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Clove may be looked upon as a champion of all the antioxidants known till date. The Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity (ORAC) test is a scale developed by U.S. Department of Agriculture for comparing anti-oxidant activity. The ORAC score, of clove is over 10 million. A drop of clove oil is 400 times more powerful as an anti-oxidant than wolf berries or blueberries. Health benefits from the use of clove have been known over the centuries. It is beneficial as a home remedy in curing several ailments / diseases. In addition to its culinary uses, the clove buds have an abundance of medicinal and recreational uses. The major part of the world’s consumption of the clove spice is in the home kitchens. However, commercial use of the clove is for the production of clove oil that contain active constituents, which possess antioxidant, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, anesthetic, pain reliving and insect repellent properties. Eugenol is the main constituent responsible for the medicinal properties of the clove bud. In the light of above, we thought it worthwhile to compile an up-to-date review article on clove covering its, synonyms, chemical constituents, phytopharmacology and medicinal uses.
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Parle Milind et al / IJRAP 2011, 2 (1) 47-54
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy, 2(1), Jan-Feb 2011 47-54
Review Article Available online through ISSN 2229-3566
Parle Milind* and Khanna Deepa
Pharmacology Division, Dept. Pharm. Sciences (Accredited by NBA), Guru Jambheshwar University of
Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana, India
Received on: 12/11/2010 Revised on: 04/01/2011 Accepted on: 23/01/2011
Clove may be looked upon as a champion of all the antioxidants known till date. The Oxygen Radical Absorption
Capacity (ORAC) test is a scale developed by U.S. Department of Agriculture for comparing anti-oxidant activity.
The ORAC score, of clove is over 10 million. A drop of clove oil is 400 times more powerful as an anti-oxidant than
wolf berries or blueberries. Health benefits from the use of clove have been known over the centuries. It is beneficial
as a home remedy in curing several ailments / diseases. In addition to its culinary uses, the clove buds have an
abundance of medicinal and recreational uses. The major part of the worlds consumption of the clove spice is in the
home kitchens. However, commercial use of the clove is for the production of clove oil that contain active
constituents, which possess antioxidant, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory,
antithrombotic, anesthetic, pain reliving and insect repellent properties. Eugenol is the main constituent responsible
for the medicinal properties of the clove bud. In the light of above, we thought it worthwhile to compile an up-to-date
review article on clove covering its, synonyms, chemical constituents, phytopharmacology and medicinal uses.
KEY WORDS: Cloves, Syzygium aromaticum, Laung, Lavang.
*Corresponding Author
Dr. Milind Parle, Professor of Pharmacology, Chairman, Dept. Pharm. Sciences, APTI Executive Council Member,
Chairman, IAEC, Member Secretary, Research Ethics Board (ICMR), Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and
Technology, Hisar (Haryana), India Email:
The symbol of dignity that is what Clove actually
means. It is a precious and valuable spice of the world. It
is an unopened flower bud growing on a tree belonging to
the family Myrtaceae which is same as that of guavas.
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, Eugenia aromaticum or
Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower
buds, which are commonly used in biryanis, pickles,
salads and garam masala. The tree that creates the miracle
of nature originated from the Moluccas Islands, actually
known as Spice Island. It is the common product found
in the spice rack around the world. Clove buds posses
intense fragrance and burning taste. They have deep
brown color, powerful fragrant odour which is warm,
pungent, strongly sweet and slightly astringent. In India it
is used in almost all spicy rich dishes. Indonesia uses half
the world production of cloves to make kretek cigarettes
in the proportion of one part of clove mixed with two
parts of tobacco. In 2009 clove cigarettes were banned in
the U.S. however they are still marketed with the new
label as filtered clove cigars.
Common Names
Cloves, Carophyllus, Clovos, Caryophyllus
Botanical Names
Eugenia caryophyllus, Syzygium aromaticum
Names in Indian languages
Sanskrit: Bhadrasriya, Devakusuma, Devapuspa,
Haricandana, Karampu, Lavanga, Lavangaka, Lavangam,
Hindi: Laung, Laumg, Lavang.
Malayalam: Grampu, Karampu, Karayampu.
Marathi: Luvang
Kannada: Lavanga, Daevakusuma, Krambu
Tamil: Kirampu, Ilavankam, Kiraambu,
Telgu: Devakusumamu, Lavangamu, Lavangalu,
Bengali: Lavanga.
Gujarati: Lavang
Punjabi: Laung
Oriya: Labanga
Urdu: Laung, Loung
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Arabic: Kabsh qarunfil, Kabsh qaranful
Bulgarian: Karamfil
Chinese: Ding xiang
Dutch: Kruidnagel
Danish: Nellike
French: Giroflier ,Cloude girofle
German: Gewürznelke , Nelke
Greek: Garifalo
Georgian: Mikhaki, Mixaki
Hungarian: Szegfu
Indonesian: Cengke, Cengkeh
Italian: Chiodo di garofano
Japanese: Girofla, Choji, Kurobu
Korean: Jeonghyang
Latvian: Krustnaglinas
Nepalese: Lwaang
Norwegian: Nellik
Portuguese: Cravo de India
Persian: Mikhak
Pashto: Kala
Russian: Gvosdika, Pazhitnik grecheski, Shambala,
Pazhitnik cennoj
Spanish: Clavo, Clavo de olor
Swedish: Kryddnejlika, Kryddnejlikor, Nejlikor
Turkish: Carenfil
Thai: Khan plu, Garn ploo
Vietnamese: Dhing huong
Clove is one of the most ancient and valuable spices of
the Orient, with its origin as old as the first century,
before Christ. The ancient Chinese Han dynasty lasting
from 207 B.C. to 220 A.D. gives us our first clue to the
use of fragrant clove. Chinese physician of that era wrote
that the court visitors to the Emperor were required to
hold clove in their mouth. This was done to save the ruler
from the bad breath of the visitors. The use of clove as a
spice reached Europe around the 4th century A.D., when
commercial trading really started with the Arabs, who in
turn acquired these dried and fragrant buds from the
cultures to the East in Asia. Its source and place of origin
were shrouded in mystery until the Portuguese discovered
the Moluccas Island or Indonesia in the 16th century.
Parents planted a clove tree, when a child was born,
believing if the tree flourished, so will the child. Roughly,
half the commercial supply of cloves in the world is
consumed by the Indonesians. Cloves are mixed with
tobacco to produce a special cigarette, which is a
ubiquitous sight in Indonesia.
Two major naval European powers in the 17th and 18th
centuries, namely the Dutch and the Portuguese were
involved in a long tussle over competition for cloves. One
of the ways in which the Dutch eventually gained a
complete monopoly on the trade in cloves was by the
destruction of every viable clove tree in all the islands,
saving only the Dutch colonized island of Ambon on
which vast acreage was devoted to clove plantations. The
Dutch benefited from controlling much of the South East
Asian islands. This monopoly of the Dutch lasted till the
19th century, when the plant was cultivated in different
parts of the world having a tropical climate. The Dutch
monopoly of the spice was broken, when the French
managed to cultivate the tree on their colonized islands in
Asia. The islands of Zanzibar, which belong to present
day Tanzania, in eastern Africa has been a major producer
of cloves for many decades. This exported plant grows so
well in Zanzibar that the moniker given to the island of
Zanzibar is Island of Cloves. Clove was established in
Sri Lanka in 1796 A.D., before the arrival of the British.
In Britain, cloves were worth at least their weight in gold,
due to their high importing price in 17th and 18th
centuries. In India East India Company introduced clove
in 1800 A.D. During Christmas, there is a tradition in
some European countries to make pomanders (studding of
a thin-skinned orange with clove buds) which are hung
around the house. This helps to spread a nice scent
throughout the house and serves as festival decoration.
Cloves are the aromatic dried buds of a tree (Eugenia
caryophyllata also sometimes Syzgium aromaticum) used
as a spice in virtually all the worlds cuisine. The term
Clove is derived from the French word Clou and the
English word Clout, both meaning nail- from the
likeliness of the flower bud of the Clove tree to a broad-
headed nail. The Clove tree is an evergreen tree, which
grows to a height ranging from 8-12m, having large
square leaves and sanguine flowers in numerous groups
of terminal clusters. The flower buds are at first of a pale
color and gradually become green, after which they
develop into a bright red, when they are ready for
collecting. Cloves are harvested when 1.52 cm long, and
consist of a long calyx, terminating in four spreading
sepals, and four unopened petals, which form a small ball
in the center.
Planting material
The seeds should be collected from fully ripe fruits for
raising seedlings. Fruits for seed collection known
commonly as mother of clove are allowed to ripe on the
tree and drop down naturally. Such fruits are collected
and sown directly in the nursery or soaked in water
overnight and the pericarp removed before sowing. The
second method gives quicker and higher percentage of
germination. Only fully developed and uniform sized
seeds, which show the signs of germination by the
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presence of pink radicle, are used for sowing. It is
advisable to sow the seeds immediately after harvest.
Heaping the fruits or keeping them tied up in air tight
bags hastens the death of the seeds. Beds of 15-20 cm
height, 1m width and conventional length are prepared for
sowing seeds. The fertilizers must be applied in two equal
split doses during the months of May-June and
September-October in shallow drenches dug around the
plant about 1-11/m away from the base.
Harvesting and processing
The trees begin to flower in 6 years. Full bearing is
achieved by about 20 years and the production continues
for 80 years or more. Bearing between years shows much
variation. Clove clusters are handpicked, when the buds
reach full size and turn pink but before they open. At this
stage, they are less than 2 cm long. They are spread thinly
on mats and stirred frequently for uniform drying. Well
dried cloves will snap cleanly with a sharp click across
the thumb nail and weigh about one third of the green
weight. The opened flowers are not valued as a spice.
Harvesting has to be done without damaging the
branches, as it adversely affects the subsequent growth of
the trees. On an average, a clove tree yields 3.5-7.0
kg/year, depending upon the age, size and condition of
the tree.
Climate and soil
Clove trees grow well in rich loamy soils of the humid
tropics and can be grown successfully in the red soils of
the midlands of Kerala as well as in the hilly terrain of
Western Ghats at higher elevations in Tamil Nadu and
Karnataka. A cooler climate with well distributed rainfall
is ideal for flowering; it thrives well in areas receiving an
annual rainfall of 150-300 cm. The site selected for
cultivation of clove needs good drainage, since crop
cannot withstand water logging.
The composition of the clove varies according to the agro
climatic conditions under which it is grown, processed
and stored. The dried clove bud contains carbohydrates,
fixed oil, steam-volatile oil, resins, tannins, proteins,
cellulose, pentosans and mineral elements. Carbohydrates
comprise about two-thirds of the weight of the spice. The
dried dark and flower buds also contain nutrients like
proteins, minerals, vitamins, etc. Nutrient composition of
clove is depicted in Table 2.
Clove comprises of volatile as well as non-volatile
Volatile Constituents
Clove yields different types of volatile oil [oil extracted
from i. leaves, ii. the stem, iii. the buds and iv. the fruit.]
These oils differ considerably in yield and quality. The
yield and composition of the oil obtained are influenced
by its origin, season, variety and quality of raw material,
maturity at harvest, pre- and post-distillation treatments
and method of distillation. The chief component of all the
types of oil is eugenol.
Bud Oil
Good-quality clove buds contain 1520% essential oil1,2.
The oil is dominated by Eugenol (7085%), eugenyl
acetate (15%) and β-caryophyllene (512%), which
together make up 99% of the oil. The constituents of the
oil also include methylamylketone, methyl salicylate, α-
and β-humulene, benzaldehyde, β-ylangene and chavicol.
The minor constituents like methylamylketone,
methylsalicylate etc., are responsible for the characteristic
pleasant odour of cloves. The clove bud and stem oils
from Madagascar were also dominated by eugenol,
eugenyl acetate and β-caryophyllene. The stem oil
contained a higher level of eugenol, whereas the eugenyl
acetate content was higher in the bud oil. The oil from
clove bud contained 73.579.7% eugenol and 4.5 10.7%
eugenyl acetate, while the stem oil contained 76.484.8%
eugenol and 1.58.0% eugenyl acetate. Both contained
7.312.4% β-caryophyllene and 1.01.4% α-humulene3.
Pino et al. identified 36 compounds from the volatile oil
of clove buds. Clove buds from India contained 12.9
18.5% oil, of which 4455% was eugenol, whereas the
pedicels contained 3.07.7% oil with 60.072.4%
Leaf Oil
Clove leaves yield 3.04.8% essential oil. The essential
oil content during the different stages of leaf growth
revealed that the eugenol content in the leaves increased
from 38.3 to 95.2% with maturity, while the contents of
eugenyl acetate (51.2 to 1.5%) and caryophyllene (6.3 to
0.2%) decreased 4. Clove bud and leaf oil contain various
classes of compounds, e.g. monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes,
aldehydes and ketones.
Clove Stem Oil
Clove stem yields 6% volatile oil1. The oil is a pale to
light yellow liquid containing 80.2% eugenol and 6.6% β-
caryophyllene, besides several minor components.
Fruit Oil
Ripe fruits yield 2% of oil, which is comprised of 50
55% eugenol.
Non-volatile Constituents
A few non-volatiles have been isolated from clove, which
include tannins, sterols, triterpenes and flavonoids.
Cloves contain 1013% tannins, which have the same
chemical composition as gallotannic acid. Eugenin and
ellagitannin5 were isolated from cloves. Eugenol
glucoside gallate, a chromone C-glycoside, galloyl and
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hexahydroxy diphenyl esters of 2, 4, 6-trihydroxy
acetophenone- 3-glucopyranoside were isolated from
clove leaves6. Further, two ellagitannins, namely,
syzyginin A (1, 2, 3-tri-O-galloyl4, 6-(S) - tergalloyl-β-
D-glucoside) and syzyginin B, were also isolated from the
Cloves contain about 2% of the triterpene, oleanolic acid.
Narayanan and Natu (1974) isolated maslinic acid from
clove buds7. From clove, 2α-hydroxyoleanolic acid was
also isolated8.
Sterols isolated from clove include sitosterol, stigmasterol
and campesterol8.
A chromone C-glucoside, isobiflorin (5, 7-dihydroxy-2-
methoxychromone-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside) and
biflorin were isolated from the ethanolic extract of
cloves9. From the ethanol extract of the seeds, apigenin
6-C-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(12)- β-D-
galactopyranoside]-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and
apigenin-6-C-[β-D-xylopyranosyl- (1 2)-β-D-
coumarylglucopyranoside) were isolated10.
Clove is known to possess antibacterial properties and is
used in various dental creams, tooth pastes, mouth
washes, and throat sprays to cleanse bacteria. It is also
used to relive pain from sore gums and improves overall
dental health.
In dentistry, eugenol in combination with zinc oxide is
used for temporary filling of cavities.
Clove is an anodyne (an agent that soothes or relives
pain) for dental emergencies11.
Cloves are aphrodisiac (an agent for arousing or
increasing sexual desire or potency).
Clove is used as an anti-inflammatory agent, due to its
high content of flavonoids. Aroma therapists use pure
clove oil to cure the symptoms of rheumatism and
Clove is used as a carminative, to increase hydrochloric
acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis.
Apply the paste of clove powder in honey to treat acne.
Paste of clove powder in water promotes faster healing of
cuts and bites.
Cloves can effectively cure many digestive problems. It is
having medicinal qualities to cure flatulence, loose
motions, indigestion and nausea. Cloves are useful in
relieving the symptoms of diarrhea, gastric irritability and
Clove and clove oil boost the immune system by
purifying the blood and help to fight against various
Clove oil is effective in curing Athletes foot and nail
Cloves are good expectorants that promote the discharge
of mucous and secretions in the respiratory passage.
The aromatic clove oil, when inhaled can help soothe
certain respiratory conditions like cold, cough, asthma,
bronchitis, and sinusitis. It also helps in clearing the nasal
Cloves can effectively prevent the lung cancer as well as
the skin cancer. Eugenol helps in minimizing the harmful
effects of environmental wastes that can cause cancer of
digestive system.
Clove oil stimulates blood flow and circulation making it
useful for the people having cold extremities.
Cloves benefit the diabetic patients by controlling the
blood glucose levels. Eugenol is powerful enough for
preventing blood clots.
Sucking of a clove bud reduces desire for alcohol.
Muscular cramps are often relieved, when the oil of clove
is applied as a poultice near the affected area.
Cloves also help prevent the breakdown in retina of the
eye, which slows down macular degeneration and aids
vision in the old age. The underlying mechanism is
through the prevention of the breakdown of
docosahexaenoic acid, which preserves vision in elderly
Researchers found that sniffing the spicy aroma of cloves
reduces drowsiness, irritability and headaches.
One drop of clove oil applied to the roof of the mouth can
instantly relieve many headaches.
Clove enhances memory retention. It is recommended for
relieving brain fog, lethargy and depressive state of mind.
Research has shown that clove oil is an effective
mosquito repellent12.
Clove may be looked upon as the champion of all the
anti-oxidants known till date. The Oxygen Radical
Absorption Capacity test (ORAC) is a scale developed by
U.S. Department of Agriculture for comparing anti-
oxidant activity. The ORAC score, of clove is over 10
million. A drop of clove oil is 400 times more powerful
as an anti-oxidant than wolf berries or blueberries.
Cloves are used as part of a larger herbal formula to treat
bitches that are retaining pups.
The clove oil has been used to treat foreign matter in dog
and cat ears and as a painkiller to treat tooth pain.
Peppermint tea with a sprinkle of cloves and ginger has
been used to treat vomiting in dogs; 1 tbsp or more,
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according to the size of the animal, being given 3 times
Dried cloves are the key ingredient in Indian masala tea.
Clove is often used to flavor meat products, pastries,
cookies, candies, chewing gum, spiced fruits, hot spiced
drinks, chocolate drinks, wines and liqueurs, puddings,
sandwiches, cakes, curries, and pickles.
It is a common kitchen spice used for studding
particularly tomatoes, onions, sausage, soups, salads and
herbal teas.
It is an important spice used in cuisines of Russia,
Scandinavia, Greece, India, and China.
Clove is used to flavor Pharmaceuticals.
Clove oil is used to flavor tooth pastes.
The leaf oil is used to impart fragrance to perfumes and
In Indonesia, cloves are mixed with tobacco in the
proportion of 1: 2 to make a cigarette called Kretek.
Clove is used to make pomanders (thin skinned oranges,
lemon and apples are pierced with a large needle to make
holes for studding clove inside the concentric holes).
Anti-microbial activity
Cloves represent one of the Mother Natures premier
antiseptic. Clove oil was found to be more effective than
sodium propionate (standard food preservative) against
some food borne microbes. Clove oil was found to be
very effective against Staphylococcus species. Amongst
the fungi, Aspergillus niger was found to be highly
sensitive to the clove oil. Essential oil of clove, dispersed
(0.4% v/v) in a concentrated sugar solution, had a
germicidal effect against various bacteria (S. Aureus,
Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
Clostridium perfringens, E.coli) and Candida albicans13.
Clove is also included in Dr Huda Clarks protocol for
elimination of parasites from the digestive system. It has
been found that a 0.05% solution of eugenol is sufficient
to kill bacillus tuberculosis. Clove oil showed
antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic
bacteria resistant to certain antibiotics14. Clove oil and its
main component eugenol show considerable antifungal
activity against Candida Aspergillus and dermatophyte
species. It also shows activity against clinically relevant
fungi including fluconazole- resistant strains15.
Anti -viral activity
Clove is a potent antiviral agent. Eugenin isolated from
clove buds showed antiviral activity against Herpes
Simplex virus at a concentration of 10 µg /ml16.
Chemo- preventive
Aqueous infusion of Clove effectively reduced benzo[a]
pyrene (BP) induced lung carcinogenesis in strain A
mice. Incidence of hyperplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma
were effectively reduced and there was significant
reduction in the number of proliferating cells and
increased number of apoptotic cells in BP induced lung
lesions with the clove infusion. It also down regulates the
expression of some growth promoting proteins, viz,
COX-2, cMyc, Hras17. Aqueous infusion of cloves
showed chemo preventive action on 9, 10-dimethyl benz
(a) anthracene (DMBA) and croton oil induced skin
carcinogenesis in Swiss mice. Oral administration of
aqueous infusions of clove at the dose of 100 µl /mouse
/day not only delayed the formation of papilloma but also
reduced the incidence of papilloma as well as the
cumulative number of papillomas per mouse18.
Hepato-protective activity
Ethanolic extract of Clove showed the hepatoprotective
activity on the paracetamol- induced liver injury. The
extent of hepatic damage is assessed by the level of
increased cytoplasmic enzymes AST, ALT in
circulation19. Clove extract restored the activity of
enzymes AST, ALT and ALP in serum towards normal
values. These enzymes assess the functional status of the
liver in both clinical and experimental settings.
Anti-oxidant activity
Clove and Eugenol possess strong antioxidant activity,
which is comparable to the activities of the synthetic
antioxidant, BHA (butylated hydroxyl anisole) and
Pyrogallol20. Clove has the highest capacity to give off
hydrogen and reduce lipid peroxidation . With respect to
the lipid peroxidation, the inhibitory activity of clove oil
determined using a linolenic acid emulsion system
indicated a higher antioxidant activity than the standard
BHT (Butylated hydroxyl tolvene). It also showed a
significant inhibitory effect against hydroxyl radicals and
act as an iron chelator21. The metal chelating activity,
bleomycin dependent DNA oxidation, diphenyl-p-picryl
hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and the
ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of different
spices were measured in rat liver homogenate. Cloves
showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity &
highest FRAP values22. The antioxidant activity of clove
bud extract and its major aroma components, eugenol and
eugenol acetate were comparable to that of the natural
antioxidant α-tocopherol23. Eugenol inhibited 5-
lipoxygenase activity and leukotriene C-4 in human
PMNL cells24.
Anti-diabetic activity
Clove extract acts like insulin in hepatocytes and
hepatoma cells by reducing phosphoenolpyruvate
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carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose 6-phosphatase
(G6Pase) gene expression. Much like insulin, clove-
mediated repression is reversed by PI3K inhibitors and N-
acetylcysteine (NAC). A more global analysis of gene
expression by DNA microarray analysis revealed that
clove and insulin regulated the expression of many of the
same genes in a similar manner25.
Anti-inflammatory activity
Eugenol, the primary component of cloves volatile oils,
functions as an anti-inflammatory agent. In animal
studies, the addition of clove extract to diets already high
in anti-inflammatory components (like cod liver oil, with
its high ω-3 fatty acid content) brings a synergistic effect.
Clove also contains a variety of flavonoids, including
kaempferol, rhamnetin and β-caryophyllene which also
contributed to cloves anti-inflammatory and antioxidant
properties26. The essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata
had an anti-inflammatory effect matching to that of
etodolac at 0.025 and 0.1 ml/kg and to that of
indomethacin at 0.05 and 0.2 ml/kg doses.
Anti-platelet activity
It was found that both eugenol and acetyl eugenol, (two
active constituents of clove) were more potent than
aspirin in inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by
arachidonate, adrenaline and collagen. In arachidonate
induced-aggregation eugenol was at par with
Anti-stress activity
The clove extract reduced the development of cold
restraint induced gastric ulcers and prevented the
biochemical changes induced by sound stress such as
elevated plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase,
alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphtase, glucose,
cholesterol and corticosterone. Clove extract was also
effective in increasing the latency of anoxic stress
induced convulsions in mice 28.
Anti-pyretic effect
Eugenol, the chief constituent of clove oil, showed
marked antipyretic activity when given intravenously,
intragastrically and centrally to rabbits made febrile by
interleukin-1. Eugenol was more effective in reducing
fever than acetaminophen. It reduced fever primarily
through a central action similar to that of common
antipyretic drugs, such as acetaminophen 29.
Anaesthetic effect
Clove oil is found to be an alternative to Tricaine or MS-
222 the only registered anaesthetic for several fish
species. Exposure of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)
to clove oil at the concentration of 100mg/l induced
anesthesia within 1min30. Clove oil and eugenol were
reported to be acceptable anaesthetics for rabbit fish
(Saiganus lineatus), coral reef fish (Pomacentrus
amboinensis) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
for use in aqua culture and aquatic research31. It was
found to be useful as a crab anaesthetic. Clove oil proved
to be highly effective and easy to use on juvenile
(Valamagugil cunnesius and Monodactylus argenteus)
tropical marine fish at the dose of 0.05ml/l. This dose
anaesthetized the fish in less than a minute.
It has been found that ethanolic extract of clove (50%)
produced a significant and sustained increase in the
sexual activity of normal male rats, without any
conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects32.
Mosquito repellent
Clove oil gave the longest duration of 100% repellency
(2-4 h) against three species of mosquitoes i.e. Aedes
aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus
under laboratory conditions using human subjects12.
Insecticidal activity
Eugenol, isoeugenol and methyl eugenol show
insecticidal activity to the storage pathogens, Sitophilus
zeamis and Tribolium costaneum. The clove leaf and bud
oils showed potent insecticidal activity against the human
head louse (Pediculus capitis)33.
Clove may be looked upon as the champion of all the
anti-oxidants known till date. A drop of clove oil is 400
times more powerful as an anti-oxidant than wolf berries
or blueberries. Clove is a medicinally powerful herb with
a solid traditional heritage and history. Clove has
physical, mental and emotional health benefits. Clove
possesses antioxidant, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-
microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory,
antithrombotic, anesthetic, pain reliving and insect
repellent properties. Cloves represent one of the Mother
Natures premier antiseptic. Eugenol is the main
constituent responsible for the medicinal properties of the
clove bud. Clove is the most important spice of the world,
as judged from the world trade.
Home Remedies Using Clove
Pressing a clove bud between the jaws, at the site of
aching tooth eases the pain.
Apply clove oil in the cavity of decayed tooth. This
would reduce the pain and help to ameliorate infection.
To remove bad breath chew clove buds.
Prepare a decoction by boiling 5-6 cloves in 30 ml of
water. Take decoction of clove with honey, thrice a day as
an expectorant. Chewing a clove with salt also relives
Chewing roasted clove is a wonderful medicine in case of
Suck a clove bud to obtain relief from hyperacidity.
Clove oil, when taken with sugar cures stomach ache.
Parle Milind et al / IJRAP 2011, 2 (1) 47-54
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy, 2(1), Jan-Feb 2011 47-54
Paste of clove and common salt, when taken with milk
helps in reducing headache.
Licking the paste of clove powder in honey removes
Clove bud boiled in water acts as an anti-emetic,
particularly when taken by pregnant ladies.
Application of the mixture of clove oil and mustard oil
relives joint pains and muscular cramps.
For treating spasmodic coughs during tuberculosis,
bronchitis and asthma, mix a few drops of clove oil with
garlic and honey.
Insert into the ear 2-3 drops of warm mixture of clove oil
and sesame oil to relieve ear problems.
Apply the paste of clove powder in honey over the
affected area to get ridoff acne. The mixture of few drops
of clove oil and coconut oil removes acne and leftover
Rub a clove stub in water and apply the same over the
affected area for treating sty (inflammation on the eye
Eating a clove in betel (piper betel) leaf is the best
remedy for treating catarrh.
Spraying the solution of clove oil in water (1:10) keeps
the insects at bay.
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A potential Chemopreventive agent for lung cancer.
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a number of plant essential oils and Phytoconstituents. Journal
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caryophyllata Thunb) buds and lavender (Lavandula stoechas
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22. Yadav AS, Bhatnagar D. Free radical scavenging activity, metal
chelation and antioxidant power of some Indian spices.
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23. Lee KG, Shibamoto T. Antioxidant property of aroma extract
isolated from clove buds [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et
Perry]. Food Chemistry. 2001; 74(4): 443448.
24. Raghavenra H, Diwakr BT, Lokesh BR, Naidu KA. Eugenol, the
active principle from cloves inhibits 5-lipoxygenase activity and
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(Syzygium aromaticum L). Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty
Acids. 1993; 48(5):363-72.
28. Singh AK, Dhamanigi SS, Asad M. Anti-stress activity of
hydro-alcoholic extract of Eugenia caryophyllus buds (clove).
Indian J. Pharmacol. 2009; 41:28-31
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Neuropharmacology. 1987; 26: 17751778.
30. Waterstrat PR. Induction and recovery from anesthesia in channel
catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings exposed to clove oil.
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clove oil as an anaesthetic for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus
mykiss (Walbaum). Aquaculture Research. 1998; 29(2): 89101.
32. Tajuddin, Ahmed S, Latif A, Qasmi IA. Effect of 50% ethanolic
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Pediculidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. 2003; 41: 699704.
Table 1: Taxonomy
Super order
Specific epithet
Table 2: Nutrient Chart of Clove
1 tsp = 2.10 g
Value per 100g
Total lipid (fat)
Fiber, total dietary
Calcium, Ca
Iron, Fe
Magnesium, Mg
Phosphorus, P
Potassium, K
Sodium, Na
Zinc, Zn
Copper, Cu
Manganese, Mn
Selenium, Se
Vitamin C (Total ascorbic acid)
Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12
0.027, 0.00
0.590, 0.00
Folate, total
Vitamin A, IU
Vitamin E (α-tocopherol)
Vitamin K (phylloquinone)
Fatty acids, total saturated
Fatty acids, total monounsaturated
Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated
β carotene
... Eugenol and Eugenin isolated from clove bud essential oil was also shown to have potent inhibitory effect against herpes simplex virus at a dose of 10 μg/ml (Milind and Deepa, 2011). The antiviral efficacy of aqueous extracts of clove against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and influenza A virus when combined with acyclovir has also been reported (Batiha et al., 2020). ...
... The anti-diabetic effects of clove essential oil and extracts are well documented. It is assumed that clove extract mimics the action of insulin on gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; and that expression of several genes are regulated by clove and insulin in the same pattern (Milind and Deepa, 2011). Adefegha and Oboh (2012) reported that polyphenol-rich extracts from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. ...
... In traditional medicines of Australia and Asian countries, clove is used for ear ache, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antifungal, antibacterial and peptic ulcer treatments. Other uses include as an anaesthetic, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, memory recall, anti-stress, analgesic, anticonvulsant, antimycotic, insecticidal, antimutagenic, and antiulcerogenic amongst other uses (Milind and Deepa, 2011;Agrawal et al., 2018;El-Ghallab et al., 2020;Yadav et al., 2020). This overview has revealed documented scientific evidence that clove spice possesses antioxidant, anti-microbial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and antiobesity functions amongst other reported properties. ...
Full-text available
Spices-dried aromatic parts of plants (leaves, seeds, bark, roots, rhizomes, buds, etc) used to enhance flavour, taste and colour (sensory quality) of foods, are increasingly finding other useful roles in healthcare beyond their primary use as culinary organoleptic enhancers. Several spices are currently being investigated for their potential health benefits, because of the failing efficacy, toxicity and high cost associated with conventional drugs. One such spice: Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and L.M.Perry [Myrtaceae] (Clove), has a multi-dimensional role in diet, medicine, functional foods and nutraceuticals, agriculture, among other industries. Peer-reviewed articles, mostly from PubMed and Google Scholar, were consulted for the purpose of this review. The nutritional and phytochemical contents, selected biological activities as well as some functional foods and beverages of clove and their uses for human health are presented. Although these observations are largely empirical, the efficacious attributes have led to their pharmacological applications in the indigenous system of medicine all over the world and bridge between food, diet and medicine. Considering the GRAS status of clove, more studies on bioavailability, accumulation, toxicity, dosage and efficacy of clove as a spice drug or functional foods in biological systems especially in humans are required. Meanwhile, clove and its products can be used as co-adjuvants in the prevention, treatment and management of chronic diseases. Further, many applications of clove in food, health, cosmetics, pharmaceutics, nanoparticles and agricultural industries are still open for investigations.
... Because, opened buds will not be considered as a spice. On an average, a tree yields around 3-7 kg in an year based on its age and size (Milind & Deepa, 2011) [120] . In food industry, cloves are used in the form of powder or essential oils or oleoresin in very little quantity because of their intense flavour. ...
... Because, opened buds will not be considered as a spice. On an average, a tree yields around 3-7 kg in an year based on its age and size (Milind & Deepa, 2011) [120] . In food industry, cloves are used in the form of powder or essential oils or oleoresin in very little quantity because of their intense flavour. ...
Full-text available
Spices are the prime source of flavor, aroma, taste and play a major role in culinary applications. Major spices such as black pepper, cardamom, turmeric and ginger, tree spices including nutmeg, cinnamon, clove and seed spices such as fenugreek, fennel, cumin, coriander are the important spices used in South Indian cuisines. Along with this, leafy spices such as curry leaves and bay leaves are also used in the same. Fresh spice has to be processed after harvesting so that shelf life of the same can be improved without affecting the quality. Aroma of a spice is contributed by the essential oil, which is purely volatile in nature and oleoresins are the non-volatile counterpart that adds to the pungency. This review paper deals with the post-harvest processing, chemical composition and culinary application of major spices used in South Indian cuisine.
... Also, the Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) belongs to the Myrtaceae family, which is a nail-shaped dried flower bud [17,18]; its EO has been traditionally applied in aromatherapy, relieving headaches, joint pain, toothaches, and oral antiseptic [19,20]. Furthermore, Clove EO has also been used in dental emergencies as an asymptomatic reliever of toothache and anti-inflammatory in the mouth and throat [21,22]. Also, other applications of Clove EO and Clove extracts have been reported, such as antimutagenic, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antiparasitic, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activities [23,24]. ...
Full-text available
Background Cinnamon ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum ) and Clove ( Syzygium aromaticum ) essential oils are two medicinally important plant-derived substances with a wide range of biological properties. Besides, nanoemulsion-based gels have been widely used to increase topical drug delivery and effectiveness. Methods This study aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory effect (paw edema test) and the anti-nociceptive effect (hot plate and formalin test) of nanoemulsion-based gels containing the essential oils in the animal model. Cinnamon and Clove essential oils nanoemulsions with droplet sizes of 28 ± 6 nm and 12 ± 3 nm were first prepared. By adding carboxymethylcellulose (3.5% w/v), the nanoemulsions were then gelified. Finally, the nanogels were characterized by ATR-FTIR analysis and were used as topical pre-treatment before induction of inflammation or pain in acute and chronic analgesic experimental studies. Results The paw edema and formalin findings showed that the nanogels formulations possess significant anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Conclusion The prepared nanogels could be considered as analgesic drugs for inhibiting the inflammation and pain of diseases.
... Its history starts from Indonesia and now, it is also grown in several parts of the world most abundantly in Brazil. This plant is rich in phenolic compounds (Cort es-Rojas et al., 2014) and due to its chemical composition it has anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antioxidant, anesthetic, antiviral, antidiabetic, and pain reliever effects (Milind and Deepa, 2011). ...
Full-text available
This study was aimed to assess the impacts of Aloe vera (AV) and Clove (Cv) powder supplementation on growth performance, carcass quality, blood biochemistry and hematology of Japanese quails and studying the possibility of using them as alternatives to antibiotics growth promotors as a natural safe products. Four hundred, seven-day old mixed sex chicks were divided into four groups of five replicates 20 birds per replicate including (10 males& 10 females). Birds in the control group (T1) were fed a diet containing Enramycin (0.02%) as an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP), while T2, T3 and T4, birds were supplemented with AV leaf powder, Cv powder and mixture of both at 0.5, 0.5 and 0.25+0.25% of feed, respectively. Results showed that total feed intake in all supplemented groups were significantly (p<0.05) higher than T1. Weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly higher (p<0.05) in T4 while T2 and T3 were better (p<0.05) than T1. Breast yield and carcass weight were the highest (p<0.05) in T4 while T2 and T3 were significantly better than T1. High density lipoprotein was highest (p<0.05) in T4 whereas T2 and T3 showed higher value than T1. Blood cholesterol and serum enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP) values were significantly (p<0.05) higher in Tl and lower in T4. The highest hemoglobin level was observed in T4. White blood cells were significantly (p<0.05) higher in T3 and T4. No significant difference was observed in, red blood cells, serum total protein, calcium and phosphorous level, packed cell volume, neutrophils, lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil. It is concluded from this experiment that AV and Cv supplementation improved breast yield and carcass weight without any harmful effect on the liver and blood biochemistry. This showed that the supplementation of AV and Cv powder can improve growth performance and it can work as an alternative of AGP.
Denitrifies are the product which is used to maintain the oral hygiene such as freshness of mouth and to avoid tooth decay The oral hygiene can be maintained throughout the day by using various Dentrifices prepared by herbal and synthetic ingredients. This work was carried out to prepare a tooth powder which can be used as a tool for proper oral hygiene and to overcome the side effects of the conventional tooth powder which can be used as a tool for proper oral hygiene and to overcome the side effects of the conventional tooth powder prepared by synthetic ingredients. Tooth powder is used in combination with tooth brush to maintain the oral hygiene such as freshness of mouth and to avoid tooth decay. The work was carried out to prepare a tooth powder which can be used as a tool for proper oral hygiene and to overcome the side effects of the conventional tooth powder prepared by synthetic ingredients. The tooth powder was prepared by using various herbal ingredients which posses the antibacterial, antiseptic and cooling properties. The prepared tooth powder way evaluated for its organoleptic and physical characteristic such as color, odor, taste, stability, pH , moisture content, swelling index flow property, bulk density, tapped density and abrasiveness to ensure that it posses all the desired futures to use against the dental diseases. The result was found to be within the permitted limits.
Background: Managing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using available resources is essential to reduce the health burden of disease. The severity of COVID-19 is affected by nutritional status. In this study the effect of natural product use prior to infection with COVID-19 on disease severity and hospitalization was explored. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Between March and July 2021, a self-administered survey was conducted in Jordan. Individuals who recovered from COVID-19 and were ≥18 years old were the study population. Study measures included the use of natural products, COVID-19 severity, and hospitalization status. A multivariate regression model was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean age (mean ± SD) of the study sample (n=2,148) was 40.25 ± 15.58 years old. Multivariate logistic regression showed that the regular intake of carnation (OR [0.56], CI [0.37–0.85]), onion (OR [0.69], CI [0.52–0.92]), lemon (OR [0.68], CI [0.51–0.90]), and citrus fruits (OR [0.66], CI [0.50–0.89]) before infection were associated with a substantial reduction in COVID-19 severity (P<0.01). Also, the consumption of carnation (OR [0.55], CI [0.34–0.88]), lemon (OR [0.57], CI [0.42–0.78]), and citrus fruits (OR [0.61], CI [0.44–0.84]) were associated with a significant decrease in the frequency of COVID-19-induced hospitalization (P<0.01). Conclusions: Regular consumption of carnation, lemon, and citrus fruits before infection was associated with better outcomes for COVID-19. Studies on other populations are required to confirm these findings.
Full-text available
Antibacterial foods are natural consumable, which contain natural antibiotic properties working to stimulate the immune function, increase the resistance to infections and prevent pathogens, antibiotic-resistant bugs from developing within the body. Antibacterial foods also help to keep our body healthy as immune system boosters and provide valuable nutrients to our overall health.
Oleoresin is a mixture of volatile and nonvolatile components available in whole extract of natural herb or spice. It principally comprises essential oils and resin. Lemongrass oleoresins come from the Cymbopogon species, which grow in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Oleoresin of lemongrass is a dark green-colored viscous liquid having a characteristic lemon aroma and flavor and is mostly used as a flavoring ingredient. The lemon prefix in the lemongrass specifies the characteristic lemon-like odor, which is due to the availability of citral content (mixture of two isomeric aldehydes, geranial and neral). It has been utilized in synthesizing flavors, perfumes, cosmetics, detergents, and in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Different methods are used to extract the lemongrass essential oil, but steam distillation is the most suitable method as it doesn’t alter the quality of the obtained oil. The chemical composition of lemongrass oil varies depending on its extraction methods, genetic differences, harvest period, photoperiod, plant age, farming practices, and geographical origin. Lemongrass essential oil has shown several biological activities, including antimicrobial, antifungal, antiprotozoan, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimutagenic, antiinflammatory, antimalarial, antinociceptive, antihepatotoxic activities, etc. Lemongrass oil is a potent food preservative because of its extraordinary antifungal and antibacterial activities.
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Entre 1519 y 1522 tuvo lugar uno de los hitos más importantes de la historia náutica universal, pues por vez primera se circunnavegó el planeta generando con ello una nueva dimensión global que conectaba mares, continentes, productos, personas e ideas. El presente volumen es el resultado del I Congreso Transdisciplinar de Historia Naval Ibérica celebrado en la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, a partir del cual se ofrece un abordaje transdisciplinar que permite la interactuación entre múltiples perspectivas y metodologías científicas. Para ello, se estructura en cuatro grandes bloques temáticos que van desde el desarrollo de la náutica ibérica hasta la recepción de la vuelta al mundo en origen, pasando por lo acontecido a bordo de las naves en las que cruzaron con miedo y ansia los océanos, junto a las dinámicas de contacto y la percepción de la otredad durante la expedición. En estos cuatro espacios para el análisis se concitan estudios de historia, astronomía, arqueología, etnohistoria, bioantropología, historia del arte, filosofía, antropología o paleografía, a fin de ofrecer al lector una visión holística e innovadora de tamaña singladura. Primus circundedisti me. La odisea transoceánica de Magallanes y Elcano (1519-1522), Madrid: Sociedad Española Transdisciplinar de Investigación y Divulgación Científica (SETIDC), 2022. ISBN: 978-84-09-37478-6
Context: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder related to blood insulin deficiency and high glucose level. Cinnamaldehyde is an important component of cinnamon and has an effect on blood glucose. Objective: It was aimed to investigate the the effect of cinnamaldehyde on the liver glutathione (GSH), glucose-6-phosphate dehidrogenase (G6PD) activity, blood glucose, protein, lipid and erythrocyte parameters, live weight in diabetic rats. Material and methods: Rat used for this research were divided 4 group as control, diabetic, cinnamaldehyde and diabetic + cinnamaldehyde group. The live weight and fasting blood glucose level, taken from tail vein were recorded every ten days. End of the trail the blood samples were taken from rats. Biochemical parameters with autoanalyzer and hematological parameters with blood cell counter were determined in blood. The activity of G6PD and GSH amounts were measured with ELISA in the liver tissues. Results: Blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, VLDL, LDL, and urea levels increased in diabetic rats, and cinnemaldehyde significantly decreased these parameters. Cinnemaldehyde also showed a positive effect on body weight, blood total protein, and mean corpuscular volume in diabetes. A decrease in HbA1c and an increase in liver G6PD, GSH activity were found in treatment group, but these changes were not statistically significant. Conclusion: In conclusion, the antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of cinnamaldehyde were determined. It has also been shown to improve anemia, ürea levels and weight loss.
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A multidimensional anal. was used to distinguish clove bud and clove stem oils from Madagascar by detg. the content of <15 components. More data are needed to realize a differentiation independent of the year of prodn. or to detect and adulteration of clove bud oil with clove stem oil. [on SciFinder(R)]
From the dried leaves of Syzygium aromaticum MERR. et PERRY (Myrtaceae), eleven new compounds, i.e., eugenol 4-O-β-D-(6'-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (17), 2-methyl-5,7-dihydroxychromone 8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside (18) and its 6'-O-gallate (19), 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone 3-C-β-D-glucopyranoside (20) and its 2'-O- (21), 6'-O- (22), 2',3'-di-O- (23), 2',6'-di-O- (24), 2',3',6'- tri-O- (25), 2',3',4',6'-tetra-O-gallate (26) and 2',3'-di-O-galloyl-4',6'- O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl ester (27) were isolated, together with sixteen known tannins and related compounds. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence.
A new ellagitannin, eugeniin was isolated from cloves, the dried flower buds of Eugenia caryophyllata THUNB., and the structure was determined to be 1, 2, 3-trigalloyl 4, 6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl β-D-glucopyranose.
The polyoxygenated chromone C-glucoside, isobiflorin (5,7-dihydroxy-2-methylchromone-8-C-β-d-glucopyranoside), and biflorin were isolated from an ethanolic extract of cloves (Eugenia caryophyllata), and characterized by chemical and spectral analysis.
The chemical composition of bud and leaf oils of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry was studied by GC/MS. Thirty-six and 31 volatile compounds have been identified in the bud and leaf oils, respectively. The major components of the bud oil were eugenol (69.8%), β-caryophyllene (13.0%) and eugenyl acetate (16.1%), whereas the leaf oil contained only eugenol (78.1%) and β-caryophyllene (20.5%) as main constituents.