxiety, and/or depression among this age group. Qualitative interviews were conducted with four self-compassion researchers. Interviews were also conducted in two rounds of consultation with 20 young people ( M age = 18.85 years, age range 14–24 years). Higher self-compassion was related to lower symptoms of anxiety, r = − 0.49, 95% CI (− 0.57, − 0.42), and depression, r = − 0.50, 95% CI (− 0.53, − 0.47). There was evidence for self-compassion interventions in decreasing anxiety and depression in young people. Consultation with young people indicated they were interested in self-compassion interventions; however, treatment should be available in a range of formats and tailored to address diversity. Self-compassion experts emphasised the importance of decreasing self-criticism as a reason why self-compassion interventions work. The importance of targeting self-criticism is supported by the preferences of young people who said they would be more likely to engage in a treatment reducing self-criticism than increasing self-kindness. Future research is required to add to the emerging evidence for self-compassion interventions decreasing symptoms of anxiety and depression in young people.
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The simultaneous occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic and the transition to adulthood have posed particular obstacles to university students’ mental health. However, it remains unclear whether hope promotes mental health in the relationship between self-compassion, psychological well-being, and life satisfaction. Therefore, this study investigated the role of hope as a mediator in the relationship between self-compassion, psychological well-being, and life satisfaction among Vietnamese undergraduate students in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants consisted of 484 students (aged 18 to 24) from several universities in Vietnam. This study used SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 24.0 to analyze data of the Self-Compassion Scale, the State Hope Scale, the World Health Organization 5-item Well-Being Index, and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. The results showed that (1) self-compassion was significantly positively correlated with psychological well-being, (2) selfcompassion was not correlated with life satisfaction, (3) hope was a mediator of the relationship between selfcompassion and psychological well-being, and (4) hope was a mediator of the relationship between selfcompassion and life satisfaction. These findings provide support for Snyder’s theory of hope and suggest interventions on self-compassion to enhance hope and subsequently increase students’ mental health, which offers colleges, psychologists, and psychiatrists a guideline to cope with harmful psychological implications during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Abstract In this study, firstly a Positive Automatic Thought Scale(PATS)that consisted of 29 items was developed. The PATS has six subscales(i.e.曾1Reliance on positive evaluation”,”Positive evaluation of life”,”Reliance on others”,”Having much spare time”,”High motivation”,”Posltlve inclination”). Secondly, using PATS and a Positive Mood Scale(PMS), cognitive-behavior model of positive moods were constructed. By path analysis, it was revealed that”Relaxed”,”Lively” and’℃oncentrated” moods were caused by the’IFriendly”mood, and the”Friendly”mood was caused by the automatic thoughts of ”Reliance on positive evaluation”,”Reliance on others”, and”High motivation”. Also it was revealed that the”Relaxed”mood was also caused by the automatic-thoughts of”Having much spare time”and”Positive inclination”, and the”Lively” mood was caused by the automatic-thoughts of”Positive inclination”,”Positive evaluation of life”, and”Reliance on others’冒. Moreover the”Concentrated”mood was caused only by the auto- matic-thought of”High motivation”. From these results, it was clear that the causation between positive automatic-thoughts and positive moods were inclusively revealed. Implications of this model to psychotherapy are discussed. Key werds:positive mood, positive automatic-thoughts, cognitive-behavior model
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A Japanese version of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS-J) was developed. In Survey 1, confirmatory factor analysis of data from 366 participants indicated that the SCS-J had an acceptable fit to the model, as well as good internal consistency, similar to the original. In Survey 2, a test-retest correlation of the SCS-J for 101 participants indicated good reliability for the scale. In Survey 3, 148 participants completed the SCS-J and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, the Subjective Happiness Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait form, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The partial correlations between the SCS-J and the other scales were analyzed, using self-esteem, or self-criticism as the control variables. The results demonstrated that self-compassion was associated with self-esteem and the mental health of the Japanese participants. These results indicate that the SCS-J has good reliability and validity as a measure of self-compassion.
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We proposed the concept of ‘‘interdependent happiness,’’ which is interdependently pursued and attained. A nine-item Interdependent Happiness Scale (IHS) was developed to measure the happiness of individuals who are relationally oriented, quiescent and ordinary. Interdependent happiness correlated with both subjective well-being (SWB) and interdependent self-construal among Japanese students (Study 1); their SWB was more likely to be explained by IHS than the SWB of American students (Study 2); and IHS explained the SWB of working adults in the US, Germany, Japan, and Korea (Study 3) and Japanese adults and elders from collectivist regions of the country (Study 4). Cultural and cross-cultural psychological perspectives were incorporated to shed new light on collective happiness.
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Compassion focused therapy (CFT) was developed to stimulate capacities for soothing and affiliation to self and others as a way to regulate the threat system. This feasibility study aimed to assess the safety, the acceptability, the potential benefits, and associated change processes of using group CFT with people recovering from psychosis. A prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end point evaluation design was used. Forty adult patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder were randomized to CFT plus treatment as usual (TAU; n = 22) or to TAU alone (n = 18). Group CFT comprised 16 sessions (2 hr each, 1 x week). Participants were assessed prior to randomization and at the end of treatment. Assessments included semi-structured interviews to elicit narratives of recovery from psychosis and self-report measures. At the end of treatment, participants were rated on the Clinical Global Impression Scale. Narratives were coded using the Narrative Recovery Style Scale to provide measures of change in compassion and avoidance. Change processes were correlated with changes in depression, personal beliefs about illness, fear of recurrence, and positive and negative affect. Group CFT was associated with no adverse events, low attrition (18%), and high acceptability. Relative to TAU, CFT was associated with greater observed clinical improvement (p < 0.001) and significant increases in compassion (p = 0.015) of large magnitude. Relative to TAU, increases in compassion in the CFT group were significantly associated with reductions in depression (p = 0.001) and in perceived social marginalization (p = 0.002). Findings support the feasibility of group CFT in psychosis and suggest that changes in compassion can be achieved, which appear to reduce depression in particular. This is the first randomized controlled evaluation of CFT. Compassion focused therapy appears as a safe, acceptable, promising, and evolving intervention for promoting emotional recovery from psychosis.
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Loving-kindness meditation is a practice designed to enhance feelings of kindness and compassion for self and others. Loving-kindness meditation involves repetition of phrases of positive intention for self and others. We undertook an open pilot trial of loving-kindness meditation for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Measures of PTSD, depression, self-compassion, and mindfulness were obtained at baseline, after a 12-week loving-kindness meditation course, and 3 months later. Effect sizes were calculated from baseline to each follow-up point, and self-compassion was assessed as a mediator. Attendance was high; 74% attended 9-12 classes. Self-compassion increased with large effect sizes and mindfulness increased with medium to large effect sizes. A large effect size was found for PTSD symptoms at 3-month follow-up (d = -0.89), and a medium effect size was found for depression at 3-month follow-up (d = -0.49). There was evidence of mediation of reductions in PTSD symptoms and depression by enhanced self-compassion. Overall, loving-kindness meditation appeared safe and acceptable and was associated with reduced symptoms of PTSD and depression. Additional study of loving-kindness meditation for PTSD is warranted to determine whether the changes seen are due to the loving-kindness meditation intervention versus other influences, including concurrent receipt of other treatments.
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The Positive Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ-P) was designed to assess the frequency of positive self-statements. This article reports original data and reviews other studies that have used the ATQ-P. These data show that the reliability and the norms of the ATQ-P appear stable and that the ATQ-P is inversely associated with negative affective states but unrelated to conditions such as medical condition not accompanied by psychological distress. The ATQ-P also shows adequate convergent and discriminate validity. Data also show that the ATQ-P conforms to theoretical predictions of the states-of-mind model. Finally, these data show that the ATQ-P is sensitive to cognitive changes. In sum, the results suggest that the ATQ-P is an effective measure of positive self-statement frequency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Psychosocial interventions often aim to alleviate negative emotional states. However, there is growing interest in cultivating positive emotional states and qualities. One particular target is compassion, but it is not yet clear whether compassion can be trained. A community sample of 100 adults were randomly assigned to a 9-week compassion cultivation training (CCT) program (n = 60) or a waitlist control condition (n = 40). Before and after this 9-week period, participants completed self-report inventories that measured compassion for others, receiving compassion from others, and self-compassion. Compared to the waitlist control condition, CCT resulted in significant improvements in all three domains of compassion—compassion for others, receiving compassion from others, and self-compassion. The amount of formal meditation practiced during CCT was associated with increased compassion for others. Specific domains of compassion can be intentionally cultivated in a training program. These findings may have important implications for mental health and well-being.
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Two studies assessed the role of self-compassion as a moderator of the relationship between physical health and subjective well-being in the elderly. In Study 1, 132 participants, ranging in age from 67 to 90 years, completed a questionnaire that assessed their perceptions of their physical health, self-compassion, and subjective well-being. Participants who were in good physical health had high subjective well-being regardless of their level of self-compassion. However, for participants with poorer physical health, self-compassion was associated with greater subjective well-being. In Study 2, 71 participants between the ages of 63 and 97 completed a questionnaire assessing self-compassion, well-being, and their willingness to use assistance for walking, hearing, and memory. Self-compassionate participants reported being less bothered by the use of assistance than those low in self-compassion, although the relationship between self-compassion and willingness to use assistive devices was mixed. These findings suggest that self-compassion is associated with well-being in later life and that interventions to promote self-compassion may improve quality of life among older adults.
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Within American psychology, there has been a recent surge of interest in self-compassion, a construct from Buddhist thought. Self-compassion entails: (a) being kind and understanding toward oneself in times of pain or failure, (b) perceiving one's own suffering as part of a larger human experience, and (c) holding painful feelings and thoughts in mindful awareness. In this article we review findings from personality, social, and clinical psychology related to self-compassion. First, we define self-compassion and distinguish it from other self-constructs such as self-esteem, self-pity, and self-criticism. Next, we review empirical work on the correlates of self-compassion, demonstrating that self-compassion has consistently been found to be related to well-being. These findings support the call for interventions that can raise self-compassion. We then review the theory and empirical support behind current interventions that could enhance self-compassion including compassionate mind training (CMT), imagery work, the gestalt two-chair technique, mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Directions for future research are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Objectives: Self-compassion has been associated with psychological health in young and multigenerational samples. This study investigated whether self-compassion may be associated with subjective well-being (positive affect [PA] and negative affect [NA]) and psychological well-being (ego integrity and meaning in life) in older adults. It also assessed the structure of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003a) in older adults. Method: A total of 185 adults aged 65 and older (M age = 73.42) completed several self-report measures, including the SCS. Results: Path analysis revealed that self-compassion was significantly positively associated with PA, ego integrity, and meaning in life, and negatively associated with NA. Factor analyses indicated that the SCS structure identified among undergraduates was not observed in our older sample. Instead, two factors emerged which provided predictive utility. Discussion: These results extend research knowledge, inform strategies to enhance well-being in older adults, and indicate that self-compassion may represent a valuable psychological resource for positive aging.
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Low self-esteem and depression are strongly related, but there is not yet consistent evidence on the nature of the relation. Whereas the vulnerability model states that low self-esteem contributes to depression, the scar model states that depression erodes self-esteem. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the models are specific for depression or whether they are also valid for anxiety. We evaluated the vulnerability and scar models of low self-esteem and depression, and low self-esteem and anxiety, by meta-analyzing the available longitudinal data (covering 77 studies on depression and 18 studies on anxiety). The mean age of the samples ranged from childhood to old age. In the analyses, we used a random-effects model and examined prospective effects between the variables, controlling for prior levels of the predicted variables. For depression, the findings supported the vulnerability model: The effect of self-esteem on depression (β = -.16) was significantly stronger than the effect of depression on self-esteem (β = -.08). In contrast, the effects between low self-esteem and anxiety were relatively balanced: Self-esteem predicted anxiety with β = -.10, and anxiety predicted self-esteem with β = -.08. Moderator analyses were conducted for the effect of low self-esteem on depression; these suggested that the effect is not significantly influenced by gender, age, measures of self-esteem and depression, or time lag between assessments. If future research supports the hypothesized causality of the vulnerability effect of low self-esteem on depression, interventions aimed at increasing self-esteem might be useful in reducing the risk of depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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We examined two recently developed measures of positive automatic thought, the Positive Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ-P) and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire—Revised (ATQ-RP). Internal consistency, concurrent validity, and convergent and discriminant validity were addressed. Two hundred one undergraduates completed self-report measures of positive automatic thoughts, negative automatic thoughts, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and positive affectivity. The ATQ-P and ATQ-RP both showed high internal consistency, strong negative associations with depressive symptoms, specificity to depressive symptoms rather than anxiety symptoms, an average state-of-mind (SOM) ratio in the positive dialogue range, and a stronger relation with each other than with a measure of positive affectivity. The only notable difference between the measures was a significantly lower mean score (correcting for number of items) on the ATQ-RP.
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This study examined the relation of self-compassion to positive psychological health and the five factor model of personality. Self-compassion entails being kind toward oneself in instances of pain or failure; perceiving one’s experiences as part of the larger human experience; and holding painful thoughts and feelings in balanced awareness. Participants were 177 undergraduates (68% female, 32% male). Using a correlational design, the study found that self-compassion had a significant positive association with self-reported measures of happiness, optimism, positive affect, wisdom, personal initiative, curiosity and exploration, agreeableness, extroversion, and conscientiousness. It also had a significant negative association with negative affect and neuroticism. Self-compassion predicted significant variance in positive psychological health beyond that attributable to personality.
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Two studies are presented to examine the relation of self-compassion to psychological health. Self-compassion entails being kind and understanding toward oneself in instances of pain or failure rather than being harshly self-critical; perceiving one’s experiences as part of the larger human experience rather than seeing them as isolating; and holding painful thoughts and feelings in mindful awareness rather than over-identifying with them. Study 1 found that self-compassion (unlike self-esteem) helps buffer against anxiety when faced with an ego-threat in a laboratory setting. Self-compassion was also linked to connected versus separate language use when writing about weaknesses. Study 2 found that increases in self-compassion occurring over a one-month interval were associated with increased psychological well-being, and that therapist ratings of self-compassion were significantly correlated with self-reports of self-compassion. Self-compassion is a potentially important, measurable quality that offers a conceptual alternative to Western, more egocentric concepts of self-related processes and feelings.
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The aim of these two studies was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) program, an 8-week workshop designed to train people to be more self-compassionate. Study 1 was a pilot study that examined change scores in self-compassion, mindfulness, and various wellbeing outcomes among community adults (N = 21; mean [M] age = 51.26, 95% female). Study 2 was a randomized controlled trial that compared a treatment group (N = 25; M age = 51.21; 78% female) with a waitlist control group (N = 27; M age = 49.11; 82% female). Study 1 found significant pre/post gains in self-compassion, mindfulness, and various wellbeing outcomes. Study 2 found that compared with the control group, intervention participants reported significantly larger increases in self-compassion, mindfulness, and wellbeing. Gains were maintained at 6-month and 1-year follow-ups. The MSC program appears to be effective at enhancing self-compassion, mindfulness, and wellbeing.
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Two studies examined the relationship between self-compassion, academic achievement goals, and coping with perceived academic failure among undergraduates. Self-compassion entails being kind to oneself in instances of failure, perceiving one's experiences as part of the larger human experience, and holding painful feelings in mindful awareness. Study 1 (N = 222) found that self-compassion was positively associated with mastery goals and negatively associated with performance goals, a relationship that was mediated by the lesser fear of failure and greater perceived competence of self-compassionate individuals. Study 2 confirmed these findings among students who perceived their recent midterm grade as a failure (N = 110), with results also indicating that self-compassion was positively associated with emotion-focused coping strategies and negatively associated with avoidance-oriented strategies.