Article

Diet and deprivation in pregnancy

Nutrition and Epigenetics Group, Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen, Greenburn Road, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, UK.
The British journal of nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.45). 09/2009; 102(10):1487-97. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114509990444
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Deprivation is associated with poor pregnancy outcome but the role of nutrition as a mediating factor is not well understood. We carried out a prospective cohort study of 1461 singleton pregnancies in Aberdeen, UK during 2000-6. We measured nutrient intake and supplement use, B vitamin and homocysteine status, birth weight, gestational age, neonatal treatment and socio-economic deprivation status. Women in the most deprived deciles were approximately 6 years younger and half as likely to take folic acid supplements periconceptually as the least deprived mothers. Deprivation was associated with low blood folate, high homocysteine and diets low in protein, fibre and many of the vitamins and minerals. The diets of the more deprived women were also characterised by low intakes of fruit, vegetables and oily fish and higher intakes of processed meat, fried potatoes, crisps and snacks. Deprivation was related to preterm birth (OR 1.14 (95 % CI 1.03, 1.25); P = 0.009) and whether the baby required neonatal treatment (OR 1.07 (95 % CI 1.01, 1.14); P = 0.028). Low birth weight was more common in women consuming diets low in vitamin C (OR 0.79 (95 % CI 0.64, 0.97); P = 0.028), riboflavin (OR 0.77 (95 % CI 0.63, 0.93); P = 0.008), pantothenic acid (OR 0.79 (95 % CI 0.65, 0.97); P = 0.023) and sugars (OR 0.78 (95 % CI 0.64, 0.96); P = 0.017) even after adjustment for deprivation index, smoking, marital status and parity. Deprivation in pregnancy is associated with diets poor in specific nutrients and poor diet appears to contribute to inequalities in pregnancy outcome. Improving the nutrient intake of disadvantaged women of childbearing age may potentially improve pregnancy outcome.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Chandrika J Piyathilake, Oct 02, 2014
  • Source
    • "A relevant finding was the higher risk of prematurity observed in women who followed the low GI dietary recommendations. This observation has not been reported previously, but there is evidence showing that dietary restriction during pregnancy is associated with higher risk of prematurity (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03 a 1.25, P = 0.009) [39]. The restriction of moderate and high GI foods in Group 2 may have resulted in a more restricted diet that could be associated with prematurity as well as with the observed lower frequency of excessive weight gain and the trend of lower birthweight in women in this group. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. Due to the higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM), more pregnant women complicated with diabetes are in need of clinical care. Purpose. Compare the effect of including only low glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates (CHO) against all types of CHO on maternal glycemic control and on the maternal and newborn's nutritional status of women with type 2 DM and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods. Women (n = 107, ≤29 weeks of gestation) were randomly assigned to one of two nutrition intervention groups: moderate energy and CHO restriction (Group 1: all types of CHO, Group 2: low GI foods). Results. No baseline differences in clinical data were observed. Capillary glucose concentrations throughout pregnancy were similar between groups. Fewer women in Group 2 exceeded weight gain recommendations. Higher risk of prematurity was observed in women in Group 2. No differences in glycemic control were observed between women with type 2 DM and those with GDM. Conclusions. Inclusion of low GI CHO as part of a comprehensive nutrition intervention is equally effective in improving glycemic control as compared to all types of CHO. This strategy had a positive effect in preventing excessive maternal weight gain but increased the risk of prematurity.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · International Journal of Endocrinology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that human pregnancy outcome can be significantly compromised by suboptimal maternal nutritional status. Poor diet results in a maternal-fetal environment in which the teratogenicity of other insults such as alcohol might be amplified. As an example, there is evidence that zinc (Zn) can interact with maternal alcohol exposure to influence the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Studies with experimental animals have shown that the teratogenicity of alcohol is increased under conditions of Zn deficiency, whereas its teratogenicity is lessened when animals are given Zn-supplemented diets or Zn injections before the alcohol exposure. Alcohol can precipitate an acute-phase response, resulting in a subsequent increase in maternal liver metallothionein, which can sequester Zn and lead to decreased Zn transfer to the fetus. Importantly, the teratogenicity of acute alcohol exposure is reduced in metallothionein knockout mice, which can have improved Zn transfer to the conceptus relative to wild-type mice. Consistent with the above, Zn status has been reported to be low in alcoholic women at delivery. Preliminary data from two basic science and clinical nutritional studies that are ongoing as part of the international Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders support the potential role of Zn, among other nutritional factors, relative to risk for FASD. Importantly, the nutrient levels being examined in these studies are relevant to general clinical populations and represent suboptimal levels rather than severe deficiencies. These data suggest that moderate deficiencies in single nutrients can act as permissive factors for FASD, and that adequate nutritional status or intervention through supplementation may provide protection from some of the adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · BioFactors
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Graner S, Klingberg-Allvin M, Phuc HD, Huong DL, Krantz G, Mogren I. Adverse perinatal and neonatal outcomes and their determinants in rural Vietnam 1999–2005. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2010; 24: 535–545. Population-based estimations of perinatal and neonatal outcomes are sparse in Vietnam. There are no previously published data on small for gestational age (SGA) infants. A rural population in northern Vietnam was investigated from 1999 to 2005 (n = 5521). Based on the birthweight distributions within the population under study, reference curves for intrauterine growth for Vietnamese infants were constructed and the prevalence and distribution of SGA was calculated for each sex. Neonatal mortality was estimated as 11.6 per 1000 live births and the perinatal mortality as 25.0 per 1000 births during the study period. The mean birthweight was 3112 g and the prevalence of low birthweight was 5.0%. The overall prevalence of SGA was 6.4%. SGA increased with gestational age and was 2.2%, 4.5% and 27.1% for preterm, term and post-term infants, respectively. Risk factors for SGA were post-term birth: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 7.75 [95% CI 6.02, 9.98], mothers in farming occupations AOR 1.72 [95% CI 1.21, 2.45] and female infant AOR 1.61 [95% CI 1.27, 2.03]. There was a pronounced decrease in neonatal mortality after 33 weeks of gestation. Suggested interventions are improved prenatal identification of SGA infants by ultrasound investigation for fetal growth among infants who do not follow their expected clinical growth curve at the antenatal clinic. Other suggestions include allocating a higher proportion of preterm deliveries to health facilities with surgical capacity and neonatal care.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Show more