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Masculinities: Football, Polo and Tango in Argentina

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... The case of hybridisation from South America is an illustration. Millions of people immigrated from all over the planet to South America, a situation that opened for creative hybridisation (Archetti 1999, Papastergiadis 1997. The hybrid is defined as the "creation of a pseudo-species as a result of the combination of two discrete species" (Archetti 1999:25). ...
... That spectator violence has been an apex of focus is reflected within the British and Italian research tradition (see for example Giulianotti, Bonney & Hepworth 1994). But the attempt to understand football fandom has also focused on the meaning of locality, moreover, on how fans make use of football to express ethnic and national identity (Sugden & Tomlinson 1994, Goksøyr 1994, MacClancy 1996b, Hughson 1997, Tuastad 1997, Archetti 1999, Giulianotti 1999b). ...
... Thus, implying football has been a male dominated cosmos free of female virtues. This implies that masculinities have been expressed through fan identity, rendering male virtues such as vigour, assertiveness and stamina (for examples, see Holt 1989, Archetti 1999. In contrast to this, how does this thesis differ and converge from the mentioned studies and approaches? ...
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Thesis part of master’s degree in social anthropology. The thesis explores the meaning of commercialization in football and its local effect among a group FC Barcelona supports called Dracs. The thesis is based on a nine months fieldwork carried out in 2002.
... It has been played by women since at least 1923, when the first women's club, Río de la Plata, was founded in Buenos Aires, consisting of three teams, two of which played against each other at the Boca Juniors ground in October that year (Pujol, 2019: 265-74;Elsey and Nadel, 2019: 28-29). During the same decade, football became closely linked to notions of masculinity and national identity and numerous respected studies of football in Argentina over recent decades have focused exclusively on the men's game while overlooking entirely the presence of women's football (Archetti, 1994(Archetti, , 1999Frydenberg, 2011). In doing so, they have perpetuated and augmented the myth of the national game as a male domain while symbolically excluding female players from arguably the most significant mode of national discourse. ...
... Since 2007, the Civil Society Organization La Nuestra Fútbol Feminista has devoted its praxis to football in the district of Padre Mugica-Villa 31 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. La Nuestra has traditionally been used to refer to a style of play and a performance of national culture with its origins in the 1920s, when local football teams sought to distinguish themselves from the British "fathers" of the game in Argentina (Archetti, 1999). By appropriating the term La Nuestra to name our organization we reject the historic exclusion of women from Argentina's traditional style of play and claim our place as participants in the national game, in which women have also been active for a century. ...
Article
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This research report explores the impact of Covid-19 on women's football in Buenos Aires. The suspension of all forms of football in Argentina as part of the country's hard lockdown measures threatens to undo significant gains made in women's football in recent years. By focussing on the experiences of key actors in a feminist Civil Society Organization (CSO) and a newly professional women's team, respectively, we examine what the pandemic has meant for women's football and for women football players at different levels of the game. We also consider the potential impact of the current situation on the future of women's football in Argentina, representative of wider social advances for women in the country.
... Football has been central to male identity in Argentina since at least the 1920s, when newspapers implored a Boca Juniors team touring Europe to showcase the nation's 'potent and virile young men' (Karush, 2003: 22) to the Old Continent. In his ground-breaking work on Argentinian football, Eduardo Archetti (1985Archetti ( , 1992Archetti ( , 1994Archetti ( , 1999 repositioned the sport as a highly productive foundry for masculine ethos, a 'symbolic and practical male arena' (Archetti, 1999: 15) in which idealised senses of maleness can be imagined, represented and embodied by players and supporters alike. Archetti (1999) linked these idealised forms of masculinity to aggression and sexual dominance, and such belligerent masculinities -pluralised, following Connell (2005) are key themes in sporting research (Kian et al., 2011: 681). ...
... In his ground-breaking work on Argentinian football, Eduardo Archetti (1985Archetti ( , 1992Archetti ( , 1994Archetti ( , 1999 repositioned the sport as a highly productive foundry for masculine ethos, a 'symbolic and practical male arena' (Archetti, 1999: 15) in which idealised senses of maleness can be imagined, represented and embodied by players and supporters alike. Archetti (1999) linked these idealised forms of masculinity to aggression and sexual dominance, and such belligerent masculinities -pluralised, following Connell (2005) are key themes in sporting research (Kian et al., 2011: 681). Across the world, organised sports, and particularly football, have been linked to a 'violent, dysfunctional, and oppressive version of manhood' (Ralph and Roberts, 2019: 19) which celebrates and demands displays of 'excessive or problematic masculine practices' (Pringle and Hickey, 2010: 119). ...
Article
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For over a century, violence has plagued Argentinian football. Popular understandings of the problem, however, are sorely lacking, with violence too often written off as an external force invading the game. This article provides an alternative view, arguing instead that violent behaviours are endemic to the sociocultural composition of the game itself, and that incidents of belligerence and antagonism cannot be separated from its wider context. To approach this, I analyse a corpus of chants produced by supporters of River Plate, one of the largest clubs in Argentina, and indeed Latin America. The aim is to provide a more nuanced vision of violence, taking into consideration how it is conceived, regulated and discussed by a plurality of supporters. Focussing on the native concept of aguante and the specific sociocultural formation of masculinity in Argentinian football, I suggest that a range of aggressive, harmful behaviours are naturalised and legitimised by prevailing cultural tendencies in Argentinian football.
... De ese modo, los distintos capítulos muestran la relevancia de considerar los casos particulares en diversos contextos etnográficos que dan cuenta de aquellas sutilezas que configuran la vida moral de los sujetos de estudio.Entonces, "focalizan en la moralidad como un ámbito que no se caracteriza por el seguimiento de las reglas, sino por las experiencias vividas que se retroalimentan entre sí en un proceso continuo de reevaluación y puesta en práctica"(Zigon, 2008: 9).En aquellas investigaciones, la moralidad es analizada en líneas generales como una reflexión acerca de lo que es bueno o malo, correcto o incorrecto, y se cristaliza en las respuestas e interpretaciones que los individuos dan ante situaciones concretas de la vida cotidiana. Así, se movilizan acciones y creencias que dan cuenta de esos códigos morales pero también de los actores y de los contextos(Archetti, 1997(Archetti, , 1999.Archetti (1999) encuadra la moralidad en torno a cómo narramos y le damos forma y sentido a nuestras vidas y cómo discutimos esas narrativas. Los discursos morales de los actores sociales: crean una escena en la cual están disponibles símbolos y narrativas históricas, nuevas experiencias relacionadas con situaciones dadas, imágenes y resultados deportivos, nuevas preguntas, respuestas a esas preguntas y juicios acerca de la corrección de todas esas respuestas mezcladas entre ellas(Archetti, 1999: 125).Las moralidades suelen ser contradictorias, tanto en el pasado como en el presente, ya que la relación entre los valores morales y la práctica es dinámica. ...
... De ese modo, los distintos capítulos muestran la relevancia de considerar los casos particulares en diversos contextos etnográficos que dan cuenta de aquellas sutilezas que configuran la vida moral de los sujetos de estudio.Entonces, "focalizan en la moralidad como un ámbito que no se caracteriza por el seguimiento de las reglas, sino por las experiencias vividas que se retroalimentan entre sí en un proceso continuo de reevaluación y puesta en práctica"(Zigon, 2008: 9).En aquellas investigaciones, la moralidad es analizada en líneas generales como una reflexión acerca de lo que es bueno o malo, correcto o incorrecto, y se cristaliza en las respuestas e interpretaciones que los individuos dan ante situaciones concretas de la vida cotidiana. Así, se movilizan acciones y creencias que dan cuenta de esos códigos morales pero también de los actores y de los contextos(Archetti, 1997(Archetti, , 1999.Archetti (1999) encuadra la moralidad en torno a cómo narramos y le damos forma y sentido a nuestras vidas y cómo discutimos esas narrativas. Los discursos morales de los actores sociales: crean una escena en la cual están disponibles símbolos y narrativas históricas, nuevas experiencias relacionadas con situaciones dadas, imágenes y resultados deportivos, nuevas preguntas, respuestas a esas preguntas y juicios acerca de la corrección de todas esas respuestas mezcladas entre ellas(Archetti, 1999: 125).Las moralidades suelen ser contradictorias, tanto en el pasado como en el presente, ya que la relación entre los valores morales y la práctica es dinámica. ...
Article
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The huge increase in running as a lifestyle choice has become a global trend characteristic of our contemporary world. Running, as its enthusiasts usually call it using the English term, is structured around a set of practices and representations that go far beyond a specific choice of ‘going for a run.’ The sport mobilizes a series of emotional configurations that crystallize into certain ideals of behaviour, relationships, and feelings that define a ‘true’ runner. Setting out from a diverse set of ethnographic resources, the article analyses the ways in which runners build a moral universe that distinguishes them not only from those who have not adopted such a lifestyle, but also from those who do not completely embody their supposedly virtuous ideals.
... LA "VIOLENCIA", LAS LEYES Y LAS MUERTES EN EL FÚTBOL ARGENTINO La "violencia" en el fútbol no es un invento contemporáneo en Argentina, sino que ha estado presente en diferentes manifestaciones desde los inicios de la práctica de este deporte (Duke y Crolley 2001, Frydemberg 2012. Para Archetti (1999) el fenómeno del fútbol se ha configurado históricamente en Argentina entre elementos festivos y trágicos, dando lugar a un tipo especial de ritual que oscila entre lo carnavalesco y lo violento. Los golpes, piedrazos, heridos y muertos han sido solamente una contraparte de ciertos cánticos, saltos rítmicos, banderas y performances sofisticadas de aliento. ...
... Así, sus descripciones excedieron las interpretaciones iniciales que la literatura europea movilizaba para explicar el fenómeno del hooliganismo, vinculadas preponderantemente a las peleas entre aficionados de distintos equipos, como una prolongación del enfrentamiento simbólico en el campo de juego (Hall 1978, Dunning, Murphy y Williams 1986, Ingham 1978, Marsh 1978. El enfoque de Romero, tanto en sus trabajos en solitario como en los que produjo con Eduardo Archetti (1999), extendió el análisis hacia explicaciones que desbordaron el campo deportivo y lo ligaron a procesos sociales más amplios, como la represión policial, el funcionamiento de la ley, los negocios ilegales de los directivos de los clubes, los vericuetos de los procesos judiciales y el papel del poder institucional (Archetti y Romero 1994: 39). ...
Article
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Este artículo analiza un corpus de “episodios de violencia” en el fútbol profesional argentino entre los años 2006 y 2017, a partir de un relevamiento de datos propio. Dicho corpus se sustenta en las informaciones publicadas en sitios de Internet acerca de los incidentes ligados al fútbol reflejados en los principales periódicos nacionales, así como en el archivo de la ONG Salvemos al Fútbol. El objetivo consiste en presentar un mapa de las formas en las que ha manifestado la “violencia en el fútbol” en la última década, y comentar, en paralelo, las respuestas de políticas públicas de seguridad deportiva que han intentado reaccionar frente a hechos trágicos
... First, sports are cultural constructs and are played differently from one cultural context to the next (Archetti, 1999;Halldorsson, 2017;Lever, 1983). This shows, for instance, in how teams from different nations play. ...
... Thus, the individualistic playing styles of the Argentinian and Brazilian players contrasts with the collectively orientated European style of playing football (Archetti, 1999, 190-193;Telseth and Halldorsson, 2017;Wieting, 2015). Argentina has been seen as playing positive and attacking football, while Iceland's style has been described as negative and defensive (see Archetti, 1999;Halldorsson, 2017;Telseth and Halldorsson, 2017). Those cultural differences show in the results of the content analysis (see Table 1). ...
Article
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The creation of team spirit is one of the most important and difficult challenges of contemporary sports. Team spirit is on one hand important for team efficiency and team success and on the other difficult to account for due to its emergent and impervious nature. Team spirit is especially important in the midst of the dynamic on-the-field game action where sport teams rely on active communication between team members in order to meet the many challenges of sporting contests. Verbal communication is however often problematic during games and members of a team need to make use of symbolic gestures to communicate. The literature has however been inattentive to the role of symbolic gestures in sports, especially in regard to team spirit and team performance. This paper is a case study of a single football match. It makes use of micro-sociological theory and perspective to account for playersúse of symbolic communication and gestures in regard to team spirit. The findings from the analysed match reveal players' use of various forms of symbolic communication and gestures, which could be recognized as positive, negative or neutral for on-the-field team spirit.
... The smallness of Icelandic society, its close kinship relations and the tight social networks of Icelanders, make the performance of the national sport team players particularly important for the Icelandic national spirit and national identity (see Halldorsson, 2017;Thorlindsson and Halldorsson, 2019b). In globalized live games, where much is at stake -in what Goffman identified as fateful situations (1967, 260) -the culture and values of the Icelanders are reflected in the behavior and character of Icelandic players and teams on the field (Birrell, 1981; -see also Archetti, 1999;Halldorsson, 2017;2018b;Lever, 1983). The national team players are, in this respect, the representatives of the worth of their nations and under such circumstances it is not the results of the sporting contest -whether they win or lose -that matters the most (Fink, Galen and Anderson, 2002) but whether the nation's representatives (the players) behave appropriately and make the folks back home proud by demonstrating bravery and good character (Birrell, 1981;Goffman, 1967, 237-270;Halldorsson, 2017, 65-77;. ...
Article
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Iceland attracted international attention when its national football team qualified for the 2018 Men's World Cup. This surprise qualification made Iceland the smallest nation to qualify in the 88-year history of the prestigious competition. During the World Cup, life in Iceland seemed to center on the Icelandic team and attract interest and attention from almost every Icelander. But how widespread was the national interest in Iceland's participation and did the inclusion of Iceland in the competition have any positive social/psychological impact on individuals and/ or Icelandic society? Questionnaire data from a sample of the Icelandic population show that there was extensive interest among Icelanders in the participation of the Icelandic team in the World Cup. The findings further show that Iceland's participation positively affected the mood of Icelanders and created a positive atmosphere among the Icelandic nation, as well as some critical attitudes, at least for the short term.
... Macro cultures, in this sense, provide certain practices with meaning, opportunities to pursue and guide successful performance. This perspective emphasizes collective expertise and achievement as a cultural production, in macro-social context, highlighting the role of tradition, norms and values and attitudes for achievement (see: Archetti, 1999, Bale & Sang, 1996, Halldorsson, 2017Lever, 1983;Livingstone, 2003;Oberlin & Gieryn, 2015;Prior, 2015, Thorlindsson & Halldorsson, 2019. ...
Chapter
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In this chapter we argue that the literature within the nature-nurture paradigm has largely ignored the wider culture and traditions in explaining achievement and expert performance, leaving a gap in the literature. We provide a sociological perspective on the role of culture for collective achievement where we make use of two case studies; jazz in New Orleans and team handball in Iceland.
... In the Caribbean, C. L. R. James used cricket to highlight issues of racial and class inequalities (2005). Similarly, Archetti (1997Archetti ( , 1999 suggested that national football matches in Argentina were interpreted as competitions between different conceptions of masculinity. He argued that on the football field, 'the forged stereotype of the modern man was … challenged by the hybrids of Argentina' (Archetti 1999: 72), and the pitch became a space for contesting dominant colonial models of masculinity. ...
... Na Argentina, o trabalho do sociólogo Amílcar Romero (1985Romero ( , 1986Romero ( , 1994 foi o pioneiro na análise da violência para o período compreendido entre 1958 e 1983. O futebol (fútbol) é um dos principais componentes da identidade nacional da Argentina (ARCHETTI, 1999), capaz de deslocar multidões e atrair atenção política desde o início do século XX (DUQUE; CROLLEY, 2001;FRYDEMBERG, 2012;LEVINSKY, 2016;PALOMINO;SCHER, 1988). O futebol é lar das mais criativas coreografias e culturas de torcedores na Argentina, mas a violência e as mortes têm, no entanto, periodicamente, impactado o cenário. ...
... There are of course several exceptions to this. Eduardo Archetti's works on tango, football and polo in Argentina relates as much to middle classes as popular classes(Archetti, 1999). Other exceptions are Bull's work on Central American elites(Bull 2014), and the work byBull, Kasahara, and Castellacci (2014) on business groups in the same region. ...
... In Argentina, like in other "new world" nations, an explicit programme was deployed for the transformation of immigrants into standardized national subjects. The invention and construction of the Argentine nation was based on ideological projects that share with food recipes their "model for" characteristics (Archetti, 1999;Halperín Donghi, 1982;Schneider, 1996;Shumway, 1991). The transformation of immigrants and their descendants into national citizens of the receiving country also had effects on the gastronomic domain. ...
... e se identifiquem num dado sistema social e cultural. A partir desse pressuposto, vários estudos no campo das ciências sociais foram realizados no Brasil e na América Latina nas últimas três décadas, discutindo os processos de construção de identidades a partir do futebol e de outros esportes (DAMATTA, 1982;ROSENFELD, 1993;LEITE LOPES, 1994;ARCHETTI, 1994ARCHETTI, , 1999MURAD, 1996;GUEDES, 1998;TOLEDO, 2001;HELAL et al., 2001;FIENGO, 2000FIENGO, , 2003GASTALDO, 2000;SANTOS NETO, 2002;AGOSTINO, 2002;ALABARCES, 2002;DAMO, 2002;SOARES, 2003). ...
Article
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O objetivo do estudo é descrever e analisar o processo de detecção e seleção de talentos considerando as representações identitárias e práticas no cotidiano do futebol. Utiliza como instrumentos entrevistas semiestruturadas, aplicadas aos treinadores e coordenadores das categorias Sub 15, Sub 17 e Sub 20, e observadores técnicos em sete clubes da primeira divisão do futebol brasileiro. Conclui que o discurso identitário sobre o ideal proclamado do futebol brasileiro, o futebol-arte, não orienta as ações dos profissionais envolvidos no processo de seleção e treinamento de talentos. Todavia, esse discurso pode apresentar eficácia simbólica no processo de comercialização de jogadores.
... Antropoloji departmanlarında eğitim almış ve / veya çalışan akademisyenler tarafından yapılan sporla ilgili erken etnografik araştırmalar, Frankenburg'un (1957) futbol kulübü ve köy faaliyetleri arasındaki bağlantıları araştırmasını, Kuzey Galler'de arkadaşlıklar ve siyaset ve Fox'un (1961) Hopi kültüründeki batıl inançla beyzbolun oynanış biçimleri ve taşıdığı anlamlar arasındaki bağlantısı. Böylesine alçakgönüllü başlangıçlardan itibaren, (bir avuç) antropolog, kültürel yeniden üretim ve direniş anlayışları oluşturmak için sporu (özellikle beyzbol) ele almışlardır (Gmelch, 1972(Gmelch, , 2006Klein, 1991); milliyetçilik (ler), kimlik ve küreselleşme (Archetti, 1999;Kelly, 1998Kelly, , 2004Klein, 1997Klein, , 2006Perez, 1994); cinsiyet, cinsellik (engellilik) yeteneği ve vücut (Alter, 1992); evrim (Apostolou, 2015); ve çocukluk (Dyck, 2012). Antropologlar ayrıca egzersiz kültürlerinin etnografik incelemelerini de üstlendi. ...
Chapter
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Spor ve fiziksel kültür araştırmalarına yönelik etnografik yaklaşımlar, öncelikle beden eğitimi ve kinesiyoloji programları içinde gelişmiştir ve tipik olarak failliğin, yapının, gücün ve eşitsizliğin sosyolojik kuramsallaştırılmasıyla diyalog içinde çerçevelenmiştir. Antropoloji ve sosyolojiye referansla başlayarak, spor ve fiziksel kültür etnografik incelemesinin ortaya çıkışını, gelişimini ve sonraki disiplinlerarası seyahatlerini gözden geçiriyoruz. Bunu yaparken, spor etnografyalarının gelişiminde teori, bağlam ve disiplin geleneğinin önemini vurguluyoruz. Daha sonra, etnografinin Fiziksel Kültürel Çalışmalardaki (FKÇ) yerini eleştirel bir şekilde özetledik. FKÇ girişiminin özgünlüğü ve benzersizliği hakkındaki mevcut tartışmaları açığa çıkarmak yerine, FKÇ kahramanlarının kendilerine koydukları müdahaleci hedeflere ulaşmak için hiper-refleksif araştırmacıyı merkezden uzaklaştırma ve etnografik araştırmalardan zevk almayı savunmanın gerekliliğini vurguluyoruz.
... The idea of national purity in sports confirms, as shown by the endeavors from David Mayall's volume (1998), firstly, that sport largely employs ethnicity, and secondly, that ethnicity matters in sport. Eduardo Archetti (1999), for example, found the process of hybridization one of the most crucial mechanisms that turned football, polo, and tango into Argentinean national sports. But as far as the Slovenian case is concerned, I observed with Starc findings right the opposite side of this phenomenon. ...
Article
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This paper explores the role of alpine skiing in Slovenian culture and society by taking into consideration how sports and ideas of nation and nationhood are intertwined. The analysis, which is based on historical evidence and ethnographic data, suggests that in Slovenia, alpine skiing, with its natural sceneries, amateurish background, sporting events, media attention and national heroes, is one of the main sports arenas in which the Slovenian nation-imagining, nationalism and national identity have been exercised throughout the twentieth century. The importance of alpine skiing for the image of the Slovenian nation was often acknowledged in the Yugoslav period and was further intensely reconfirmed after Slovenia's secession from the socialist country.
Book
At the turn of the twenty-first century, Argentina was in the midst of its worst economic crisis in decades, the result of years of drastic neoliberal reforms. This book looks at the way ideas about race and nationhood were conveyed during this period of financial meltdown and national emergency, examining in particular how the neoliberal crisis led to the critical self-questioning of the dominant imaginary of Argentina as homogenously white – allegedly the result of European immigration and the extinction of most indigenous and black people in the nation building age. The Darkening Nation focuses on how the self-examination of racial and national identity triggered by this crisis was expressed in culture, through the analysis of literary texts, films, artworks and music styles. By considering a wide range of artistic and cultural products, and different forms of racial identity and difference (white, indigenous, Afro-descendant, immigrant and negro as it is understood in local contexts), this study constitutes a timely addition from a literary and cultural studies perspective to recent academic enquiry into race and nation in Argentina.
Chapter
This chapter argues for a need to engender the study of nations and nationalism by using a sociological perspective of gender process. Nation‐states are not constructed in thoroughly gender‐segregated environments, but as interactions between females and males, majorities and minorities, the local and global. This notion of interaction, of process, needs to be better incorporated into Nation Studies through the incorporation of multiple perspectives of interaction.
Article
Football (soccer) jerseys for professional male players are increasingly designed with a tighter, snugger fit. Such design infers a fit male body and a lifestyle, which accompanies, and cultivates such a body. Replica kits, which are manufactured for consumption by fans, often emulate this tight fit but are purchased and worn by bodies that differ substantially from the increasingly valorized fit athlete’s body. This paper discusses the multiple male aesthetics that are produced in the process and through the practice of differing bodies wearing the same garment. I specifically juxtapose the body and the sociality of the disciplined, professional, and fit male footballer to the body of male fans with bellies. I argue that the reverence of a specific fit male body which results in tightening jerseys and which tighter jerseys celebrate, produces the unintended consequence of highlighting less-than-fit bodies and body parts as well as the social practices that yield such bodies through fans’ dressing practices. With an ethnographic focus on Turkey, I demonstrate how the idealization of a specific male body is subverted, albeit unintentionally, by the very forces that create it in the first place.
Article
It was media, especially television, coverage of the FIFA World Cup from 1958 which first drew South American football into a more mainstream position in English popular culture. Argentina came to be demonised in England as defensive, brutal and unsporting whereas ‘tropical-modern’ Brazil was perceived as fair-minded, beautiful and instinctive. How can we account for the sharply differing perceptions and impact of Argentinian and Brazilian football in twentieth century England? What were the historical forces also at play, ranging from Britain’s legacy of ‘informal empire’ to deeply ingrained and racialised perceptions of Argentina as ‘European’ and Brazil as racially exotic.
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Yirminci yüzyılın ikinci yarısından itibaren hızla ilerleyen ve 1990’lardan itibaren kendi başına disiplinlerarası bir alan olan erkek ve erkeklik çalışmaları, kuramsal açıdan pek çok öncü düşünürden faydalanmış olup kendine ait bilim insanlarının ortaya çıkmasını sağlamıştır. Böylece bu alan günümüzde erkeklerle ilgili pek çok sosyokültürel ve siyasal meseleyi mercek altına almayı başarmaktadır. Bu yazı, erkeklik sorunsalını kapsamlı olarak tek bir metinde bulmanın zorluğundan dolayı erkeklik kavramının sorunsallaşma sürecini Freud, Jung, Adler ve de Beauvoir’ın tartışmalarıyla ele almakta ve ardından günümüz erkek erkeklik çalışmalarının kapsamını eril tahakküm ve hegemonyacı erkeklik kavramları ile açıklamaktadır. Bu doğrultuda, erkek-kadın ve/ya erillik-dişillik gibi ilişkilendirmelere dayalı ikici düşünce yapısının zamanının sona erdiği alanın kuramcılarının savları ile açıklanmaktadır. Günümüzde Türkçe olarak erkek ve erkeklik çalışmaları ile ilgili detaylı bir kuramsal çalışma henüz bulunmadığından, bu yazı alanla ilgilenen araştırmacılar için bilgilendirici ve yönlendirici bir platform sunar.
Chapter
Sport and gender researchers have perhaps been more interested in what they can do with sports, how to make sports better, than in what sport is. This is problematic insofar as claims to how meaningful sports shape gender can be made more powerfully when the context-free culture-structures and grammars of sports are theorized. Gender is central to social life, but cultures recognize gender in both subtly and clearly varied manners. Sports shape genders as genre, codes, and narratives bring moralities and folkloric ideas to bare on the public gravity of gendered sport interaction. A cultural sociology of sports tries hard to decouple culture and politics, making repeated claims about the autonomy of culture, and points to hedging and uncertainty about cultural causality in the cultural studies tradition. While critical theorists see competition as the centerpiece of the pathological sport-forms produced under capitalism. This book shows how sports perform competition. Here, at the switch-point amid interaction and broad culture is where a cultural sociology of performance gives promise. It holds the capacity to elucidate the coexistence of solidary and conflict, to reveal its phenomenology as a performative feel for the game, which shapes the social life of sport in society.
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“Fair to Swear? Gendered Formulations of Fairness in Football in Turkey”, focuses on the swearing voiced in football chants in Turkey. Based on a sociological linguistic approach, it demonstrates that fans construct a specifically masculine notion of fairness that diverges from what the Turkish football authorities define as the ideal of ‘fair play.’ Nuhrat argues that the anti-swearing campaigns and policies of multiple organizations (including the Turkish Football Federation (TFF), the clubs and mainstream media) ostensibly intend to uphold fair play, yet they miss and are at odds with how fans construe fairness: Fans genderize the meaning of the concept fair play by celebrating the masculine ideal of the crazy, hot-blooded young man (delikanlı). In keeping with theoretic formulations regarding “ordinary ethics” in cultural anthropology, the chapter elucidates how fairness and gender are co-negotiated in football in Turkey. In addition, it critiques the stereotypical feminine role that the TFF ascribes to women fans, defining them as naturally polite guardians of the imposed sense of fair play. The chapter shows that women fans have an intricate relationship with hegemonic masculinity whereby they simultaneously take part in the specific masculine construction of fairness and oppose normative gender expectations.
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Ricardo Darín has become the somewhat unlikely middle-aged poster boy of Argentine cinema of the first quarter of the twenty-first century. In the Argentine context, this same period is marked by the economic crisis of 2001 and the celebrations of the country’s bicentenary in 2010, both of which raise important questions about national identity. This article will examine the films Darín made with Juan José Campanella and Pablo Trapero in order to consider the ways in which his star status is used as a way to reflect or comment upon certain questions that seem to occupy the national psyche and to engage with forms of masculinity, whether that be to represent them, reify them, or indeed do both simultaneously. In the four films he made with Campanella, Darín plays an affable middle-class man who is somehow an outsider. The fact that by the end of the films all four characters have found some closure and experience a sense of a new beginning attests to the strength of middle-class masculinity as an identity category. Both his characters die at the end of the two films with Trapero. These characters are also outsiders, but Trapero uses Darín’s star status to draw attention to broader social issues within Argentine society. Ultimately, both directors rely upon Darín’s off-screen persona to aid characterization and link their protagonists to national issues and questions of national identities.
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