Article

Who Chokes Under Pressure? The Big Five Personality Traits and Decision-Making under Pressure

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Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the Big Five personality factors could predict who thrives or chokes under pressure during decision-making. The effects of the Big Five personality factors on decision-making ability and performance under social (Experiment 1) and combined social and time pressure (Experiment 2) were examined using the Big Five Personality Inventory and a dynamic decision-making task that required participants to learn an optimal strategy. In Experiment 1, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed an interaction between neuroticism and pressure condition. Neuroticism negatively predicted performance under social pressure, but did not affect decision-making under low pressure. Additionally, the negative effect of neuroticism under pressure was replicated using a combined social and time pressure manipulation in Experiment 2. These results support distraction theory whereby pressure taxes highly neurotic individuals’ cognitive resources, leading to sub-optimal performance. Agreeableness also negatively predicted performance in both experiments.

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... contre-partie, les candidats stables émotivement se sentiraient plus aptes à faire face aux situations stressantes en général. Ajoutant à cela une meilleure connaissance de ce qui les attend, cela contribuerait à diminuer, en partie du moins, le caractère anxiogène de la situation attribuable à l'effet de nouveauté, et permettrait ainsi à ces candidats de vivre moins d'interférence entre les pensées anxieuses et la réalisation de la tâche (Byrne et al., 2015 ;Moutafi et al., 2006). Cela expliquerait donc l'amélioration des résultats entre les passations pour ces personnes. ...
... On ignore donc dans quelle mesure ces résultats sont généralisables à des candidats qui réussiraient la première fois, mais qui, faute de plusieurs postes disponibles, reprendraient les tests lors d'affichages subséquents. Deuxièmement, aucune distinction n'est faite spécifiquement pour les facettes du facteur Névrose, bien que certains chercheurs mettent de l'avant le rôle précis de l'anxiété (Barron et al., 2017 ;Byrne et al., 2015 ;Moutafi et al., 2006 ;Scharfen et al., 2018) et celui du stress (Byrne et al., 2015). ...
... On ignore donc dans quelle mesure ces résultats sont généralisables à des candidats qui réussiraient la première fois, mais qui, faute de plusieurs postes disponibles, reprendraient les tests lors d'affichages subséquents. Deuxièmement, aucune distinction n'est faite spécifiquement pour les facettes du facteur Névrose, bien que certains chercheurs mettent de l'avant le rôle précis de l'anxiété (Barron et al., 2017 ;Byrne et al., 2015 ;Moutafi et al., 2006 ;Scharfen et al., 2018) et celui du stress (Byrne et al., 2015). ...
... Collectively, such findings suggest that people do not make decisions based on probabilities alone, but also the psychological impact of their choices, the framing of the choice, and the external circumstances in which the decision is made. In addition to examining the effects of external (i.e., circumstantial) factors on decision-making, a large collection of studies has examined the influence of internal factors, such as personality traits (Byrne, Silasi-Mansat, & Worthy, 2015;Lauriola & Levin, 2001), age (Defoe, Dubas, Figner, & Aken, 2015;Delaney, Strough, Parker, & Bruine de Bruin, 2015), gender (Delaney et al., 2015;Weller, Ceschi, Hirsch, Sartori, & Constantini, 2018), and cognitive traits (Lauriola, Panno, Levin, & Lejuez, 2013;Weller, Ceschi, & Randolph, 2015) on decision-making processes. Certain traits have shown to influence the efficiency of decision-making for better or worse. ...
... Certain traits have shown to influence the efficiency of decision-making for better or worse. Individuals high in neuroticism have been shown to perform worse on decision-making tasks (Byrne et al., 2015;Lauriola & Levin, 2001), whereas individuals high in conscientiousness have been shown to perform particularly well on decision-making tasks. For instance, in a time-sensitive card selection task individuals higher in neuroticism tended to make decisions that provided immediate benefits, but less than optimal long-term gains (Byrne et al., 2015). ...
... Individuals high in neuroticism have been shown to perform worse on decision-making tasks (Byrne et al., 2015;Lauriola & Levin, 2001), whereas individuals high in conscientiousness have been shown to perform particularly well on decision-making tasks. For instance, in a time-sensitive card selection task individuals higher in neuroticism tended to make decisions that provided immediate benefits, but less than optimal long-term gains (Byrne et al., 2015). The observation of vast individual differences in decision-making efficiency, based on a variety of factors, has prompted researchers to propose a psychological construct, decisionmaking competency (DMC), thought to reflect an individual's ability to make rational decisions. ...
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A commonly reported finding is that anxious individuals are less likely to make risky decisions. However, no studies have examined whether this association extends to death-related anxiety. The present study examined how groups low, moderate, and high in death-related anxiety make decisions with varying levels of risk. Participants completed a series of hypothetical bets in which the probability of a win was systematically manipulated. High-anxiety individuals displayed the greatest risk-taking behavior, followed by the moderate-anxiety group, with the low-anxiety group being most risk-averse. Experiment 2 tested this association further by framing outcomes in terms of losses, rather than gains. A similar pattern was observed with both positive and negative framing. In contrast to findings with trait anxiety, the present results suggest that death-related anxiety is positively associated with risky decision-making – an effect that holds regardless of how options are framed. Furthermore, the present study demonstrates that Bayesian modeling can provide very accurate predictions for economic decision-making behavior.
... According to Moberg (2000), scenarios high in complexity and uncertainty will lead to negative performance, because under time pressure less cognitive resources for complex rules or calculations are available. The results of several studies support the notion that the high cognitive load of decision-makers under time pressure influences the choice of strategies, processing of information, and overall performance (Byrne et al., 2015;Maule & Edland, 1997;Moberg, 2000;Ordóñez & Benson, 1997). Individual factors leading to impaired decision-making-in situations demanding a high cognitive load because of time pressure-seem to be insufficient experience (Ahituv et al., 1998), a low need-for-cognition (Verplanken, 1993), and high neuroticism (Byrne et al., 2015). ...
... The results of several studies support the notion that the high cognitive load of decision-makers under time pressure influences the choice of strategies, processing of information, and overall performance (Byrne et al., 2015;Maule & Edland, 1997;Moberg, 2000;Ordóñez & Benson, 1997). Individual factors leading to impaired decision-making-in situations demanding a high cognitive load because of time pressure-seem to be insufficient experience (Ahituv et al., 1998), a low need-for-cognition (Verplanken, 1993), and high neuroticism (Byrne et al., 2015). On the other hand, individual factors improving decision-making under time pressure are positive cognitive appraisal (Prem et al., 2017), feelings of control (Kühnel et al., 2012;Teuchmann et al., 1999), and quality of forecasting the consequences of the decision (Stenmark et al., 2010). ...
... The expansive reviews of O 'Fallon and Butterfield (2005) and Craft (2013) stressed that personal variables were the single most important factor influencing the ethical decision-making in the examined studies. Furthermore, various studies supported the notion that personal variables such as neuroticism (Byrne et al., 2015), need-for-cognition (Verplanken, 1993), and coping styles (Prem et al., 2017) account for a great part of variance when explaining performance under time pressure. In the present study we will scrutinize the influence of such a personality variable, namely Type A personality. ...
... Thus, their decision-making performance decreases as the level of pressure increases. (Byrne, Silasi-Mansat, & Worthy, 2015;Markman, Maddox, & Worthy, 2006). Stress often occurs in situations where there is a risk of success or failure. ...
... Stress often occurs in situations where there is a risk of success or failure. As a result, these situations can bring out certain traits or characteristics, such as loss, narcissism, and fear of negative evaluations, which can significantly affect individual performance (Byrne et al., 2015). Furthermore, Byrne et al. (2015) stated that in the decision-making process at work, individuals under pressure are likely to reduce the use of available cognitive resources to make optimal decisions. ...
... As a result, these situations can bring out certain traits or characteristics, such as loss, narcissism, and fear of negative evaluations, which can significantly affect individual performance (Byrne et al., 2015). Furthermore, Byrne et al. (2015) stated that in the decision-making process at work, individuals under pressure are likely to reduce the use of available cognitive resources to make optimal decisions. Based on the above discussion, individuals such as internal auditors who are under pressure will not be able to make optimal decisions in accordance with the company's values and interests. ...
Article
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Income smoothing is basically a management strategy to reduce fluctuating income levels. This study aims to determine the effect of company size, leverage and profitability on income smoothing in companies listed on the LQ45 Index of the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the 2017-2019 period. It was carried out on companies listed on the LQ45 Index of the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2017-2019. Sampling was conducted by utilizing purposive sampling and obtained 11 companies, from which 33 data were collected. The analysis technique used was multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that company size, leverage and profitability simultaneously can affect income smoothing of a company. Company size and profitability partially have a positive effect on income smoothing, while leverage has a negative effect on income smoothing.
... Collectively, such findings suggest that people do not make decisions based on probabilities alone, but also the psychological impact of their choices, the framing of the choice, and the external circumstances in which the decision is made. In addition to examining the effects of external (i.e., circumstantial) factors on decision-making, a large collection of studies has examined the influence of internal factors, such as personality traits (Byrne, Silasi-Mansat, & Worthy, 2015;Lauriola & Levin, 2001), age (Defoe, Dubas, Figner, & Aken, 2015;Delaney, Strough, Parker, & Bruine de Bruin, 2015), gender (Delaney et al., 2015;Weller, Ceschi, Hirsch, Sartori, & Constantini, 2018), and cognitive traits (Lauriola, Panno, Levin, & Lejuez, 2013;Weller, Ceschi, & Randolph, 2015) on decision-making processes. Certain traits have shown to influence the efficiency of decision-making for better or worse. ...
... Certain traits have shown to influence the efficiency of decision-making for better or worse. Individuals high in neuroticism have been shown to perform worse on decision-making tasks (Byrne et al., 2015;Lauriola & Levin, 2001), whereas individuals high in conscientiousness have been shown to perform particularly well on decision-making tasks. For instance, in a time-sensitive card selection task individuals higher in neuroticism tended to make decisions that provided immediate benefits, but less than optimal long-term gains (Byrne et al., 2015). ...
... Individuals high in neuroticism have been shown to perform worse on decision-making tasks (Byrne et al., 2015;Lauriola & Levin, 2001), whereas individuals high in conscientiousness have been shown to perform particularly well on decision-making tasks. For instance, in a time-sensitive card selection task individuals higher in neuroticism tended to make decisions that provided immediate benefits, but less than optimal long-term gains (Byrne et al., 2015). The observation of vast individual differences in decision-making efficiency, based on a variety of factors, has prompted researchers to propose a psychological construct, decisionmaking competency (DMC), thought to reflect an individual's ability to make rational decisions. ...
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[ACCEPTED FOR PUBLICATION] A commonly reported finding is that anxious individuals are less likely to make risky decisions. However, no studies have examined whether this association extends to death-related anxiety. The present study examined how groups low, moderate, and high in death-related anxiety make decisions with varying levels of risk. Participants completed a series of hypothetical bets in which the probability of a win was systematically manipulated. High-anxiety individuals displayed the greatest risk-taking behavior, followed by the moderate-anxiety group, with the low-anxiety group being most risk-averse. Experiment 2 tested this association further by framing outcomes in terms of losses, rather than gains. A similar pattern was observed with both positive and negative framing. In contrast to findings with trait anxiety, the present results suggest that death-related anxiety is positively associated with risky decision-making - an effect that holds regardless of how options are framed. Furthermore, the present study demonstrates that Bayesian models can provide very accurate predictions for economic decision making behavior.
... In terms of distraction theory, pressure, including time pressure, bonus-incentivized pressure, and social pressure, can detrimentally affect such cognitive processes as mathematical problem solving, working memory (Ariely, Gneezy, Loewenstein, & Mazar, 2009;Beilock & Carr, 2005), attention (Baumeister, 1984), and decision-making (Byrne, Silasi-Mansat, & Worthy, 2015;Zur & Breznitz, 1981 control than adults and that inhibitory control generally improves with age (Davis, Bruce, Snyder, & Nelson, 2003;Kray, Ritter, & Muller, 2020). It is unclear whether time pressure affects inhibitory control in the same way in adults as it does in young children. ...
... The results of both Experiments 1 and 2 support distraction theory whereby time pressure and other outcome-based pressure situations distract cognitive resources away from the task, leading to sub-optimal performance. Previous research has observed similar negative effects of time pressure on decision-making (e.g., Byrne et al., 2015;Payne, Bettman, & Luce, 1996). ...
... Future research should consider incorporating such post-task questions to more effectively assess these factors. It should also be noted that Experiment 2 was conducted online, rather than under standard, controlled laboratory conditions like Experiments (Beilock & Carr, 2005), reasoning (Gimmig et al., 2006) and decision-making (Byrne et al., 2015). Thus, future work should be aimed as examining how these individual differences may modulate the effect of performance pressure on response inhibition performance. ...
Article
Psychological pressure can exert detrimental effects on cognitive tasks that depend on attentional control. However, the effect of psychological pressure on inhibitory cognitive processes has been relatively overlooked. The study purpose was to examine the effect of psychological pressure on response inhibition. In Experiment 1, participants (N=125) were assigned to a combined time and performance-based incentive pressure condition or control condition. In Experiment 2, participants (N=124) were allocated to a time pressure only or control condition. Participants (N=149) in Experiment 3 were assigned to either an explicit monitoring pressure condition in which their performance was video-recorded or control condition. Participants in all experiments completed a Go/NoGo Task to assess response inhibition performance. Pressure impaired performance in Experiments 1 and 2 but not Experiment 3. The results demonstrate that time pressure, but not explicit monitoring pressure, significantly impairs inhibition accuracy. These findings are consistent with the distraction theory of performance pressure.
... Research has recently been investigating the influence of individual differences on paradoxical performances (Roberts et al., 2013;Byrne et al., 2015;Laborde et al., 2019). Individual differences have been assessed using two approaches: typebased assessments (to categorize individuals as one type or another) or trait-based assessments (to position individuals on a linear continuum). ...
... Recent reviews of choking (Hill et al., 2010) and the yips (Clarke et al., 2015) suggest that more research investigating the role of personality traits as potential predictors, is warranted to identify those individuals more susceptible to yips and choking. To date, limited research has assessed the role of the bigfive and paradoxical performance; with only one paper, to the author's knowledge, investigating this in relation to choking only (Byrne et al., 2015). Byrne et al. (2015) found that lower levels of neuroticism and agreeableness were associated with poor performance during social pressure, and social and time pressure. ...
... To date, limited research has assessed the role of the bigfive and paradoxical performance; with only one paper, to the author's knowledge, investigating this in relation to choking only (Byrne et al., 2015). Byrne et al. (2015) found that lower levels of neuroticism and agreeableness were associated with poor performance during social pressure, and social and time pressure. Byrne et al. (2015) suggested that this provides support for distraction theories such as the attentional control theory (ACT: Eysenck et al., 2007;Eysenck and Derakshan, 2011) whereby finite attentional resources are devoted to ruminative thoughts and thus resources are not available for task relevant stimuli. ...
Article
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The ability to perform under heightened levels of pressures is one of the largest discriminators of those who achieve success in competition and those who do not. There are several phenomena associated with breakdowns in an athlete's performance in a high-pressure environment, collectively known as paradoxical performances. The two most prevalent and researched forms of paradoxical performance are the yips and choking. The aim of the current study is to investigate a range of psychological traits (fear of negative evaluation, individual differences, anxiety sensitivity, self-consciousness, perfectionistic self-presentation, and perfectionism) and their ability to predict susceptibility to choking and the yips in an experienced athlete sample. 155 athletes (Golfers n = 86; Archers n = 69) completed six trait measures and a self-report measure of yips or choking experience. The prevalence rate for choking and yips in both archers and golfers was 67.7 and 39.4%, respectively. A 2 × 2 × 2 MANOVA and discriminant function analysis revealed that a combination of 11 variables correctly classified 71% of choking and non-choking participants. Furthermore, analysis confirmed that a combination of four variables correctly classified 69% of the yips and non-yips affected participants. In this first study to examine both paradoxical performances simultaneously, these findings revealed that for the yips, all predictors stemmed from social sources (i.e., perfectionistic self-presentation), whereas choking was associated with anxiety and perfectionism, as well as social traits. This important distinction identified here should now be tested to understand the role of these traits as development or consequential factors of choking and the yips.
... They are said to have a high level of accuracy in terms of processing market information (Kienzler, 2017), as they can depart from their own beliefs and consider the opinions of others (Chollet et al., 2016;, thereby decreasing the anchoring effect (Caputo, 2014). This accuracy, however, might also imply slower information interpretation (Al-Samarraie et al., 2018), leading to challenges with decision making under pressure (Byrne et al., 2015). ...
... In any case, however, they are assumed to always try to include all information available and not deliberately neglect or misinterpret any source or type. The propositions are therefore as follows: Emotionally stable CEOs are resistant to stress, have a low level of anxiety and a high locus of control, making them less averse to risk (Byrne et al., 2015;Judge and Zapata, 2015). These CEOs also actively seek to challenge the status quo and, due to their high level of creativity, pursue innovation and experimentation, while the development and profit of the company is expected to be their highest goal, but always paired with personal development and new experiences Li et al., 2006;Marcati et al., 2008;. ...
Thesis
The three essays in this dissertation contribute to research on organizational resilience by addressing aspects of technological innovations, collaboration with partners, and the influence of the individual personalities in decision making under uncertainty. Valuable insights for academics and practitioners alike are generated via systematic literature reviews, content analysis, and an embedded multiple-case study. Results of the essays in combination support decision makers of organizations and as part of supply chains in preparing, coping, and finally adapting to disturbances and crises, thus making their companies resilient. Several aspects of what to consider and how to engage with technology and partners are provided that contribute to superior performance when facing a crisis. The first article “On the current state of combining human and artificial intelligence for strategic organizational decision making” uses a systematic literature review combined with content analysis to analyze the role artificial intelligence has in networks when making decisions under uncertainty, defined as strategic decisions. Analyzing a sample of 55 articles based on the framework of traditional decision theory, the possible division of tasks in the resulting human-machine relationship is discussed and the effect on the role definitions of both partners analyzed. The article provides an overview of what current research sees as possible use cases for implementing AI into the strategic decision-making process. This is followed by an analysis of challenges, pre-conditions, and consequences that should be taken into account when opting for AI supported decision making under uncertainty. Findings illustrate that organizational structures, the choice of the specific AI application, and the possibilities to use it for knowledge management are analyzed by research thoroughly. The ethical aspect remains rarely discussed, although most authors mention it to be a crucial foundation for deciding how and for what to use AI in this process. Results also demonstrate that AI has the potential to increase challenges inherent in strategic decision making, implying that the human responsibility and human part becomes even more crucial. Using AI for decisions under uncertainty thus means education for the people involved and a thorough awareness of their own responsibility. The second article “How to successfully mitigate a pandemic as part of a global supply chain? A case study on German small and medium-sized enterprises” expands the focus on the human aspect. It concentrates on the role of collaboration for strategic decision making in times of crisis and with the goal of staying resilient. Using an embedded multiple-case study approach, eight German small and medium-sized enterprises are analyzed over a timeframe of two years. The first interview round took place long before COVID-19 was known in June 2018, while the second and third were executed during the first and second lockdown in 2020. The different touchpoints with interview partners make it possible to analyze which measures such small companies took to become resilient and how they performed during one of the biggest crises the world has seen. The focus on small companies is chosen as they are often claimed to be the driver of economic growth, but at the same time can become dangerous for a supply chain’s resilience when they struggle. They often lack financial resources and access to crucial information, which is why they have to rely on their partners for compensation. The right combination of contractual and relational aspects is thus key for mutually beneficial partnerships and network resilience. According to the interview findings, relational investments are higher with suppliers, while partnerships with customers can also be organized mainly in contracts. Based on transaction cost theory, a framework is developed that demonstrates the possible combinations. This offers insights for practitioners and academics alike, as it demonstrates that even with the best technology, processes, and contracts, the human aspect dominates and plays an important role, especially in uncertain times. This aspect is then further analyzed with the third article “CEO Ignorans: How personality influences strategic decision making and information behavior”. Using a systematic literature review, a sample of 56 articles is clustered into six categories, following the five-factor model of personality and adding narcissism. Databases are analyzed from 2006 to 2021. Based on the assumption that it is economically irrational to deliberately neglect or misinterpret information, especially in times of uncertainty, the six personality types are evaluated according to their tendency to do so. The systematic literature review helps to combine findings from various academic disciplines, thus providing a thorough overview of how a type of personality can either aid making an organization resilient or completely work against it. This is also influenced by the tendency to make decisions intentionally, and thus fact-based, or rather intuitively. Findings show that CEOs who are open to experience or emotionally stable are the ones supporting resilience best, while the others are rather “CEO Ignorans”. For the agreeable CEO, no recommendation can be given, implying that such a personality type should also not be the one making decisions when disturbance is ahead. The results support advisory boards in choosing the right people for the decision-making position in companies, but also further add to the understanding of combining technology and humans with the goal of resilience.
... It was emphasized in the literature that the neuroticism personality trait is also associated with impaired decision-making skills (IGT performance) (Denburg et al., 2009;Hooper et al., 2008;( _ Içellio glu & € Ozden, 2012). In addition, it was found that participants having a high score in neuroticism have worse decision-making than participants with low neuroticism under social pressure (Byrne et al., 2015). Similarly, Cahl ıkov a and Cingl (2017) indicated that decision-making behavior under stress may be related to a neuroticism personality trait. ...
... Similarly, neuroticism negatively affects set-shifting (Eysenck et al., 2005), and individuals with high neuroticism are more likely to have poor decision-making strategies (Denburg et al., 2009;Hooper et al., 2008;_ Içellio glu & € Ozden, 2012). In addition, Byrne et al. (2015) revealed that individuals with high neuroticism have ineffective decisionmaking skills under stress. Consequently, the current study contributed to the literature by determining that neuroticism moderates the negative effect of stress on set-shifting, and that executive function is a stronger predictor of decisionmaking in the low neuroticism condition. ...
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The main goal of the study was to scrutinize mediating and moderating mechanisms identified in line with the predictions of Somatic Marker Hypothesis (SMH) and Dual Process Theory of the effect of acute stress on decision making. The sample group of the research comprised of 61 (31 females, 30 males) healthy university students aged between 18 and 23 (x̄ = 21, SD = 1.28). Data measurement tools were Skin Conductance Response Measurement, Iowa Gambling Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Wechsler Memory Scale-III Spatial Span Subtest, Stroop Test TBAG Form, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Matrix Reasoning Subtest, Stress Rating Scale, The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Big Five Personality Traits Scale, Ways of Coping Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory. The findings indicated that acute stress gives rise to decision-making failures by suppressing the SCR emphasized in SMH and mental processes defined in System 2. Furthermore, neuroticism had a moderating role in the relationship between stress and decision-making. Accordingly, the abovementioned theories cannot separately be sufficient to explain decision-making under stress; but, the predictions of these theories can complement each other to thoroughly make out the physiological and cognitive mechanisms of decision-making.
... The literature on decision making in life choices often focuses on the outcome of the decision and on how the type of choice is linked to some specific individual factors, such as personality, level of stress and anxiety, etc. For example, Lauriola and Levin (2001) demonstrated that people high in openness to experience take more risks than neurotics; neurotics also perform worse in decision making especially when they have to decide under pressure (Byrne et al., 2015), while extraverted people may be too confident in their choices (Schaefer et al., 2004) but also more cooperative and altruistic (Hirsh & Peterson, 2009;Tao et al., 2020). Hartley and Phelps (2012) stressed how anxious individuals' daily decision-making is influenced by their excessive fear and concern. ...
... Several constructs can be interesting for investigating decision making in different life choices' contexts. Many studies in applied psychology show that individuals' attitudes and choices are influenced by personal tendencies or personality traits (Lauriola & Levin, 2001;Byrne et al., 2015). For example, when people make school or career choices, high levels of neuroticism are associated with a less experience of difficulties in making decisions (Gati et al., 2011;Di Fabio & Palazzeschi, 2009). ...
Article
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People often make life choices that will affect their future (e.g. getting married). However, research on decision making focuses more on abstract dilemmas than on decision making. The aim of this study is threefold: to analyze (1) whether people rely mainly on intuitive or rational processing (System 1 or 2) when making life choices; (2) whether some characteristics of recalled life choices (e.g., difficulty in making the decision) differ between life areas (sentimental and work contexts); (3) whether personality traits and System 1 or 2 utilization may predict final satisfaction in life choices. By conducting a cross-sectional study on 188 participants' recall of selected life decisions (in the sentimental and work life areas) we found that System 1 is more involved than System 2 in sentimental choices while the opposite happens for work ones. Lastly, satisfaction in life choices is partially predicted by the involvement of cognitive systems and individual differences, with different predictors emerging across life areas. Discussion suggests directions for future research on naturalistic decision making.
... Eysenck (1959) showed that time limits moderated the association between extraversion and intelligence performance and there is evidence that pressure causes decrements in performance on cognitive and motor tasks (e.g., Beilock & Carr, 2005;Beilock et al., 2004;Masters, 1992). A prominent explanation for these decrements is the distraction hypothesis which proposes that pressure-filled situations distract attention away from the task, leading to poorer performance (Beilock & Carr, 2005;Beilock et al., 2004;Byrne et al., 2015). Byrne et al. (2015) investigated the moderating effects of personality factors on decisionmaking ability and performance under social and combined social and time pressure. ...
... A prominent explanation for these decrements is the distraction hypothesis which proposes that pressure-filled situations distract attention away from the task, leading to poorer performance (Beilock & Carr, 2005;Beilock et al., 2004;Byrne et al., 2015). Byrne et al. (2015) investigated the moderating effects of personality factors on decisionmaking ability and performance under social and combined social and time pressure. They found that neuroticism and agreeableness negatively predicted performance under social pressure and combined social and time pressure. ...
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Previous studies in adults showed heterogeneous results regarding the associations of personality with intelligence and executive functions (EF). In children, there is a lack of studies investigating the relations between personality and EF. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the relations between the Big Five personality traits, EF, and intelligence in a sample of children (Experiment 1) and young adults (Experiment 2). A total of 155 children (Experiment 1, mean age = 9.54 years) and 91 young adults (Experiment 2, mean age = 23.49 years) participated in the two studies. In both studies, participants performed tasks measuring working memory (WM), inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and fluid intelligence and completed a personality questionnaire. In Experiment 1, we found a negative relation between neuroticism and intelligence. In Experiment 2, we found a positive relation between conscientiousness and intelligence and a positive relation between conscientiousness and cognitive flexibility. Our results suggest a complex interplay between personality factors, EF, and intelligence both in children as well as in young adults.
... Several studies had been done to establish the relationship between neuroticism and employees' performance (Judge et al, 1999;Niehoff, 2006;Byrne et al., 2015;Jeronimus et al., 2016). The outcome of these studies show that ISSN: 2548-7583 neuroticism appears consistent negatively not correlated with employees' performance. ...
... Furthermore, on the relationship between neuroticism and employees' job performance, the current study found a non-significant relationship. This finding agrees with previous studies as reported in Judge et al, 1999;Niehoff, 2006;Byrne et al., 2015;Jeronimus et al., 2016). The outcome of these studies show that neuroticism appears consistent negatively not correlated with employees' job performance. ...
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Studies that examined the association between personality traits and employees' job performance in respect of hotels in Lagos State, Nigeria is under reported. The current study therefore filled this research gap. The study adopted a quantitative research design, hence used structured questionnaires to collect data from 332 employees of 63 hotels across the 20 LGAs in Lagos State. Data that were collected was analyzed using Partial Least Squares_SEM. The result show that three of the five tested hypotheses, that is con-scientiousness, openness to experience, and extraversion traits supported job performance in respect of hotels in Lagos State, Nigeria. This implies that exhibition of conscientiousness trait such as been dependable, organized, reliable, ambitious, perseveres and hard-working inclines to enhance job performance in hotel industry in Lagos State. In addition, demonstration of openness to experience attributes such as been original, curious, imaginative, refined, and multifaceted tend to stimulate job performance in hotel industry in Lagos State. Furthermore, displaying extraversion traits such as been sociable, passionate, and bold are essential for job performance in hotels in Lagos State. By confirming the link between personality traits and employees' performance, this study offers an insight on personality traits that stimulate job performance in hotels in Lagos State. Therefore, managers and operators of hotel business in Lagos State can maximize employees' performance in their respective organizations by implementing human resources policies gear towards recruitment of staff that believes in originality, teamwork and team-building including, training of staff to imbibe the culture of forgiveness, and acceptance of others' view. Again, sociable and enthusiasm staff should be assigned to strategic frontline units of the hotel.
... This result could suggest that female offenders who are high on neuroticism were less likely to approach daily challenges and were less confident in their abilities. Another explanation of this could be as prior literature indicated that individuals higher on neuroticism often make impaired decisions when under pressure (Byrne et al., 2015); it is possible that the stressors while on probation/parole could decrease their willingness to approach challenging situations. ...
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Female offenders released from prison often face challenges within the community such as lack of employment, inconsistent attendance in substance use treatment, and complying with parole and probation conditions, which typically decreases their self-efficacy and motivation to refrain from reoffending. Despite this, much is still unknown of psychological factors that could impact female offenders’ attitudes toward self-efficacy, such as mental illness symptoms, Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), and personality differences. Thus, this cross-sectional study explored whether mental illness symptoms, ACEs, and personality differences were associated with attitudes toward self-efficacy ( N = 398). Results suggest that mental illness symptoms, ACEs, and neuroticism negatively associated with attitudes toward self-efficacy in contrast to extraversion and conscientiousness. Parole/probation reentry and therapeutic implications are discussed.
... First, some studies have shown that belief in fake news may be dependent on factors related to individual personality (Talwar et al. 2019;Calvillo et al. 2021a;Szebeni et al. 2021). Other studies have already reported that personality can influence judgment and decisionmaking in a variety of situations (Byrne et al. 2015). While Szebeni et al. (2021) have shown that a propensity for a conspiratorial mindset can make people more vulnerable to misinformation, other studies (Wolverton and Stevens 2019;Sindermann et al. 2020;Calvillo et al. 2021a) seem to agree that extraversion is related to belief in fake news. ...
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Political fake news continues to be a threat to contemporary societies, negatively affecting public and democratic institutions. The literature has identified political bias as one of the main predictors of belief and spread of fake news. However, the academic debate has not been consensual regarding the effect of political identity on the discernment of fake news. This systematic literature review (2017–2021) seeks to understand whether there is consistent evidence that one political identity may be more vulnerable to fake news than others. Focusing the analysis on European and North American (United States) studies, we used Scopus and Web of Science databases to examine the literature. Our findings revealed that most studies are consistent in identifying the conservative or right-wing audience as more vulnerable to fake news. Although there seems to be a motivated political reasoning for both sides, left-wing people or liberals were not, in any analyzed study, associated with a greater propensity to believe in political fake news. Motivated reasoning seems stronger and more active among conservatives, both in the United States and Europe. Our study reinforces the need to intensify the fight against the proliferation of fake news among the most conservative, populist, and radical right audience.
... Differential associations between neuroticism and achievement can be hypothesized depending on the achievement measure, but the direction of the effects is less clear: students who score high in neuroticism might take their schoolwork seriously to prevent mistakes and might strive for perfectionism (Smith et al., 2019). However, neuroticism is also closely related to anxiety, which can have negative effects especially in testing situations where students feel pressure (Byrne et al., 2015). Accordingly, the negative effects of high neuroticism could be especially reflected in standardized tests and final exams. ...
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Cognitive ability is the most powerful predictor of academic achievement. However, increasing attention is being paid to the role of personality traits in students’ academic achievement. Results indicate incremental effects beyond cognitive ability, especially for conscientiousness. Investigating the interplay of conscientiousness and cognitive ability can increase understanding of students’ academic achievement and learning. This study examined whether there are interaction effects of a synergistic or compensatory nature. We applied the approach of integrative data analysis, using four highly powered data sets with a total of 18,637 upper secondary school students in Germany to investigate this research question across four different achievement measures and three educational domains (i.e., school subjects). We used an integrative approach and pooled the results across the four samples to obtain an average estimate of the hypothesized interaction effects. Findings support a small synergistic interaction, indicating that conscientiousness moderates the association between cognitive ability and achievement. This means conscientiousness can enhance the positive effects of cognitive ability. In conclusion, results highlight the role of the type of academic measure used and the domain investigated in understanding how personality and achievement are related, providing evidence of the interplay between effort-related traits such as conscientiousness and cognitive ability.
... Thus, a leader's humanistic approach provides an effective and powerful way through personality colors (Haynes et al., 2015). The leader personality dimension determines the aspects of a decision and determines whether the decision making is centralized or not (Byrne et al., 2015). ...
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This research described the fundamental inspiration behind the implementation of a humanistic approach to the principal's leadership and the steps of the principal's humanistic approach that have an impact on optimizing the implementation of the program for strengthening character education. This research used a qualitative approach, a case study design. The data collection was performed through in-depth interviews, participant observation, and documentation studies to achieve the research objectives. Data analysis used a modified analytic analysis method. The level of credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability was the basis of data validity. The research findings explained that personal excellence (integrity, wholeness, and self-authenticity) and the humanistic spirituality of inspirational figures inspired the principal’s humanistic approach. In addition, the application of the principal's humanistic approach had adequate impacts on optimizing the implementation of a program for strengthening character education and influenced the strengthening of the student's character. Through the principal's humanistic approach, school becomes an environment for empowering the character of the students.
... Based on the research above, it would be reasonable to suggest that the aetiology of the yips in a large proportion of golfers would be primarily psychologically based. The amount of evidence suggesting that a wide range of other psychological factors may contribute to the development of the yips would warrant further investigation -especially as a lot of these results are still inconclusive (Byrne et al., 2015;Klämpfl et al., 2013a;Laborde et al., 2019;Roberts et al., 2013). Despite the contradictory and inconsistent findings in research investigating the yips, one finding in particular appears to be well supported throughout the literature: that older golfers who have played for a longer period of time are more susceptible to developing the yips (Chambers & Marshall, 2017;Dhungana & Jankovic, 2013;McDaniel et al., 1989). ...
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This study attempted to elucidate the effects of perfectionism and anxiety on golf putting performance and the yips by replicating a study from Chambers and Marshall (2017). Using a cross-sectional design, this study had one-hundred and seventeen participants complete an online questionnaire. This was comprised of questions relating to golfing history and included three domain-specific measures for perfectionism (Stöber, Otto, & Stoll, 2004), anxiety (Smith, Smoll, Cumming, & Grossbard, 2006) and putting performance (Chambers & Marshall, 2017). Based on mean handicap, the current sample was significantly more skilled than in the original study (20.5 in the original study versus 9.3 in the current study), yet results revealed 34.2% of participants had been affected by the yips at some point in their golfing life. Furthermore, results from the hierarchical regression analyses indicated that those who had higher levels of anxiety and higher levels of maladaptive perfectionism reported greater disruption to putting performance. Those who reported experiencing the yips did not necessarily report higher scores on the anxiety and perfectionism measures. However, anxiety did mediate the influence of perfectionism on putting performance, as in the original study from Chambers and Marshall (2017). These findings add support to the idea that anxiety and perfectionism can affect performance, however further research is needed to understand their influence on the manifestation of the yips.
... Although many of the results presented here are largely cross-sectional, they are consistent with previous experimental research showing how personality traits can causally affect decision making, the choice of goals, rewards, interpersonal interactions, communication, and ethical behavior-all actions that when undertaken by senior leaders that can signal to others what is important and how to behave (e.g., Byrne, Silasi-Mansat & Worthy, 2015;Podolny, Khurana & Hill-Popper, 2005;Simha & Parboteeah, 2020). Despite abundant evidence showing that personality is a stable precursor to a variety of work outcomes (Barrick & Mount, 2005), some researchers may contend that personality is less relevant in organizational settings where individual behaviors are highly constrained by institutional, cultural, and structural factors (e.g., Davis-Blake & Pfeffer, 1989). ...
... This includes how they behave and relate to others prior to, during, and after competition, and how they present themselves as a referee. Personality can also have an impact on an individual's ability to make and execute decisions (Byrne, Silasi-Mansat, & Worthy, 2015), to deal with stress (Kaiseler, Polman, & Nicholls, 2012), but also to be patient and resilient in the face of aggressive behavior (Devís-Devís, Serrano-Durá, & Molina, 2021; Wolfson & Neave, 2007). Despite these findings and the question already raised as to which psychological characteristics are required for officiating (Livingston et al., 2017), it is surprising that the personality profile of amateur referees has been almost completely neglected in research to date. ...
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Referees play a central role in competitive sport. Particularly in amateur sport, referees contribute significantly to making participation in sport possible for the masses. However, considering that every referee’s career starts at the grassroots level, it is very surprising that there has been no research on the personality traits of amateur referees so far. The current state of research indicates that personality is an essential component of the requirement profile of referees. Personality has been associated with job performance, particularly with regard to resilience and coping with pressure. Personality also affects effective game management in terms of influencing actions in the game in a preventative and proactive manner. This study, therefore, examines the personality profile of amateur handball referees ( n = 582) for the first time using the German version of the Big Five Inventory 2 (BFI-2). Current data from German handball referees at the expert level and the German general population were used to compare and discuss the results. Except for lower scores in the domain of extraversion and the facets of sociability and energy level as well as a higher score in the facet of aesthetic sensitivity, amateur referees did not differ significantly from expert referees. In relation to the general population, the results indicate that handball referees, regardless of performance level, have higher scores in assertiveness, emotional stability, and responsibility. Our findings create awareness of personality traits in handball refereeing and illustrate the applied relevance of personality research, e.g., for coaching or recruitment activities.
... The skills and knowledge of critical care nurses may be directed towards health promotion, prevention, crisis intervention, maintenance, rehabilitation restoration or palliation in care of critically ill patients. Critical care nurses maintain professional competence through on going education, research and skill development and strive to provide evidenced-based practice through promotion of research within their specialty areas (Byrne, 2015). ...
... Individuals can be affected by work stress, occupational stress, and time stress, among others (e.g. Verplanken, 1993;Maule et al., 2000;Byrne et al., 2015). Studies on gender differences suggest that women experience more work stress (Lowe and Northcott, 1988;Spielberger and Reheiser, 1994;Huang and Fraser, 2009;Slišković and Maslać Seršić, 2011) and time pressure (Mattingly and Sayer, 2006) than men for the same type of occupation. ...
... It is in this setting that physicians need to act swiftly and calmly under time pressure [25]. A lower level of neuroticism would evidently be an advantage for dealing with stress and uncertainty in such moments [40,41]. Similarly, a higher level of extraversion as the expression of being comfortable in taking center stage, and being able to have a clear and open communication in a moment of information overload would also be an advantage [40]. ...
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Background: The management of an obstetric emergency is a complex phenomenon during which the team’s resilience and success will also be dependent on the diversity of individuals and the variation of their responses. Such differences can be explained through personality traits. The objectives of this study are I) to compare the personality traits of obstetricians and gynecologists with those of the general population and II) to examine the relationship between obstetricians’ and gynecologists’ personality traits, cognitive ability, clinical experience, sex and three decision-making styles (Individual, Team and Flow) during obstetric emergencies. Methods: Obstetricians and gynecologists, members of the Swedish Society for Obstetrics and Gynecology (n = 472) responded to an online questionnaire that included a simplified version of the Five Factor Model questionnaire (IPIP-NEO-30), a spatial ability test (ICAR) and 15 general questions about decision-making during obstetric emergencies relating to three decision-making styles (Individual, Team and Flow). A control cohort (N = 1943) from the general Swedish population was used. The data was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation analysis and multiple linear regression. Results: Swedish obstetricians and gynecologists scored (P < 0.001) lower on neuroticism (d = – 1.08) and higher on extraversion (d = 0.80), agreeableness (d = 1.00) and conscientiousness (d = 0.95) compared to the general population. Both Individual and Team decision-making styles correlated with work experience (r = 0.30 / – 0.23), and neuroticism (r = – 0.28 / 0.15) while Flow correlated with openness (r = 0.11). Multiple linear regression showed personality traits, cognitive ability, clinical experience, sex, and age had a cumulative effect on decision-making (F (9,419) = 10.20, P < 0.001, R² = 0.18). Conclusions: Swedish obstetricians and gynecologists have a specific personality profile. Personality traits affect decision-making during obstetric emergencies. The assessment of medical errors in obstetric emergencies and their prevention through individualized training should take account of these findings.
... Decision-making style is an important factor affecting behavior in many fields, such as career development (Mau, 1995;Tinsley et al., 2002;Paivandy et al., 2008), team effectiveness (Verma et al., 2016), school choice (Ueichi et al., 2012), consumption (Zhu et al., 2012), traffic safety (Ju et al., 2019), medical care (Spalding and Edelstein, 2021), and gambling (Cosenza et al., 2019). At the same time, decision-making style is closely related to personality traits (Byrne et al., 2015;Wise et al., 2015;Iennaco et al., 2018;Farcic et al., 2020). ...
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In recent years, somatosensory interaction technology, represented by Microsoft’s Kinect hardware platform, has been widely used in various fields, such as entertainment, education, and medicine. Kinect technology can easily capture and record behavioral data, which provides new opportunities for behavioral and psychological correlation analysis research. In this paper, an automatic decision-style recognition method is proposed. Experiments involving 240 subjects were conducted to obtain face data and individual decision-making style score. The face data was obtained using the Kinect camera, and the decision-style score were obtained via a questionnaire. To realize automatic recognition of an individual decision-making style, machine learning was employed to establish the mapping relationship between the face data and a scaled evaluation of the decision-making style score. This study adopts a variety of classical machine learning algorithms, including Linear regression, Support vector machine regression, Ridge regression, and Bayesian ridge regression. The experimental results show that the linear regression model returns the best results. The correlation coefficient between the linear regression model evaluation results and the scale evaluation results was 0.6, which represents a medium and higher correlation. The results verify the feasibility of automatic decision-making style recognition method based on facial analysis.
... Personality traits can affect people's judgment in a variety of situations (e.g., Byrne et al., 2015), implying that also other psychological predispositions than those associated with conservatism could be relevant for the ability to accurately judge news headlines. Those with a pronounced need for cognitive closure have been described as striving to eliminate uncertainty (Webster and Kruglanski, 1997), form judgments swiftly on a given issue (Kruglanski et al., 1991) and show less informationseeking behavior (e.g., Klein and Webster, 2000). ...
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Accessing information online is now easier than ever. However, also false information is circulated in increasing quantities. We sought to identify social psychological factors that could explain why some people are more susceptible to false information. Specifically, we investigated whether psychological predispositions (social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, system justification beliefs (SJB), openness, need for closure, conspiracy mentality), competencies (scientific and political knowledge, interest in politics) or motivated reasoning based on social identity (political orientation) could help explain who believes fake news. Hungarian participants ( N = 295) judged political (anti- and pro-government) and non-political news. The Hungarian context—characterized by low trust in media, populist communication by the government and increasing polarization—should be fertile ground for the proliferation of fake news. The context in making this case particularly interesting is that the major political fault line in Hungary runs between pro- and anti-government supporter groups and not, for instance, between conservative and liberal ideology or partisanship. We found clear support for the motivational reasoning explanation as political orientation consistently predicted belief in both fake and real political news when their contents aligned with one’s political identity. The belief in pro-government news was also associated with higher SJB among pro-government supporters. Those interested in politics showed better capacity to distinguish real political news from the fake ones. Most importantly, the only psychological predisposition that consistently explained belief in all types of fake news was a conspiracy mentality. This supports the notion of ideological symmetry in fake news belief—where a conspiracy mentality can be found across the political spectrum, and it can make people susceptible to disinformation regardless of group-memberships and other individual differences.
... In personality characteristic, female students were more inclined to be more neurotic and agreeable than males. Studies had shown that scores on neuroticism in female students were higher than that in males, and students with high levels of neuroticism were more likely to perceive threats and produce instability mood (52,53). On the contrary, male students are more responsible and open than females. ...
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Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related quarantine has had unique psychological challenges for medical students, particularly loneliness. In this study, we demonstrated the patterns and predictors of loneliness in medical students since post-lockdown to new normal with COVID-19. Methods: A convenience sampling method was used in this study. Face-to-face online questionnaires of UCLA Loneliness Scale and psychological characteristics scales were completed by 1,478 participants. Latent profile analysis and multinominal logistic regressions were performed. Results: Three latent profile models were identified in this study: low loneliness (52.3%), interpersonal sensitivity loneliness (3.5%), and high loneliness (44.1%). Sophomore (Est = 1.937; p < 0.05) and junior students (Est = 2.939; p < 0.05), neuroticism (Est = 2.475; p < 0.05), high arousal symptoms (Est = 2.618; p < 0.01), and the quality of support from friends (Est = 2.264; p < 0.05) were the risk factors for high loneliness profile. In addition, sophomore (Est = 2.065; p < 0.05) and junior students (Est = 2.702; p < 0.01), openness (Est = 2.303; p < 0.05), and conscientiousness personality (Est = −2.348; p < 0.05) were the predictors of an interpersonal sensitive loneliness profile. Good peer relationship (Est = −2.266; p < 0.05) and other support (Est = −2.247; p < 0.05) were protective factors for low loneliness profile. Limitations: Participants were selected from one medical university; the generalizability is limited. Conclusions: Timely loneliness-focused interventions should be targeted on the different profiles and predictors of loneliness in medical students.
... In addition, we also asked how these tendencies are related to personality (specifically neuroticism and extraversion) and self-rumination. These variables were measured in this study because all of them seem to play a role in decision-making (Byrne, Silasi-Mansat & Worthy, 2015;Lauriola & Levin, 2001;Dewberry, Juanchich & Narendran, 2013;van Randenborgh, de Jong-Meyer & Hüffmeier, 2009), while neuroticism and extraversion were analyzed in previous studies focused on maximizing as well as satisficing (e.g., Weinhardt et al., 2012;Dalal et al., 2015;Misuraca et al., 2015;Purvis, Howell & Iyer, 2011;Miceli et al., 2018). ...
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There is a lively debate about the effect of maximizing and satisficing tendencies on well-being. The question is, whether maximizing and satisficing have an adaptive or maladaptive effect on well-being. There are also issues regarding the conceptu-alization and measurement of maximizing and satisficing tendencies. In a sample of 514 subjects from the general population in Slovakia, a two-component model of maximizing was examined. Satisficing tendency was measured as a separate construct. The results show the usefulness of a two-component model (maximizing as a strategy and maximizing as a goal) in measuring maximizing tendency. Maximizing as a strategy (measured as alternative search) turned out to be maladaptive (positively related to depression and negatively related to happiness), whereas maximizing as a goal (measured as high standards) had no maladaptive effect (no relation with well-being). In addition, the two components were differently associated with personality factors, which strengthens the need to distinguish between them. However, the satisficing tendency measured separately from maximizing tendency was not related to anything which raises a question about the conceptualization and validity of this tendency. The results of the current study, therefore, indicate that the (mal)adaptive effect of these tendencies depends on their conceptualization as well as on how these tendencies are measured, and also on their different relationship with personality factors. However, results also point to the importance of considering the cultural context that may have an effect on the relationship between maximizing and well-being. Therefore, the results may vary due to different cultures.
... Personality is an influential factor in decision-making processes and varies from individual to individual (Byrne et al. 2015). Khan, Ahmed and Hussain (2019) analysed the bullwhip effect using the personality trait approach through the beer game and a questionnaire and noted a negative relationship between conscientiousness and the bullwhip effect. ...
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The bullwhip effect, also known as demand information amplification, is one of the principal obstacles in supply chains. In recent decades, extensive studies have explored its operational causes and have proposed corresponding solutions in the context of production inventory and supply chain systems. However, the underlying assumption of these studies is that human decision-making is always rational. Yet, this is not always the case, and an increasing number of recent studies have argued that behavioural and psychological factors play a key role in generating the bullwhip effect in real-world supply chains. Given the prevalence of such research, the main objective of this study is to provide a systematic literature review on the bullwhip effect from the behavioural operations perspective. Using databases, including Scopus, Wiley Online Library, Google Scholar and Science Direct, we selected, summarised and analysed 53 academic studies. We find that most studies build their models and simulations based on the ‘beer distribution game’ and analyse the results at the individual level. We also demonstrate the importance of studying human factors in the bullwhip effect through adapting Sterman’s double-loop learning model. Based on this model, we categorise and analyse the behavioural factors that have been studied and identify the explored behavioural factors for future research. Based on our findings, we suggest that future studies could consider social and cultural influences on decision-making in studying the bullwhip effect. In addition, further aspects of human mental models that cause this effect can be explored.
... Pemimpin tidak hanya diidentifikasi oleh gaya kepemimpinan, tetapi juga oleh aspek kepribadian, yakni kesadaran tentang diri sendiri dan orang lain, dan apresiasi terhadap keragaman, fleksibilitas, dan paradoks. Sifat-sifat kepribadian pemimpin mempengaruhi kinerja pekerjaan dan memberikan cara yang efektif dan kuat dalam pengambilan keputusan (Blickle, Meurs, Wihler, et al., 2015;Haynes, Hitt, & Campbell, 2015;Byrne, Silasi-Mansat, & Worthy, 2015). Spiritualitas humanis yang dihidupkan di lingkungan sekolah merupakan bentuk perasaan kerja tertentu yang memberi energi aksi (roh yang menggerakan) (Dehler & Welsh, 1994). ...
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This study aims to describe the reasons for applying the cultural, humanistic, and nationalism approaches by principals in supporting transformational leadership behavior. In addition, to explore the steps of the principal's transformational leadership role based on three forms of approach in the implementation of character education strengthening programs. This study used a qualitative approach, a case study design. Data collection through in-depth interviews, participant observation, and learn documentation. Data analysis used a modified analytic analysis method. The level of credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability examines the validity of the data. The research findings explain that culture or tradition greatly influences the school environment, personal excellence, and encouragement to revive the humanistic spiritual inspirational figure, as well as the image of the school foundation managed by the Military unit, Kodam V-Brawijaya, being the basic reason that inspires the principal to use a cultural, humanistic approach, and nationalism. Besides that the steps of the principal's transformational leadership role based on cultural, humanistic, and nationalism approaches have an effective effect in optimizing the implementation of character education strengthening in schools.
... The first objective of the present study was to examine how personality factors are related to news discernment. Given that personality factors influence an individual's judgments across a variety of tasks (e. g., Byrne et al., 2015;Lauriola & Levin, 2001), it is plausible that they also influence judgments of news headlines. Fake news is a specific form of misinformation. ...
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The existence of fake news on social media is likely to influence important issues such as elections, attitudes toward public policy, and health care decisions. Studies have shown that individual differences predict participants' ability to discern real and fake news. The present study examined whether personality factors and news consumption predict an individual's political news discernment. Participants (N = 353) judged the accuracy of true and false political news headlines, completed a personality inventory, and reported how many hours they obtained political news from various sources in a typical week. Regression analyses revealed that greater levels of agreeableness, conscientiousness, open-mindedness, lower levels of extraversion, and fewer hours of news consumption were related to better news discernment. Participants also showed a bias toward headlines consistent with their self-reported political ideology, and this bias was related to consumption of ideologically biased news sources. These results extend those that have identified individual differences in news discernment, demonstrating that personality factors and news consumption are related to the ability to discern between true and false political news.
... We argue that time pressure is an important component of daily hassles. Byrne et al. (2015) found that individuals high in neuroticism performed worse in a decisionmaking task than individuals low in neuroticism when confronted with both social pressure and time pressure. An explanation of why neuroticism moderates the relationship between stressful events and emotional distress may be that maladaptive coping strategies are adopted. ...
... Pemimpin tidak hanya diidentifikasi oleh gaya kepemimpinan, tetapi juga oleh aspek kepribadian, yakni kesadaran tentang diri sendiri dan orang lain, dan apresiasi terhadap keragaman, fleksibilitas, dan paradoks. Sifat-sifat kepribadian pemimpin mempengaruhi kinerja pekerjaan dan memberikan cara yang efektif dan kuat dalam pengambilan keputusan (Blickle, Meurs, Wihler, et al., 2015;Haynes, Hitt, & Campbell, 2015;Byrne, Silasi-Mansat, & Worthy, 2015). Spiritualitas humanis yang dihidupkan di lingkungan sekolah merupakan bentuk perasaan kerja tertentu yang memberi energi aksi (roh yang menggerakan) (Dehler & Welsh, 1994). ...
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendekripsikan alasan diterapkan pendekatan budaya, humanistik, dan nasionalisme oleh kepala sekolah dalam mendukung perilaku kepemimpinan transformasional. Selain itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendalami langkah-langkah peran kepemimpinan transformasional kepala sekolah berbasis tiga bentuk pendekatan dalam pelaksanaan program penguatan pendidikan karakter. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif, dengan desain studi kasus. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui wawancara mendalam, observasi partisipan, dan studi dokumentasi. Analisis data menggunakan teknik analisis analitik yang dimodifikasi. Validitas data berdasarkan tingkat kredibilitas, transferabilitas, dependabilitas, dan konfirmabilitas. Temuan penelitian menjelaskan bahwa lingkungan sekolah yang kuat dipengaruhi oleh budaya dan tradisi, keunggulan pribadi pemimpin dan dorongan untuk menghidupkan kembali spiritualitas humanis figur inspiratif, serta citra yayasan sekolah yang dikelola oleh satuan Militer, Kodam V-Brawijaya Malang, menjadi alasan dasar kepala sekolah menerapkan pendekatan budaya, humanistik, dan nasionalisme. Selain itu langkah-langkah peran kepemimpinan transformasional kepala sekolah berbasis pendekatan budaya, humanistik, dan nasionalisme berdampak efektif dalam mengotimalkan pelaksanaan penguatan pendidikan karakter di sekolah. Kata kunci: kepemimpinan transformasional, pendekatan kepala sekolah, penguatan pendidikan karakter
... It represents the farmers' motivation to comply with the information provided by early warning providers and agencies. Many studies have suggested that the personality of landholders has a major influence on their decision making (e.g., Byrne et al., 2015;Hirsh et al., 2008 ...
Article
Drought is a persistent, sluggish natural disaster in developing countries that has generated a financial burden and an unstable climate. Farmers should adopt early warning systems (EWS) in their strategies for monitoring drought to reduce its serious consequences. However, farmers in developing countries are reluctant to use EWS as their management strategies. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the decision of farmers to use climate knowledge through the model of farming activity in Kermanshah Township, Iran. A surveyor questionnaire was used to gather data from 370 wheat farmers using random sampling methods in multi-stage clusters. Results revealed that the decision to use climate information is affected by personal factors, attitude towards climate information, objectives of using climate information, and external/physical farming factors. The result of this study has implications for drought management practitioners. To be specific, the results can aid policymakers to design early alert programs to minimize the risk of drought and thus move from conventional to climate smart agriculture.
... Thus, a leader's humanistic approach provides an effective and powerful way through personality colors (Haynes et al., 2015). The leader personality dimension determines the aspects of a decision and determines whether the decision making is centralized or not (Byrne et al., 2015). ...
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Full-text available
This research described the fundamental inspiration behind the implementation of a humanistic approach to the principal's leadership and the steps of the principal's humanistic approach that have an impact on optimizing the implementation of the program for strengthening character education. This research used a qualitative approach, a case study design. The data collection was performed through in-depth interviews, participant observation, and documentation studies to achieve the research objectives. Data analysis used a modified analytic analysis method. The level of credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability was the basis of data validity. The research findings explained that personal excellence (integrity, wholeness, and self-authenticity) and the humanistic spirituality of inspirational figures inspired the principal’s humanistic approach. In addition, the application of the principal's humanistic approach had adequate impacts on optimizing the implementation of a program for strengthening character education and influenced the strengthening of the student's character. Through the principal's humanistic approach, school becomes an environment for empowering the character of the students.
... al., 2015). Dimensi kepribadian pemimpin menentukan aspek keputusan dan memutuskan apakah pengambilan keputusan terpusat atau tidak (Byrne et al., 2015). Selain keunggulan pribadi, inspirasi dasar yang mendorong kedua kepala sekolah menggunakan pendekatan humanistik karena dorongan untuk menghidupkan kembali spiritualitas humanistik tokoh pendiri kongregasi yang mengelola sekolah. ...
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Penelitian ini mendeskripsikan inspirasi mendasar di balik penerapan pendekatan humanistik kepemimpinan kepala sekolah dan langkah-langkah pendekatan humanistik kepala sekolah yang berdampak pada optimalisasi pelaksanaan program penguatan pendidikan karakter. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan desain studi kasus. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui wawancara mendalam dengan 44 informan yang tersebar di dua sekolah, observasi partisipan, dan studi dokumentasi untuk mencapai tujuan penelitian. Analisis data menggunakan metode analisis analitik yang dimodifikasi. Tingkat kredibilitas, transferabilitas, dependabilitas, dan konfirmabilitas menjadi dasar validitas data. Hasil penelitian menjelaskan bahwa keunggulan pribadi (integritas, keutuhan, dan keaslian diri) dan spiritualitas humanistik tokoh-tokoh inspiratif menginspirasi pendekatan humanistik kepala sekolah. Selain itu, penerapan pendekatan humanistik kepala sekolah berdampak pada optimalisasi pelaksanaan program penguatan pendidikan karakter dan berpengaruh pada penguatan karakter siswa. Penelitian ini secara empiris memberikan harapan baru bagi guru, pegawai, siswa, dan orang tua siswa di tingkat SMP, melalui penerapan pendekatan humanistik kepala sekolah. Temuan ini berimplikasi, dimana melalui pendekatan humanistik, kepala sekolah semakin terbuka untuk menghargai partisipasi dan memandang guru, pegawain, dan orang tua sebagai manusia yang memiliki kesetaraan dalam membangun kerjasama. Dengan demikian, melalui pendekatan humanistik kepala sekolah keberadaan lingkungan sekolah menjadi tempat pemberdayaan pembelajaran, dan pembentukan nilai-nilai kemanusiaan yang perlu dijunjung tinggi.
... Роль п'яти особистісних факторів у прийнятті рішень чітко визначена. Зокрема, високий "нейротизм" погіршує ефективність прийняття рішень в умовах ситуативного тиску [14], "сумлінність" позитивно впливає на здатність залишатись зосередженим на вирішенні завдань, але негативно пов'язана із здатністю використовувати навички прийняття рішень в завданнях іншого типу [38]. Відкритість та екстраверсія позитивно пов'язані з прийняттям спонтанних та інтуїтивних рішень, а "доброзичливість" пов'язана із вагомістю соціального впливу на прийняття рішень [36]. ...
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This article examines the study of decision-making dispositions of substance addicts. The input study model included 21 disposition, that could be categorized as: decision-making styles, personal dispositions and time perspective profile. The study sample consisted of 60 individuals with diagnosed substance addiction. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) method was used to identify interconnections between decision making dispositions. Four factors of the decision-making process were identified and described: “stress interference”, “stimulation focus”, “spontaneity”, “reflexivity”. The results have been compared with the most common concepts of decision making, particularly, with a two-component decision-making system, and revealed the specifics of the decision-making process of substance addicts not only through individual dispositions but also from a systematic perspective.
... There is a great variability of human behaviour in response to uncertainty. It is well documented that personality influences decision preferences and actions (Byrne, Silasi-Mansat & Worthy, 2015;Sutin & Costa, 2010;Hirsh, Morisano, & Petersen, 2008). In high-risk environments, such as in commercial aviation, individuals often have to make critical decisions under uncertainty and time pressure without compromising safety. ...
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Personality has an important influence on the variability in human decision making. Little is known whether intensive training and a highly-procedural environment can alleviate the influence of personality on decision making. Here, we address this issue by investigating the influence of impulsivity as personality factor on decision making among airline pilots. We showed that impulsivity modulated pilots' indecisiveness in uncertain decision scenarios as well as pilots' self-reported compliance to airline guidelines in real life. This result suggests that the personality factor impulsivity is a profound trait that continues to have an influence through intensive training and highly-procedural decision situations.
... Conceptualizing mental accounting as a trait brings up the question whether and how it is related to other psychological traits such as the five characteristics described in the most prominent taxonomy of personality. The so-called Big Five (e.g., McAdams and Pals, 2006) include the traits extraversion or surgency (talkative, assertive, and energetic), agreeableness (good-natured, cooperative, and trustful), conscientiousness (orderly, responsible, and dependable), emotional stability vs. neuroticism (calm, not neurotic, and not easily upset), and intellect or openness (intellectual, imaginative, and independentminded; John and Srivastava, 1999, p. 105). 1 Although these traits have not yet been linked to mental accounting theory, their concepts have already been applied in many other areas of decision research as, for instance, in explaining risk taking (Nicholson et al., 2005;Pinjisakikool, 2018), framing effects (Levin et al., 2002), anchoring effects (McElroy and Dowd, 2007), overconfidence (Schaefer et al., 2004), discounting of delayed rewards (Hirsh et al., 2008), and decisions under social and time pressure (Byrne et al., 2015). The traits extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, and openness were found to be associated with an intuitive decision style, and emotional stability and conscientiousness were associated with a deliberate style (Betsch, 2004). ...
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Individual differences in mental accounting have rarely been studied, and empirical evidence regarding the relation between mental accounting and personality characteristics is scarce. The present paper reports three studies applying a Likert-type scale to assess the extent individuals engage in mental accounting practices. In each study, the five items of the measure loaded on a single dimension and had acceptable reliability, with a Cronbach’s α between 0.72 and 0.77. Study 1 (N = 165) regards the mental processing of prior losses in the theater-ticket problem (Tversky and Kahneman, 1981). Study 2 (N = 114) is based on prior work on income source effects (Fogel, 1997) and analyzes mental accounting of prior gains. In both studies, individual differences in mental accounting moderated the effects of the experimental treatments. In an explorative survey conducted for Study 3 (N = 373), the extent of engaging in mental accounting was found to be positively correlated with being female, with conscientiousness, and financial literacy, and negatively related with education and non-planning impulsivity. Identification of individual differences and their correlates adds to existing evidence for some of the core assumptions of mental accounting theory. A practical implication of the findings is that providers of financial services must take individual differences into account when designing trainings and supportive tools for money management.
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Individuals with high math anxiety demonstrated smaller working memory spans, especially when assessed with a computation-based span task. This reduced working memory capacity led to a pronounced increase in reaction time and errors when mental addition was performed concurrently with a memory load task. The effects of the reduction also generalized to a working memory-intensive transformation task. Overall, the results demonstrated that an individual difference variable, math anxiety, affects on-line performance in math-related tasks and that this effect is a transitory disruption of working memory. The authors consider a possible mechanism underlying this effect - disruption of central executive processes - and suggest that individual difference variables like math anxiety deserve greater empirical attention, especially on assessments of working memory capacity and functioning.
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We examined the role of working memory (WM) in dynamic decision making by having participants perform decision-making tasks under single-task or dual-task conditions. In 2 experiments participants performed dynamic decision-making tasks in which they chose 1 of 2 options on each trial. The decreasing option always gave a larger immediate reward but caused future rewards for both options to decrease. The increasing option always gave a smaller immediate reward but caused future rewards for both options to increase. In each experiment we manipulated the reward structure such that the decreasing option was the optimal choice in 1 condition and the increasing option was the optimal choice in the other condition. Behavioral results indicated that dual-task participants selected the immediately rewarding decreasing option more often, and single-task participants selected the increasing option more often, regardless of which option was optimal. Thus, dual-task participants performed worse on 1 type of task but better on the other type. Modeling results showed that single-task participants' data were most often best fit by a win-stay, lose-shift (WSLS) rule-based model that tracked differences across trials, and dual-task participants' data were most often best fit by a Softmax reinforcement learning model that tracked recency-weighted average rewards for each option. This suggests that manipulating WM load affects the degree to which participants focus on the immediate versus delayed consequences of their actions and whether they employ a rule-based WSLS strategy, but it does not necessarily affect how well people weigh the immediate versus delayed benefits when determining the long-term utility of each option. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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An interactionist principle of trait activation is proposed, emphasizing situation trait relevance (i.e., opportunity for trait expression) as a moderator of trait–behavior relations and cross-situational consistency (CSC). One hundred fifty-six students completed trait measures and expressed intentions in 10 scenarios targeted to each of five traits (e.g., risk taking). Trait–intention correlations within scenario sets were themselves correlated with mean situation trait relevance ratings provided by 26 proficient judges; CSCs in intentions (45 correlations per trait) were correlated with an index of shared trait relevance in situation pairs. In support of trait activation, (a) trait–intention relations for three traits were higher in more relevant situations (e.g., second-order r = .66 for risk taking) and (b) CSCs were higher in scenarios jointly high in targeted trait relevance (e.g., second-order r = .55 for risk taking). Discussion highlights applications of trait activation in diverse research domains.
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Poor performance in pressure-filled situations, or "choking under pressure," has largely been explained by two different classes of theories. Distraction theories propose that choking occurs because attention needed to perform the task at hand is coopted by task-irrelevant thoughts and worries. Explicit monitoring theories claim essentially the opposite-that pressure prompts individuals to attend closely to skill processes in a manner that disrupts execution. Although both mechanisms have been shown to occur in certain contexts, it is unclear when distraction and/or explicit monitoring will ultimately impact performance. The authors propose that aspects of the pressure situation itself can lead to distraction and/or explicit monitoring, differentially harming skills that rely more or less on working memory and attentional control. In Experiments 1-2, it is shown that pressure that induces distraction (involving performance-contingent outcomes) hurts rule-based category learning heavily dependent on attentional control. In contrast, pressure that induces explicit monitoring of performance (monitoring by others) hurts information-integration category learning thought to run best without heavy demands on working memory and attentional control. In Experiment 3, the authors leverage knowledge about how specific types of pressure impact performance to design interventions to eliminate choking. Finally, in Experiment 4, the selective effects of monitoring-pressure are replicated in a different procedural-based task: the serial reaction time task. Skill failure (and success) depends in part on how the performance environment influences attention and the extent to which skill execution depends on explicit attentional control.
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The concept of risk propensity has been the subject of both theoretical and empirical investigation, but with little consensus about its definition and measurement. To address this need, a new scale assessing overall risk propensity in terms of reported frequency of risk behaviours in six domains was developed and applied: recreation, health, career, finance, safety and social. The paper describes the properties of the scale and its correlates: demographic variables, biographical self‐reports, and the NEO PI‐R, a Five Factor personality inventory (N = 2041). There are three main results. First, risk propensity has clear links with age and sex, and with objective measures of career‐related risk taking (changing jobs and setting up a business). Second, the data show risk propensity to be strongly rooted in personality. A clear Big Five pattern emerges for overall risk propensity, combining high extraversion and openness with low neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. At the subscale level, sensation‐seeking surfaces as a key important component of risk propensity. Third, risk propensity differs markedly in its distribution across job types and business sectors. These findings are interpreted as indicating that risk takers are of three non‐exclusive types: stimulation seekers, goal achievers, and risk adapters. Only the first group is truly risk seeking, the others are more correctly viewed as risk bearers. The implications for risk research and management are discussed.
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We extend previous work examining the effects of pressure on category learning to the effects of pressure on categorization performance in highly trained individuals. After extensive training on either a rule-based or an information-integration classification task, half of the participants performed the same task on a fifth day while under pressure to earn a monetary bonus ($50) for themselves and a partner. Performance of this group was compared with that of a low-pressure control group who performed without the pressure manipulation. Pressure caused performance decrements both for experienced classifiers performing rule-based tasks and for those performing information-integration tasks, as compared with control groups. These results contrast with those of previous research, where inexperienced classifiers choked on rule-based tasks but excelled on information-integration tasks. An additional "superpressure" block of trials was given at the end of the fifth session. Under this type of pressure, participants performing an information-integration task outperformed those performing rule-based tasks. Implications for theories of choking under pressure are discussed.
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Narcissists consider themselves to be exceptional performers, but past research has found no consistent relationship between narcissism and performance. The present research tested the hypothesis that the relationship between subclinical narcissism and performance is moderated by a motivational factor: perceived self-enhancement opportunity. Four experiments were conducted, each using different manipulations of self-enhancement opportunity and different performance tasks. In each study, narcissists performed better when self-enhancement opportunity was high rather than low. In contrast, the performance of participants with low narcissism was relatively unaffected by self-enhancement opportunity. Other findings suggested that narcissists' self-enhancement motivation stems more from a desire to garner admiration than from a desire to self-evaluate. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
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The Big Five Inventory: Versions 4a and 54, Institute of personality and social research
  • O P John
  • E M Donahue
  • R L Kentle
John, OP., Donahue, EM., Kentle, RL. The Big Five Inventory: Versions 4a and 54, Institute of personality and social research. University of California; Berkeley, CA.: 1991.