Clove: A champion spice

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Abstract
Clove may be looked upon as a champion of all the antioxidants known till date. The Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity (ORAC) test is a scale developed by U.S. Department of Agriculture for comparing anti-oxidant activity. The ORAC score, of clove is over 10 million. A drop of clove oil is 400 times more powerful as an anti-oxidant than wolf berries or blueberries. Health benefits from the use of clove have been known over the centuries. It is beneficial as a home remedy in curing several ailments / diseases. In addition to its culinary uses, the clove buds have an abundance of medicinal and recreational uses. The major part of the world’s consumption of the clove spice is in the home kitchens. However, commercial use of the clove is for the production of clove oil that contain active constituents, which possess antioxidant, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, anesthetic, pain reliving and insect repellent properties. Eugenol is the main constituent responsible for the medicinal properties of the clove bud. In the light of above, we thought it worthwhile to compile an up-to-date review article on clove covering its, synonyms, chemical constituents, phytopharmacology and medicinal uses.
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Parle Milind et al / IJRAP 2011, 2 (1) 47-54
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy, 2(1), Jan-Feb 2011 47-54
Review Article Available online through
www.ijrap.net ISSN 2229-3566
CLOVE: A CHAMPION SPICE
Parle Milind* and Khanna Deepa
Pharmacology Division, Dept. Pharm. Sciences (Accredited by NBA), Guru Jambheshwar University of
Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana, India
Received on: 12/11/2010 Revised on: 04/01/2011 Accepted on: 23/01/2011
ABSTRACT
Clove may be looked upon as a champion of all the antioxidants known till date. The Oxygen Radical Absorption
Capacity (ORAC) test is a scale developed by U.S. Department of Agriculture for comparing anti-oxidant activity.
The ORAC score, of clove is over 10 million. A drop of clove oil is 400 times more powerful as an anti-oxidant than
wolf berries or blueberries. Health benefits from the use of clove have been known over the centuries. It is beneficial
as a home remedy in curing several ailments / diseases. In addition to its culinary uses, the clove buds have an
abundance of medicinal and recreational uses. The major part of the worlds consumption of the clove spice is in the
home kitchens. However, commercial use of the clove is for the production of clove oil that contain active
constituents, which possess antioxidant, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory,
antithrombotic, anesthetic, pain reliving and insect repellent properties. Eugenol is the main constituent responsible
for the medicinal properties of the clove bud. In the light of above, we thought it worthwhile to compile an up-to-date
review article on clove covering its, synonyms, chemical constituents, phytopharmacology and medicinal uses.
KEY WORDS: Cloves, Syzygium aromaticum, Laung, Lavang.
*Corresponding Author
Dr. Milind Parle, Professor of Pharmacology, Chairman, Dept. Pharm. Sciences, APTI Executive Council Member,
Chairman, IAEC, Member Secretary, Research Ethics Board (ICMR), Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and
Technology, Hisar (Haryana), India Email: mparle@rediffmail.com
INTRODUCTION
The symbol of dignity that is what Clove actually
means. It is a precious and valuable spice of the world. It
is an unopened flower bud growing on a tree belonging to
the family Myrtaceae which is same as that of guavas.
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, Eugenia aromaticum or
Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower
buds, which are commonly used in biryanis, pickles,
salads and garam masala. The tree that creates the miracle
of nature originated from the Moluccas Islands, actually
known as Spice Island. It is the common product found
in the spice rack around the world. Clove buds posses
intense fragrance and burning taste. They have deep
brown color, powerful fragrant odour which is warm,
pungent, strongly sweet and slightly astringent. In India it
is used in almost all spicy rich dishes. Indonesia uses half
the world production of cloves to make kretek cigarettes
in the proportion of one part of clove mixed with two
parts of tobacco. In 2009 clove cigarettes were banned in
the U.S. however they are still marketed with the new
label as filtered clove cigars.
Common Names
Cloves, Carophyllus, Clovos, Caryophyllus
Botanical Names
Eugenia caryophyllus, Syzygium aromaticum
Names in Indian languages
Sanskrit: Bhadrasriya, Devakusuma, Devapuspa,
Haricandana, Karampu, Lavanga, Lavangaka, Lavangam,
Varala.
Hindi: Laung, Laumg, Lavang.
Malayalam: Grampu, Karampu, Karayampu.
Marathi: Luvang
Kannada: Lavanga, Daevakusuma, Krambu
Tamil: Kirampu, Ilavankam, Kiraambu,
Kirambu,Grambu.
Telgu: Devakusumamu, Lavangamu, Lavangalu,
Kaaravallu
Bengali: Lavanga.
Gujarati: Lavang
Punjabi: Laung
Oriya: Labanga
Urdu: Laung, Loung
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INTERNATIONAL NAMES
Arabic: Kabsh qarunfil, Kabsh qaranful
Bulgarian: Karamfil
Chinese: Ding xiang
Dutch: Kruidnagel
Danish: Nellike
French: Giroflier ,Cloude girofle
German: Gewürznelke , Nelke
Greek: Garifalo
Georgian: Mikhaki, Mixaki
Hungarian: Szegfu
Indonesian: Cengke, Cengkeh
Italian: Chiodo di garofano
Japanese: Girofla, Choji, Kurobu
Korean: Jeonghyang
Latvian: Krustnaglinas
Nepalese: Lwaang
Norwegian: Nellik
Portuguese: Cravo de India
Persian: Mikhak
Pashto: Kala
Russian: Gvosdika, Pazhitnik grecheski, Shambala,
Pazhitnik cennoj
Spanish: Clavo, Clavo de olor
Swedish: Kryddnejlika, Kryddnejlikor, Nejlikor
Turkish: Carenfil
Thai: Khan plu, Garn ploo
Vietnamese: Dhing huong
HISTORY
Clove is one of the most ancient and valuable spices of
the Orient, with its origin as old as the first century,
before Christ. The ancient Chinese Han dynasty lasting
from 207 B.C. to 220 A.D. gives us our first clue to the
use of fragrant clove. Chinese physician of that era wrote
that the court visitors to the Emperor were required to
hold clove in their mouth. This was done to save the ruler
from the bad breath of the visitors. The use of clove as a
spice reached Europe around the 4th century A.D., when
commercial trading really started with the Arabs, who in
turn acquired these dried and fragrant buds from the
cultures to the East in Asia. Its source and place of origin
were shrouded in mystery until the Portuguese discovered
the Moluccas Island or Indonesia in the 16th century.
Parents planted a clove tree, when a child was born,
believing if the tree flourished, so will the child. Roughly,
half the commercial supply of cloves in the world is
consumed by the Indonesians. Cloves are mixed with
tobacco to produce a special cigarette, which is a
ubiquitous sight in Indonesia.
Two major naval European powers in the 17th and 18th
centuries, namely the Dutch and the Portuguese were
involved in a long tussle over competition for cloves. One
of the ways in which the Dutch eventually gained a
complete monopoly on the trade in cloves was by the
destruction of every viable clove tree in all the islands,
saving only the Dutch colonized island of Ambon on
which vast acreage was devoted to clove plantations. The
Dutch benefited from controlling much of the South East
Asian islands. This monopoly of the Dutch lasted till the
19th century, when the plant was cultivated in different
parts of the world having a tropical climate. The Dutch
monopoly of the spice was broken, when the French
managed to cultivate the tree on their colonized islands in
Asia. The islands of Zanzibar, which belong to present
day Tanzania, in eastern Africa has been a major producer
of cloves for many decades. This exported plant grows so
well in Zanzibar that the moniker given to the island of
Zanzibar is Island of Cloves. Clove was established in
Sri Lanka in 1796 A.D., before the arrival of the British.
In Britain, cloves were worth at least their weight in gold,
due to their high importing price in 17th and 18th
centuries. In India East India Company introduced clove
in 1800 A.D. During Christmas, there is a tradition in
some European countries to make pomanders (studding of
a thin-skinned orange with clove buds) which are hung
around the house. This helps to spread a nice scent
throughout the house and serves as festival decoration.
DESCRIPTION
Cloves are the aromatic dried buds of a tree (Eugenia
caryophyllata also sometimes Syzgium aromaticum) used
as a spice in virtually all the worlds cuisine. The term
Clove is derived from the French word Clou and the
English word Clout, both meaning nail- from the
likeliness of the flower bud of the Clove tree to a broad-
headed nail. The Clove tree is an evergreen tree, which
grows to a height ranging from 8-12m, having large
square leaves and sanguine flowers in numerous groups
of terminal clusters. The flower buds are at first of a pale
color and gradually become green, after which they
develop into a bright red, when they are ready for
collecting. Cloves are harvested when 1.52 cm long, and
consist of a long calyx, terminating in four spreading
sepals, and four unopened petals, which form a small ball
in the center.
Planting material
The seeds should be collected from fully ripe fruits for
raising seedlings. Fruits for seed collection known
commonly as mother of clove are allowed to ripe on the
tree and drop down naturally. Such fruits are collected
and sown directly in the nursery or soaked in water
overnight and the pericarp removed before sowing. The
second method gives quicker and higher percentage of
germination. Only fully developed and uniform sized
seeds, which show the signs of germination by the
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presence of pink radicle, are used for sowing. It is
advisable to sow the seeds immediately after harvest.
Heaping the fruits or keeping them tied up in air tight
bags hastens the death of the seeds. Beds of 15-20 cm
height, 1m width and conventional length are prepared for
sowing seeds. The fertilizers must be applied in two equal
split doses during the months of May-June and
September-October in shallow drenches dug around the
plant about 1-11/m away from the base.
Harvesting and processing
The trees begin to flower in 6 years. Full bearing is
achieved by about 20 years and the production continues
for 80 years or more. Bearing between years shows much
variation. Clove clusters are handpicked, when the buds
reach full size and turn pink but before they open. At this
stage, they are less than 2 cm long. They are spread thinly
on mats and stirred frequently for uniform drying. Well
dried cloves will snap cleanly with a sharp click across
the thumb nail and weigh about one third of the green
weight. The opened flowers are not valued as a spice.
Harvesting has to be done without damaging the
branches, as it adversely affects the subsequent growth of
the trees. On an average, a clove tree yields 3.5-7.0
kg/year, depending upon the age, size and condition of
the tree.
Climate and soil
Clove trees grow well in rich loamy soils of the humid
tropics and can be grown successfully in the red soils of
the midlands of Kerala as well as in the hilly terrain of
Western Ghats at higher elevations in Tamil Nadu and
Karnataka. A cooler climate with well distributed rainfall
is ideal for flowering; it thrives well in areas receiving an
annual rainfall of 150-300 cm. The site selected for
cultivation of clove needs good drainage, since crop
cannot withstand water logging.
NUTRIENT CONTENT OF CLOVE
The composition of the clove varies according to the agro
climatic conditions under which it is grown, processed
and stored. The dried clove bud contains carbohydrates,
fixed oil, steam-volatile oil, resins, tannins, proteins,
cellulose, pentosans and mineral elements. Carbohydrates
comprise about two-thirds of the weight of the spice. The
dried dark and flower buds also contain nutrients like
proteins, minerals, vitamins, etc. Nutrient composition of
clove is depicted in Table 2.
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS
Clove comprises of volatile as well as non-volatile
constituents.
Volatile Constituents
Clove yields different types of volatile oil [oil extracted
from i. leaves, ii. the stem, iii. the buds and iv. the fruit.]
These oils differ considerably in yield and quality. The
yield and composition of the oil obtained are influenced
by its origin, season, variety and quality of raw material,
maturity at harvest, pre- and post-distillation treatments
and method of distillation. The chief component of all the
types of oil is eugenol.
Bud Oil
Good-quality clove buds contain 1520% essential oil1,2.
The oil is dominated by Eugenol (7085%), eugenyl
acetate (15%) and β-caryophyllene (512%), which
together make up 99% of the oil. The constituents of the
oil also include methylamylketone, methyl salicylate, α-
and β-humulene, benzaldehyde, β-ylangene and chavicol.
The minor constituents like methylamylketone,
methylsalicylate etc., are responsible for the characteristic
pleasant odour of cloves. The clove bud and stem oils
from Madagascar were also dominated by eugenol,
eugenyl acetate and β-caryophyllene. The stem oil
contained a higher level of eugenol, whereas the eugenyl
acetate content was higher in the bud oil. The oil from
clove bud contained 73.579.7% eugenol and 4.5 10.7%
eugenyl acetate, while the stem oil contained 76.484.8%
eugenol and 1.58.0% eugenyl acetate. Both contained
7.312.4% β-caryophyllene and 1.01.4% α-humulene3.
Pino et al. identified 36 compounds from the volatile oil
of clove buds. Clove buds from India contained 12.9
18.5% oil, of which 4455% was eugenol, whereas the
pedicels contained 3.07.7% oil with 60.072.4%
eugenol2.
Leaf Oil
Clove leaves yield 3.04.8% essential oil. The essential
oil content during the different stages of leaf growth
revealed that the eugenol content in the leaves increased
from 38.3 to 95.2% with maturity, while the contents of
eugenyl acetate (51.2 to 1.5%) and caryophyllene (6.3 to
0.2%) decreased 4. Clove bud and leaf oil contain various
classes of compounds, e.g. monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes,
aldehydes and ketones.
Clove Stem Oil
Clove stem yields 6% volatile oil1. The oil is a pale to
light yellow liquid containing 80.2% eugenol and 6.6% β-
caryophyllene, besides several minor components.
Fruit Oil
Ripe fruits yield 2% of oil, which is comprised of 50
55% eugenol.
Non-volatile Constituents
A few non-volatiles have been isolated from clove, which
include tannins, sterols, triterpenes and flavonoids.
Tannins
Cloves contain 1013% tannins, which have the same
chemical composition as gallotannic acid. Eugenin and
ellagitannin5 were isolated from cloves. Eugenol
glucoside gallate, a chromone C-glycoside, galloyl and
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hexahydroxy diphenyl esters of 2, 4, 6-trihydroxy
acetophenone- 3-glucopyranoside were isolated from
clove leaves6. Further, two ellagitannins, namely,
syzyginin A (1, 2, 3-tri-O-galloyl4, 6-(S) - tergalloyl-β-
D-glucoside) and syzyginin B, were also isolated from the
leaves.
Triterpenes
Cloves contain about 2% of the triterpene, oleanolic acid.
Narayanan and Natu (1974) isolated maslinic acid from
clove buds7. From clove, 2α-hydroxyoleanolic acid was
also isolated8.
Sterols
Sterols isolated from clove include sitosterol, stigmasterol
and campesterol8.
Flavonoids
A chromone C-glucoside, isobiflorin (5, 7-dihydroxy-2-
methoxychromone-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside) and
biflorin were isolated from the ethanolic extract of
cloves9. From the ethanol extract of the seeds, apigenin
6-C-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(12)- β-D-
galactopyranoside]-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and
apigenin-6-C-[β-D-xylopyranosyl- (1 2)-β-D-
galactopyranoside]-7-O-β-D-(6-O-p-
coumarylglucopyranoside) were isolated10.
MEDICINAL USES
Clove is known to possess antibacterial properties and is
used in various dental creams, tooth pastes, mouth
washes, and throat sprays to cleanse bacteria. It is also
used to relive pain from sore gums and improves overall
dental health.
In dentistry, eugenol in combination with zinc oxide is
used for temporary filling of cavities.
Clove is an anodyne (an agent that soothes or relives
pain) for dental emergencies11.
Cloves are aphrodisiac (an agent for arousing or
increasing sexual desire or potency).
Clove is used as an anti-inflammatory agent, due to its
high content of flavonoids. Aroma therapists use pure
clove oil to cure the symptoms of rheumatism and
arthritis.
Clove is used as a carminative, to increase hydrochloric
acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis.
Apply the paste of clove powder in honey to treat acne.
Paste of clove powder in water promotes faster healing of
cuts and bites.
Cloves can effectively cure many digestive problems. It is
having medicinal qualities to cure flatulence, loose
motions, indigestion and nausea. Cloves are useful in
relieving the symptoms of diarrhea, gastric irritability and
vomiting.
Clove and clove oil boost the immune system by
purifying the blood and help to fight against various
diseases.
Clove oil is effective in curing Athletes foot and nail
fungus.
Cloves are good expectorants that promote the discharge
of mucous and secretions in the respiratory passage.
The aromatic clove oil, when inhaled can help soothe
certain respiratory conditions like cold, cough, asthma,
bronchitis, and sinusitis. It also helps in clearing the nasal
tract.
Cloves can effectively prevent the lung cancer as well as
the skin cancer. Eugenol helps in minimizing the harmful
effects of environmental wastes that can cause cancer of
digestive system.
Clove oil stimulates blood flow and circulation making it
useful for the people having cold extremities.
Cloves benefit the diabetic patients by controlling the
blood glucose levels. Eugenol is powerful enough for
preventing blood clots.
Sucking of a clove bud reduces desire for alcohol.
Muscular cramps are often relieved, when the oil of clove
is applied as a poultice near the affected area.
Cloves also help prevent the breakdown in retina of the
eye, which slows down macular degeneration and aids
vision in the old age. The underlying mechanism is
through the prevention of the breakdown of
docosahexaenoic acid, which preserves vision in elderly
people.
Researchers found that sniffing the spicy aroma of cloves
reduces drowsiness, irritability and headaches.
One drop of clove oil applied to the roof of the mouth can
instantly relieve many headaches.
Clove enhances memory retention. It is recommended for
relieving brain fog, lethargy and depressive state of mind.
Research has shown that clove oil is an effective
mosquito repellent12.
Clove may be looked upon as the champion of all the
anti-oxidants known till date. The Oxygen Radical
Absorption Capacity test (ORAC) is a scale developed by
U.S. Department of Agriculture for comparing anti-
oxidant activity. The ORAC score, of clove is over 10
million. A drop of clove oil is 400 times more powerful
as an anti-oxidant than wolf berries or blueberries.
VETERINARY USES
Cloves are used as part of a larger herbal formula to treat
bitches that are retaining pups.
The clove oil has been used to treat foreign matter in dog
and cat ears and as a painkiller to treat tooth pain.
Peppermint tea with a sprinkle of cloves and ginger has
been used to treat vomiting in dogs; 1 tbsp or more,
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according to the size of the animal, being given 3 times
daily.
CULINARY USES
Dried cloves are the key ingredient in Indian masala tea.
Clove is often used to flavor meat products, pastries,
cookies, candies, chewing gum, spiced fruits, hot spiced
drinks, chocolate drinks, wines and liqueurs, puddings,
sandwiches, cakes, curries, and pickles.
It is a common kitchen spice used for studding
particularly tomatoes, onions, sausage, soups, salads and
herbal teas.
It is an important spice used in cuisines of Russia,
Scandinavia, Greece, India, and China.
MISCELLANEOUS USES
Clove is used to flavor Pharmaceuticals.
Clove oil is used to flavor tooth pastes.
The leaf oil is used to impart fragrance to perfumes and
soaps.
In Indonesia, cloves are mixed with tobacco in the
proportion of 1: 2 to make a cigarette called Kretek.
Clove is used to make pomanders (thin skinned oranges,
lemon and apples are pierced with a large needle to make
holes for studding clove inside the concentric holes).
PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES
Anti-microbial activity
Cloves represent one of the Mother Natures premier
antiseptic. Clove oil was found to be more effective than
sodium propionate (standard food preservative) against
some food borne microbes. Clove oil was found to be
very effective against Staphylococcus species. Amongst
the fungi, Aspergillus niger was found to be highly
sensitive to the clove oil. Essential oil of clove, dispersed
(0.4% v/v) in a concentrated sugar solution, had a
germicidal effect against various bacteria (S. Aureus,
Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
Clostridium perfringens, E.coli) and Candida albicans13.
Clove is also included in Dr Huda Clarks protocol for
elimination of parasites from the digestive system. It has
been found that a 0.05% solution of eugenol is sufficient
to kill bacillus tuberculosis. Clove oil showed
antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic
bacteria resistant to certain antibiotics14. Clove oil and its
main component eugenol show considerable antifungal
activity against Candida Aspergillus and dermatophyte
species. It also shows activity against clinically relevant
fungi including fluconazole- resistant strains15.
Anti -viral activity
Clove is a potent antiviral agent. Eugenin isolated from
clove buds showed antiviral activity against Herpes
Simplex virus at a concentration of 10 µg /ml16.
Chemo- preventive
Aqueous infusion of Clove effectively reduced benzo[a]
pyrene (BP) induced lung carcinogenesis in strain A
mice. Incidence of hyperplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma
were effectively reduced and there was significant
reduction in the number of proliferating cells and
increased number of apoptotic cells in BP induced lung
lesions with the clove infusion. It also down regulates the
expression of some growth promoting proteins, viz,
COX-2, cMyc, Hras17. Aqueous infusion of cloves
showed chemo preventive action on 9, 10-dimethyl benz
(a) anthracene (DMBA) and croton oil induced skin
carcinogenesis in Swiss mice. Oral administration of
aqueous infusions of clove at the dose of 100 µl /mouse
/day not only delayed the formation of papilloma but also
reduced the incidence of papilloma as well as the
cumulative number of papillomas per mouse18.
Hepato-protective activity
Ethanolic extract of Clove showed the hepatoprotective
activity on the paracetamol- induced liver injury. The
extent of hepatic damage is assessed by the level of
increased cytoplasmic enzymes AST, ALT in
circulation19. Clove extract restored the activity of
enzymes AST, ALT and ALP in serum towards normal
values. These enzymes assess the functional status of the
liver in both clinical and experimental settings.
Anti-oxidant activity
Clove and Eugenol possess strong antioxidant activity,
which is comparable to the activities of the synthetic
antioxidant, BHA (butylated hydroxyl anisole) and
Pyrogallol20. Clove has the highest capacity to give off
hydrogen and reduce lipid peroxidation . With respect to
the lipid peroxidation, the inhibitory activity of clove oil
determined using a linolenic acid emulsion system
indicated a higher antioxidant activity than the standard
BHT (Butylated hydroxyl tolvene). It also showed a
significant inhibitory effect against hydroxyl radicals and
act as an iron chelator21. The metal chelating activity,
bleomycin dependent DNA oxidation, diphenyl-p-picryl
hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and the
ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of different
spices were measured in rat liver homogenate. Cloves
showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity &
highest FRAP values22. The antioxidant activity of clove
bud extract and its major aroma components, eugenol and
eugenol acetate were comparable to that of the natural
antioxidant α-tocopherol23. Eugenol inhibited 5-
lipoxygenase activity and leukotriene C-4 in human
PMNL cells24.
Anti-diabetic activity
Clove extract acts like insulin in hepatocytes and
hepatoma cells by reducing phosphoenolpyruvate
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carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose 6-phosphatase
(G6Pase) gene expression. Much like insulin, clove-
mediated repression is reversed by PI3K inhibitors and N-
acetylcysteine (NAC). A more global analysis of gene
expression by DNA microarray analysis revealed that
clove and insulin regulated the expression of many of the
same genes in a similar manner25.
Anti-inflammatory activity
Eugenol, the primary component of cloves volatile oils,
functions as an anti-inflammatory agent. In animal
studies, the addition of clove extract to diets already high
in anti-inflammatory components (like cod liver oil, with
its high ω-3 fatty acid content) brings a synergistic effect.
Clove also contains a variety of flavonoids, including
kaempferol, rhamnetin and β-caryophyllene which also
contributed to cloves anti-inflammatory and antioxidant
properties26. The essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata
had an anti-inflammatory effect matching to that of
etodolac at 0.025 and 0.1 ml/kg and to that of
indomethacin at 0.05 and 0.2 ml/kg doses.
Anti-platelet activity
It was found that both eugenol and acetyl eugenol, (two
active constituents of clove) were more potent than
aspirin in inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by
arachidonate, adrenaline and collagen. In arachidonate
induced-aggregation eugenol was at par with
indomethacin27.
Anti-stress activity
The clove extract reduced the development of cold
restraint induced gastric ulcers and prevented the
biochemical changes induced by sound stress such as
elevated plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase,
alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphtase, glucose,
cholesterol and corticosterone. Clove extract was also
effective in increasing the latency of anoxic stress
induced convulsions in mice 28.
Anti-pyretic effect
Eugenol, the chief constituent of clove oil, showed
marked antipyretic activity when given intravenously,
intragastrically and centrally to rabbits made febrile by
interleukin-1. Eugenol was more effective in reducing
fever than acetaminophen. It reduced fever primarily
through a central action similar to that of common
antipyretic drugs, such as acetaminophen 29.
Anaesthetic effect
Clove oil is found to be an alternative to Tricaine or MS-
222 the only registered anaesthetic for several fish
species. Exposure of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)
to clove oil at the concentration of 100mg/l induced
anesthesia within 1min30. Clove oil and eugenol were
reported to be acceptable anaesthetics for rabbit fish
(Saiganus lineatus), coral reef fish (Pomacentrus
amboinensis) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
for use in aqua culture and aquatic research31. It was
found to be useful as a crab anaesthetic. Clove oil proved
to be highly effective and easy to use on juvenile
(Valamagugil cunnesius and Monodactylus argenteus)
tropical marine fish at the dose of 0.05ml/l. This dose
anaesthetized the fish in less than a minute.
Aphrodisiac
It has been found that ethanolic extract of clove (50%)
produced a significant and sustained increase in the
sexual activity of normal male rats, without any
conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects32.
Mosquito repellent
Clove oil gave the longest duration of 100% repellency
(2-4 h) against three species of mosquitoes i.e. Aedes
aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus
under laboratory conditions using human subjects12.
Insecticidal activity
Eugenol, isoeugenol and methyl eugenol show
insecticidal activity to the storage pathogens, Sitophilus
zeamis and Tribolium costaneum. The clove leaf and bud
oils showed potent insecticidal activity against the human
head louse (Pediculus capitis)33.
CONCLUSION
Clove may be looked upon as the champion of all the
anti-oxidants known till date. A drop of clove oil is 400
times more powerful as an anti-oxidant than wolf berries
or blueberries. Clove is a medicinally powerful herb with
a solid traditional heritage and history. Clove has
physical, mental and emotional health benefits. Clove
possesses antioxidant, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-
microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory,
antithrombotic, anesthetic, pain reliving and insect
repellent properties. Cloves represent one of the Mother
Natures premier antiseptic. Eugenol is the main
constituent responsible for the medicinal properties of the
clove bud. Clove is the most important spice of the world,
as judged from the world trade.
Home Remedies Using Clove
Pressing a clove bud between the jaws, at the site of
aching tooth eases the pain.
Apply clove oil in the cavity of decayed tooth. This
would reduce the pain and help to ameliorate infection.
To remove bad breath chew clove buds.
Prepare a decoction by boiling 5-6 cloves in 30 ml of
water. Take decoction of clove with honey, thrice a day as
an expectorant. Chewing a clove with salt also relives
coughing.
Chewing roasted clove is a wonderful medicine in case of
pharyngitis.
Suck a clove bud to obtain relief from hyperacidity.
Clove oil, when taken with sugar cures stomach ache.
Parle Milind et al / IJRAP 2011, 2 (1) 47-54
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy, 2(1), Jan-Feb 2011 47-54
Paste of clove and common salt, when taken with milk
helps in reducing headache.
Licking the paste of clove powder in honey removes
nausea.
Clove bud boiled in water acts as an anti-emetic,
particularly when taken by pregnant ladies.
Application of the mixture of clove oil and mustard oil
relives joint pains and muscular cramps.
For treating spasmodic coughs during tuberculosis,
bronchitis and asthma, mix a few drops of clove oil with
garlic and honey.
Insert into the ear 2-3 drops of warm mixture of clove oil
and sesame oil to relieve ear problems.
Apply the paste of clove powder in honey over the
affected area to get ridoff acne. The mixture of few drops
of clove oil and coconut oil removes acne and leftover
spots.
Rub a clove stub in water and apply the same over the
affected area for treating sty (inflammation on the eye
lashes).
Eating a clove in betel (piper betel) leaf is the best
remedy for treating catarrh.
Spraying the solution of clove oil in water (1:10) keeps
the insects at bay.
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Pediculidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. 2003; 41: 699704.
Table 1: Taxonomy
Domain
Eukaryota
Subclass
Rosidae
Kingdom
Plantae
Super order
Myrtanae
Subkingdom
Viridaeplantae
Order
Myrtales
Phylum
Tracheophyta
Suborder
Myrtineae
Subphylum
Euphyllophytina
Family
Myrtaceae
Infraphylum
Radiatopses
Genus
Syzygium
Class
Magnoliopsida
Specific epithet
Aromaticum
Table 2: Nutrient Chart of Clove
Nutrient
1 tsp = 2.10 g
Value per 100g
Water
0.144
6.86
Energy
6.783
323
Energy
28.350
1350
Protein
0.126
5.98
Total lipid (fat)
0.421
20.07
Carbohydrate
1.285
61.21
Fiber, total dietary
0.718
34.2
Ash
0.123
5.88
Calcium, Ca
13.566
646
Iron, Fe
0.182
8.68
Magnesium, Mg
5.544
264
Phosphorus, P
2.205
105
Potassium, K
23.142
1102
Sodium, Na
5.103
243
Zinc, Zn
0.023
1.09
Copper, Cu
0.007
0.347
Manganese, Mn
0.631
30.033
Selenium, Se
0.124
5.9
Vitamin C (Total ascorbic acid)
1.697
80.8
Thiamin
0.002
0.115
Riboflavin
0.006
0.267
Niacin
0.031
1.458
Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12
0.027, 0.00
0.590, 0.00
Folate, total
1.953
93
Vitamin A, IU
11.130
530
Vitamin E (α-tocopherol)
0.18
8.52
Vitamin K (phylloquinone)
3.0
141.8
Fatty acids, total saturated
0.114
5.438
Fatty acids, total monounsaturated
0.031
1.471
Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated
0.149
7.088
Phytosterols
5.376
256
β carotene
2
84
  • ... It also shows activity against clinically relevant fungi including fluconazole-resistant strains. [6] Eugenin isolated from clove buds showed antiviral activity against Herpes Simplex virus at a concentration of 10 µg /ml. Clove is also effective in reducing fungal infections such as athlete's foot. ...
    ... Clove is also effective in reducing fungal infections such as athlete's foot. [6,10] Essential oil which is the major constituent of clove interacts with the cell wall and membrane there by causing destruction leading to the loss of vital intracellular materials, which finally result in the bacterial death. The essential oil also penetrates the cytoplasmic membrane and enters inside the cell after the destruction of cell structure, there by inhibiting the normal synthesis of DNA and proteins that are required for bacterial growth. ...
    ... It also showed a significant inhibitory effect against hydroxyl radicals and act as an iron chelator. [6] The antioxidant activity of clove bud extract and its major aroma components, eugenol and eugenol acetate were comparable to that of the natural antioxidant α-tocopherol. [11] Eugenol inhibited 5-lipoxygenase activity and leukotriene C-4 in human PMNL cells. ...
  • ... & L. M. Perr. (Myrtaceae), known as clove, is an Indonesian native plant especially from the Maluku islands (Milind and Deepa, 2011;Rathinam and Viswanathan, 2018;Alfian et al. 2019;Mahulette et al. 2019a). As part of the center of clove origin in the Maluku Islands, Indonesia, Ambon Island has many typical clove germplasm including aromatic cloves varieties (Milind and Deepa, 2011). ...
    ... (Myrtaceae), known as clove, is an Indonesian native plant especially from the Maluku islands (Milind and Deepa, 2011;Rathinam and Viswanathan, 2018;Alfian et al. 2019;Mahulette et al. 2019a). As part of the center of clove origin in the Maluku Islands, Indonesia, Ambon Island has many typical clove germplasm including aromatic cloves varieties (Milind and Deepa, 2011). S. aromaticum var. ...
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    The aim of this study was to determine the morphological characters and essential components of clove oil extract from buds, stalks, and leaves of Syzygium aromaticum var. Tuni and S. aromaticum var. Zanzibar. The results showed that the Tuni clove varieties had a larger size of the leaves, fruit and seed morphology than the Zanzibar variety. The results of the essential component characterization are obtained information that bud oil of Tuni variety was composed of eugenol (67.9%), the stem oil contained eugenol (80.6%), the leaf oil contained eugenol (60.5%). The bud oil of Zanzibar variety was constituted of eugenol (47.4%), the stem oil contained eugenol (67.5%), the leaf oil contained eugenol (63.5%). The main components of both varieties of clove oil were eugenol, followed by caryophyllene, eugenyl acetate, and other minor components. Climate factors such as rainfall, humidity and air temperature on Ambon Island did not significantly affect the eugenol content of both varieties.
  • ... The scientific name of clove is Syzygium aromaticum, classified as the Syzygium genus , Syzygieae family, and Myrtoideae subfamily from the Myrtaceae family (Hossain et al. 2012). Clove is an indigenous plant of Indonesia from the Maluku Islands and is a plant that produces volatile oils (Milind & Deepa, 2011) and has been cultivated in Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Southern China and has spread to other countries such as Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, and Malaysia (Hossain et al., 2012). In Maluku, there is a wild clove species known as the forest clove. ...
    ... The distribution of forest clove is limited to the Northern and Central Maluku Islands and Papua. In the central Maluku Islands, the forest clove is commonly found on Ambon Island and Seram Island (Milind & Deepa 2011). ...
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    Forest clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry.) is a type of wild clove from the Myrtaceae family which is an indigenous plant of Indonesia with a distribution limited to the northern and central Maluku Islands and Papua, Indonesia. In Maluku, this species is known as the forest clove and is only utilized as dried clove buds. Utilization in the form of volatile oil is uncommon; therefore, information about the composition of forest clove volatile oil is not yet available. The present study aimed to determine the chemical composition of six hydrodistillation volatile oils from different morphological parts of the forest clove. Samples were collected from two areas in Maluku and followed the standard laboratory analysis. The samples were extracted using the hydrodistillation method under atmospheric pressure using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. A total of 68 components were identified from all of the volatile oils, consisting of 30 volatile oil components from Ambon Island forest clove and 38 components from Seram Island forest cloves. The main component of clove oil from Ambon Island is germacrene-D (15.49%) which was identified in the bud oil, while the main component of clove bud oil from Seram Island is α-cubebene (20.55%). The soil factor had a very strong influence on the concentration of forest clove volatile oil components and oil content (yield), while the climate factor had more influence on the wet clove bud production weight.
  • ... Spices are rich sources of these compounds. Cloves are known for its carminative properties and works by increasing the concentration of hydrochloric acid in the stomach to improve peristalsis [18]. It is also widely used as anodyne in dentistry [19]. ...
    ... The anti-mutagenic, antigenotoxic and antibacterial effects of Indian borage leaves are also well documented [24]. Altogether these plants products commonly show anti-inflammatory, antioxidants, antiulcerogenic, antithrombotic antiparasitic, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities [18][19][20][21][22][23][24]. In an attempt to investigate the efficacy of the extracts obtained from these plants and plant products against ESBL and carbapenemase producing pathogens, the current study was carried out to qualitatively check their antibacterial activity. ...
  • ... The peripheral analgesic activity of eugenol was reported at the doses of 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg. [10,11] Eugenol has been widely tested to determine its safety for human use and consumption. Cloves, clove oil, and eugenol are all generally recognized as safe in humans when used at levels not exceeding 1500 ppm and listed by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1978. ...
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    Background and aim of the study: The topical anesthetic property of clove remains unexplored even though it has been widely used in dentistry since ages. Hence, the aim of the study was to compare the topical anesthetic efficiency of precooling with ice, clove-papaya based topical gel and benzocaine gel in pediatric patients. Methodology: Sixty healthy children aged 9-10 years who required local anesthetic injections for dental procedures were selected and divided into three groups with 20 patients each. In the first visit, written consent and intraoral screening of the patients were performed. In the second visit, the topical anesthetic agents were applied in the respective groups for 1 min and later local anesthetic injections were administered. Pain perception was evaluated using Sound, Eye, Motor Scale (SEM scale) and Wong Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale (WBFPRS), tabulated, and statistically analyzed. A. Results: The test results demonstrated that benzocaine group has the highest mean WBFPRS score followed by clove-papaya group and then ice cone group. The ice group showed the least mean SEM scale score, followed by the benzocaine group and then clove-papaya group. However, the mean WBFPRS score and the mean SEM scale score did not show any statistically significant difference. Interpretation and conclusion: All the three topical anesthetic agents provided similar surface anesthesia in children. The newly introduced clove-papaya based topical anesthetic gel showed encouraging results, hence can be used as a potent topical anesthetic agent.
  • ... Clove oil has a very good property of biological activity found to have biological activities on life from bacteria as well as anthropoids. Its effect against Pediculus capitis on ovicidal and adulticidal [49], the clove is having the properties of cell reinforcement, hostile to contagious, against viral, against microbial, against diabetic, calming, antithrombotic, analgesic, remembering in agony, and creepy crawly safe. Dental specialist utilized it for brief filling of holes just as in teeth torment. ...
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  • ... In addition, clove essential oil can effectively eliminate parasites from the digestive system. It has been reported that a 0.05% eugenol solution is sufficient to kill bacillus tuberculosis (Milind and Deepa, 2011). Similar to our results are the findings of Park (2008) and Gbenga et al., (2009) who reported that the broilers that were given diets containing cinnamon extract had significantly higher average daily gain and lower feedto-gain ratio over a period of 6 weeks compared to the control birds. ...
  • ... The substitution of phenol (hydroxybenzene) by cloves on glycerinated gelatin could avoid the known carcinogenic, cytotoxic, and teratogenic properties of phenol (Bukowska & Kowalska 2003;Roy et al. 2015;Jović-Jovičić et al. 2016). One of the main components of the essential oil of Indian clove is eugenol (up to 95%; Kegley et al. 2010;Milind & Deepa 2011). The clove essential oil and eugenol have been described as having useful acaricidal (Mahakittikun et al. 2014), insecticidal (Jumbo et al. 2014), antifungal (Xing et al. 2012), antimicrobial (Goni et al. 2009), antibacterial (Devi et al. 2010), antioxidant (Shi et al. 2014), and anticancer characteristics (Dwivedi et al. 2011). ...
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    One of the main methods for plant anatomy study is the analysis of thin, transparent, and stained tissue sections. Synthetic dyes traditionally used in anatomical studies might be expensive and produced by specific companies. In contrast, the use of alternative industrial dyes can both represent an inexpensive substitute as well as an environmentally friendly option for conducting plant anatomy studies. In this study, a set of 22 textile dyes was evaluated. Transversal-, longitudinal, and paradermal sections of plant organs obtained using the freehand cutting technique were stained using hydroalcoholic solution (0 to 100%) of textile dyes purchased from a local market. Dyes mixed with 50% hydroalcoholic solution showed higher efficiency in tissue contrast, allowing greater solubility of dye powder and better solution interaction with the plant tissues. Most of the tested dyes showed satisfactory staining results. Cell wall, especially lignified one, showed higher staining efficiency. Computational docking analysis and molecular models of cellulose and lignin showed the probable association mechanisms and dye selectivity to cell wall constituents. Our findings suggest that the developed method can be useful in mixed practical classes of plant anatomy, chemistry, and/or biochemistry, both at high school as well as undergraduate levels.
  • ... The development of its culture on the ''Great Island'' began at the beginning of the twentieth century. Its value is derived from two products: the clove, the culinary spice and the ingredient of kreteks (Indonesian cigarette) (Parle and Khanna 2011;Arnez 2009) and the essential oil rich in eugenol (Razafimamonjison et al. , 2016, basic ingredient of a variety of applications in the food industry, perfumery, medicine and aromatherapy (Lampman et al. 1977;Leela and Sapna 2008;Kamatou et al. 2012). ...
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    Clove is one of most ancient and precious spice in the world. Clove oil is well-known for its physiological and pharmacological benefits. It is also known as the oldest remedy for relieving tooth pain. The aroma profile of the spice oil plays an important role in consumer acceptance. Hence, analysis of volatile compounds becomes crucial as it facilitates the authentication of the spice oil. In this study, clove oil was extracted by hydrodistillation using two different apparatus namely, conventional distillation apparatus and Clevenger's apparatus. Also, the clove oil was extracted from two different physical forms i.e. from whole clove buds and powdered clove buds. The compounds present these oils were identified using GCMS and the chemical profile was compared with that of two market clove oils procured from two different vendors.