Article

EFFECT OF LONG-TERM APPLICATION OF ORGANIC AND BIO- FERTILIZER ON SOIL FERTILITY UNDER RICE -SOYBEAN-RICE CROPPING SYSTEM

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Abstract

ABTRACTS The long term experiment on effect of organic and bio-fertilizer application have been conducted from 2000 up to 2003. This indicated fertilizer dose for soybean could be recommended at the rate of 60N-60 P 2 0 5 -30 K 2 0 combined with composted paddy straw or inoculants viz., SB83 (Rhizobium fredii) and SB177 (Bradyhrizobium sp.) or both composted paddy straw and inoculants + 30N-60 P 2 0 5 -30 K 2 0. Agronomic characters and grain yield of soybean were compared among the treatments to higher dose of inorganic fertilizer as T1 (100-60-30) as farmers' application. At the same time, the experimental results showed that application of organic and bio-fertilizer could be substantiated N inorganic fertilizer to an extent of 40 – 70 kg N ha -1 while some important agronomic characters and grain yield of rice –soybean-rice were comparable to the control (conventional dose applied by farmers) due to cumulative effect. Especially, the soil fertility viz., soil organic carbon content, soil available nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium built up significantly under application inorganic fertilizer combined with composted paddy straw or inoculants or both composted paddy straw and inoculants as compared to the treatments those applied only inorganic fertilizers.

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... Several studies have been conducted to assess the effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil properties and crop yields, and different agronomic and environmental outcomes have been observed depending on the specific agro ecosystem (Son, et al. 2004;Havlin, et al. 2005;Saha, et al. 2008). Agricultural waste-turned manure has been found to increase the contents of nutrients in the soil and its uptake by maize crops are high allowing for a considerable yield of maize (Ndanu, et al. 2012;Adeniyan & Ojeniyi, 2005;Agele, et al. 2011). ...
... The long term application of soil fertility materials, especially organic soil fertility materials, increased water soluble nutrients and also the average organic matter in the soil bringing about significant build up of N, P, and K nutrients. It was also noted that the increase in N, P, and K nutrients were brought about by increase in the rate of application and also the number of times of application of the soil fertility materials (Son et al. (2004) and Mohammadi et al (2009). ...
Chapter
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The production of cereals, tubers, and vegetables largely depends on the application of organic and inorganic fertilizers to offset their nutrients requirement. In this chapter, the authors identify different soil fertility management practices the maize farmers are using and examine the economic benefits of such practices in maize production. To complete the study, 237 maize farmers across Kogi and Kwara States, Nigeria were investigated. Descriptive statistics, gross margin, and multinomial logit tools were used to analyze the data. The results show that majority of the maize farmers (41.40%) use only inorganic material. Labour employed in the application of fertility materials, distance to the source of fertility materials, the quantity of seed planted, educational attainment, and gender of the maize farmer were the determinants of the use of fertility management practices relative to integrated soil fertility management (ISFM). The analyses of the results show that the use of ISFM for maize production is the most profitable method with a profitability ratio of 2.29.
... Excessive chemical fertilization used in agriculture causes some nutrients to decrease and some to accumulate excessively. The best way to keep the organic matter in the soil at the maximum level is organic fertilization (Son et al., 2004). The use of organic fertilizers is increasing and contributing significantly to organic agriculture all over the world. ...
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For addressing the challenges of ever-increasing world's population, the maximization of farming crops production are of key challenges to think through for sustaining global food security. The aim of this book was to gain insight into potential differences and novel application of bacterial practices in agriculture and it is provides an overview of new trends in bacteria exploitation in crop production and sustainable agriculture. The objective of this book is to in depth study of the bacterial applications in modern agriculture and understanding their uses in future global food security without losing of agroecosystems sustainability. The increase in the world needs for food poses a challenge to our ability to enhance soil fertility. The using of bacteria, adopted in different areas of the world as an alternative technique, could contribute to decrease the erosion of soils and improving in the soil properties and crop productivity. The contribution of bacterial applications in sustainable agriculture will be expanded for sustainable agriculture. The advance technology and strategies in farming system to explore these natural and friendly resource for of plant and soil health and new application of bacteria are also discussed.
... Apart from these advantages, these eco-friendly alternatives like Azotobacter and Azospirillum help in saving about 20-30 kg ha −1 inorganic N fertilizer, because of their potential in fixing nitrogen in leguminous as well as non-leguminous plants [12,13] by enhancing soil NPK status. It was reported that the combination of organic and bio-fertilizers enhanced the soil nutrient status in terms of available N, P, K, and soil organic C as compared to inorganic fertilizer alone [14]. A huge amount of data is available supporting the potential of bioinoculants in promoting plant growth attributes [15][16][17][18]; but limited studies have been carried out on the 'non-target' effects of bioinoculants on soil resident bacterial community [19][20][21][22]. ...
Article
Improper nutrient management is one of the major limitations linked with cultivation of Cajanus cajan. This calls for an urgent need for a promising alternative, employing both bioinoculants and chemical fertilizer. Present study attempted to understand the impact of bioinoculants {Azotobacter chroococcum, Bacillus megaterium, and Pseudomonas fluorescens (ABP)} as their mono-inoculations, triple-inoculation, and their combination with different doses of fertilizer on (a) plant parameters, (b) soil nitrogen (N) economy, (c) resident bacterial community, (d) genes and transcripts involved in N cycle, and to evaluate the extent to which fertilizer could be replaced by ABP without compromising on grain yield. Bradyrhizobium sp. was used in all the treatments (as it was recommended for C. cajan). Combined application of bioinoculants and 75% of recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) led to 1.28-fold enhancement in grain yield as compared to RDF alone. Apart from exerting a positive impact on grain yield, the combined application of ABP and fertilizer led to an improvement in soil fertility, and modified the culturable rhizospheric bacterial community involved in N cycle. Integrated use of bioinoculants and fertilizer led to better N substrate utilization and hence, metabolic diversity when compared with application of fertilizer alone. An increase in the transcripts of nifH gene at the harvest stage in the soil treated with ABP alone and its combination with fertilizer, over individual treatment with fertilizer was observed. The combined use of ABP and fertilizer shaped the resident bacterial community towards a more beneficial community, which helped in increasing soil nitrogen turnover and hence, soil fertility as a whole.
... Bioinoculants have been reported to exert effects on the soil nutrient status. Son et al. (2004) reported that the combination of organic and bio-fertilizers enhanced the soil nutrient status in terms of available N, P, K, and soil organic C as compared to inorganic fertilizers alone. Bakker et al. (2014) demonstrated that the host plant species resulted in reshaping of the interactions between different bacterial taxa. ...
Article
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The present study is an attempt to understand the impact of bioinoculants, Azotobacter chroococcum (A), Bacillus megaterium (B), Pseudomonas fluorescens (P), on (a) soil and plant nutrient status, (b) total resident and active bacterial communities, and (c) genes and transcripts involved in nitrogen cycle, during cultivation of Cajanus cajan. In terms of available macro- and micro-nutrients, triple inoculation of the bioinoculants (ABP) competed well with chemical fertilizer (CF). Their ‘non-target’ effects were assessed in terms of the abundance and activity of the resident bacterial community by employing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The resident bacterial community (16S rRNA gene) was stable, while the active fraction (16S rRNA transcripts) was influenced (in terms of abundance) by the treatments. Quantification of the genes and transcripts involved in N cycle by qPCR revealed an increase in the transcripts of nifH in the soil treated with ABP over CF, with an enhancement of 3.36- and 1.57- fold at flowering and maturity stages of plant growth, respectively. The bioinoculants shaped the resident microflora towards a more beneficial community, which helped in increasing soil N turnover and hence, soil fertility as a whole.
... In developing countries maize is a major source of income to many farmers (Tagneet al., 2008).In environments with low nutrient concentrations or the new reclaimed lands, plants are stressed directly by the lack of adequate nutrients (Emanet al., (2007) Farming practices, which involve heavy application of chemical fertilizers, may cause depletion of certain nutrients in soil and certain others would generally accumulate in excess resulting in nutrient imbalance, which affects soil productivity. Among available means to achieve sustainability in agricultural production, organic manure and bio-fertilizer play an important and key role because they possesses many desirable soil properties and exerts beneficial effect on soil physical, chemical and biological characteristics (Son et al., 2004). Organic materials are used for increasing crop production but pure organic farming can II. ...
... The improvement in the soil available K in PsWh (43.6% higher over control) and FYM (39.1% higher over control) may be due to the addition of K through paddy straw and FYM causing K build-up in soils. The long-term application of composted paddy straw in rice-soybean-rice cropping system improves the soil available K and build-up is more compared to the application of inorganic fertilizers alone (Son et al. 2004). ...
... The improvement in the soil available K in PsWh (43.6% higher over control) and FYM (39.1% higher over control) may be due to the addition of K through paddy straw and FYM causing K build-up in soils. The long-term application of composted paddy straw in rice-soybean-rice cropping system improves the soil available K and build-up is more compared to the application of inorganic fertilizers alone ( Son et al. 2004). ...
Article
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The effect of medium term (five years) application of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients (as mineral or inorganic fertilisers) on soil organic carbon (SOC), SOC stock, carbon (C) build up rate, microbial and enzyme activities in flooded rice soils was tested in west coast of India. Compared to application of vermicompost, glyricidia (Glyricidia maculate) and eupatorium (Chromolaena adenophorum) and dhaincha (Sesbania rostrata), the application of farmyard manure (FYM) and paddy straw and water hyacinth (PsWh) improved the SOC content significantly (p<0.05). The lowest (p<0.05) SOC content was observed in untreated control. The highest (p<0.05) SOC stock were observed in FYM treated plots (23.7 Mg C ha-1) followed by recommended dose of mineral fertilizer (RDF) (23.2 Mg C ha-1) and it was lowest in untreated control (16.5 Mg C ha-1). Soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmb) (246 µg g-1 soil) and Cmb/SOC (1.92%) were highest (p<0.05) in FYM treated plot. The highest (p<0.05) value of metabolic quotient (qCO2) were recorded under RDF (19.7 µg CO2-C g-1 Cmb h-1) and untreated control (19.6 µg CO2-C g-1 Cmb h-1). Application of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients impacted soil enzyme activities significantly (p<0.05) with FYM causing highest dehydrogenase (20.5 µg g-1 day-1), phosphatase (659 µg g-1 h-1) and urease (0.29 µg g-1 h-1) activity. Application of organic source of nutrients especially FYM improved the microbial and enzyme activity in flooded and transplanted rice soil.
... Despite the removal of K by crops in quantities higher than that added through fertilizers, increase in available K may be attributed to release of large amount of non-exchangeable K from the soil. Son et al. (2004) studied the effect of longterm application of organic and biofertilizer on soil fertility under rice-soybean-rice cropping system and they observed that paddy straw or inoculants or both composted paddy straw and inoculants as compared to only inorganic fertilizer application. ...
... Farming practices, which involve heavy application of chemical fertilizers, may cause depletion of certain nutrients in soil and certain others would generally accumulate in excess resulting in nutrient imbalance, which affects soil productivity. Among available means to achieve sustainability in agricultural production.Organic manure and bio-fertilizer play an important and key role because they possesses many desirable soil properties and exerts beneficial effect on soil physical, chemical and biological characteristics ( Son et al., 2004). Organic materials are used for increasing crop production but pure organic farming can never meet the increasing demand for nutrient supply, as sufficient quantities of organic materials are not available. ...
Article
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Introduction Maize is an important cereal crop that provides staple food to large number of human population in the world. It is a tropical plant but at present its cultivation in subtropical and temperate regions is also done intensively on world wide bases It can successfully be cultivated twice in a year. In developing countries maize is a major source of income to many farmers (Tagne et al., 2008). In environments with low nutrient concentrations or the new reclaimed lands, plants are stressed directly by the lack of adequate nutrients (Eman et al., 2007). Farming practices, which involve heavy application of chemical fertilizers, may cause depletion of certain nutrients in soil and certain others would generally accumulate in excess resulting in nutrient imbalance, which affects soil productivity. Among available means to achieve sustainability in agricultural production.Organic manure and bio-fertilizer play an important and key role because they possesses many desirable soil properties and exerts beneficial effect on soil physical, chemical and biological characteristics (Son et al., 2004). Organic materials are used for increasing crop production but pure organic farming can never meet the increasing demand for nutrient supply, as sufficient quantities of organic materials are not available. Application of bio-fertilizers are frequently recommended firstly for improving biological, physical and chemical properties of soil and secondary to get high and clean agricultural yield products free from undesirable high doses of heavy metals and other pollutants.(Kramany et al., 2007) Another way of supplying nutrients to soil is through biological inoculums. But it also needs large amounts of organic matter and alone can not favour the plant nutrient supply to soil ecosystem (Hussain et al., 1999). So, one of the alternative of nutrient supply is the integration of Effective Microorganisms (EM) inoculums and organic/inorganic materials. It is suggested that Effective Microorganisms Activate (EMa) increases the numbers of beneficial microorganisms in soil. Thus maintaining the natural ecosystem of the cultivated land and diminishing the risk of environmental pollution with improved crop productivity and quality(Higa, 1991). Microorganisms enhance the efficacy of organic farming systems (Dobreiner, 1994, Parr et al, 1994) due to their role in decomposition of manures, symbiotic and fermentative processes. The use of EM in crop production is either by direct application to the soil, to organic matter spread on the soil surface or to the plant. However, it can be used in composing organic matter at a different location and this material applied to the soil prior to planting (APNAN, 1995). In this investigation a field experiment was carried out to determine the effect of EMa on water use efficiency, growth, yield, yield components and to identify the best method of EMa appliance on maize. Material and methods The experiment was conducted in Research field of Firozabad, Iran. The height of the experimental site from the sea level was 1600 m, The soil was silty clay loam with a pH of 8.2, The soil chemical properties before the start of the experiment are presented in (Table 1). The experiment was laid out in A factorial experiment in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates and a plot size of 6 m x 5 m was used. All the agronomic operations except those under study were kept normal and uniform for all the treatments. The treatments were as follows: • T 1 : EMa applied on to leaves pre flowering stage at a dilution Rate of 1:10 (300 l per ha) three times. • T 2 : EMa applied onto leaves pre flowering stage at a dilution of 2:10 (300 l per ha) three times. • T 3 : EMa applied onto stubble pre furrowing at a dilution of 1:7 (400 l per h) • T 4 : EMa applied as fertigation at dilution of 1:3 (200 l per h) • T 5 : Control, without EMa application Investigation of different methods of biological Ema (effective microorganism active) use on quality and quantity production and water use efficiency in two cultivars of corn
... Farming practices, which involve heavy application of chemical fertilizers, may cause depletion of certain nutrients in soil and certain others would generally accumulate in excess resulting in nutrient imbalance, which affects soil productivity. Among available means to achieve sustainability in agricultural production.Organic manure and bio-fertilizer play an important and key role because they possesses many desirable soil properties and exerts beneficial effect on soil physical, chemical and biological characteristics ( Son et al., 2004). Organic materials are used for increasing crop production but pure organic farming can never meet the increasing demand for nutrient supply, as sufficient quantities of organic materials are not available. ...
Article
Soybean seed production is a challenge especially during the wet season in Vietnam. Organic production can add value to the enterprise but has not been verified as a viable option. The study was conducted in the 2005 wet season in the Mekong Delta to compare soybean productivity, seed quality and economics of 'OMDN111,' a recently introduced and formally bred variety, and 'Namvang,' a traditional variety, under four production practices: 'organic' (cow manure at 40-105-10 NPK and selected botanicals); 'biodynamic' (biodynamic preparations); 'chemical' (synthetic fertilizers at 40-60-30 NPK and insecticides); and control (no inputs). Treatments were arranged in a 4 x 2 factorial (with production practice as main plot and variety as subplot) in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results indicated that 'organic' is more effective than the 'chemical' practice in soybean seed production. Based on the circular paper chromatographic pattern of the seed extract, which indicates formative or life force, biological complexity and enzyme activity, differences between varieties and among production practices were apparent. With 'organic' and 'biodynamic' practices, the seed of 'Namvang' appeared to have stronger and more complex chromatographic patterns than 'OMDN111.' 'Namvang' had smaller seeds, higher seed yield, higher seed quality (germination and vigor at harvest and after 6 weeks storage), and higher protein content than 'OMDN111.' This was most pronounced under 'organic' practice. In general, 'organic' practice gave the greatest increase in soil organic matter, earthworm population, seed yield and quality, and net returns. 'Biodynamic' practice was a close second or third but generally not significantly different from 'organic' and 'chemical' (control was generally lowest) in terms of number of filled pods, seed yield, leaf area index and root nodule fresh weight. Earthworm population and organic matter was lowest under 'chemical' practice. Pest incidence-related parameters did not affect yield differences.
Quality compost from agricultural wastes
  • P P Ramaswami
  • Son
Ramaswami PP and TTN Son. 1996. Quality compost from agricultural wastes. Paper